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2019年07月18日 19:40:07 | 作者:家庭医生互动 | 来源:新华社
THE PRESIDENT: Hello, South Carolina! (Applause.) Thank you! Well, it is good to see everybody. It is good to be back in South Carolina. Now, if you all have a seat, take a seat. If you don’t have a seat, I’m sorry. (Laughter.)I want to say thank you to Benedict College for your hospitality. (Applause.) I want to thank Tiana for the great introduction. Give her a big round of applause. (Applause.) We have all kinds of luminaries and dignitaries, and big shots here today – (laughter) – but I’m just going to mention a couple of them.One of the finest gentlemen and finest legislators we have in the country, your congressman, Jim Clyburn. (Applause.) Your outstanding mayor, Steve Benjamin. (Applause.) The president of this great institution, Dr. David Swinton. (Applause.) Go, Tigers!It’s been a while since I was in South Carolina. In fact, I got – it’s been too long. It has. I’m not going to lie. I love you, and I’ve been loving you. It’s just I’ve had a lot of stuff to do since I last saw you. But it was wonderful to be backstage because I got a chance to see so many of the wonderful people that I worked with back in 2008. If it was not for this great state, the Palmetto State, if it was not for all the people who had, at a grassroots level, gone door-to-door and talked to folks, and got everybody fired up and y to go – (applause) – if it hadn’t been for all of you, I might not be President. And I’m truly grateful for that. (Applause.) I’m truly grateful for that.I hope that you don’t mind, I also brought another good friend – the Attorney General of the ed States, Eric Holder. (Applause.) We decided to take a Friday road trip together, because Eric has not only been a great friend, but an extraordinary Attorney General. As some of you know, he is going to go enjoy himself and is going to retire from public service. But I know he’s still going to be doing great things around the country. I’m really going to miss him.Now, I am not here to make a long speech. I’m here to make a short speech – because what I want to do is spend most of my time interacting, having a conversation. I want to get questions; I want to hear what you guys are thinking about. This is a good thing for me, to get out of Washington and talk to normal folk. (Laughter.)And I thought it was appropriate to come here because tomorrow I’ll be visiting Selma, Alabama, for the 50th anniversary of the march across the Edmund Pettus Bridge. And one of the things I might talk about – I’m still working on my speech, but it might come up – is the meaning of Selma for your generation. Because Selma is not just about commemorating the past. It’s about honoring the legends who helped change this country through your actions today, in the here and now. Selma is now. Selma is about the courage of ordinary people doing extraordinary things because they believe they can change the country, that they can shape our nation’s destiny. Selma is about each of us asking ourselves what we can do to make America better.And, historically, it’s been young people like you who helped lead that march. You think about somebody like John Lewis who was one of the key leaders and will be joining us tomorrow. He was 23 when he helped lead that march that transformed the country. You think about the Children’s Crusade in Birmingham, or the 12 year-old boy who was elected head of the NAACP youth chapter who grew up to be Jim Clyburn. (Applause.) It was young people. It was young people who stubbornly insisted on justice, stubbornly refused to accept the world as it is that transformed not just the country but transformed the world. You can see that spirit reflected in a poster put out by the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee in the 1960s. It had a picture of a young John Lewis kneeling in protest against an all-white swimming pool. And it s: “Come let us build a new world together.”Come let us build a new world together. That’s the story of America. That’s why immigrants came here – the idea of building a new world together – not just settling on what is, but imagining what might be. Insisting we live up to our highest ideals, our deepest values.That’s why I wanted to come here to Columbia, and here to Benedict College, because we all know we still have work to do. We’ve got to ensure not just the absence of formal, legal, oppression, but the presence of an active, dynamic opportunity. Good jobs that pay good wages; a good start for every child; health care for every family; a higher education that prepares you for the world without crippling you with debt; a fairer and more just legal and criminal justice system. (Applause.)Now, the good news is we’re in much better shape now than we were six years ago. This morning, we learned that our economy created nearly 300,000 new jobs last month, the unemployment rate went down – (applause) – the unemployment rate ticked down to 5.5 percent, which is the lowest it’s been since the spring of 2008. (Applause.) Our businesses have now added more than 200,000 jobs a month for the past year. And we have not seen a streak like that in 37 years, since Jimmy Carter was President. (Applause.) All told, over the past five years, our businesses have created nearly 12 million new jobs.And what’s more, the unemployment rate for African Americans is actually falling faster than the overall unemployment rate – which makes sense because it went up faster, too, during the recession. (Applause.) But it’s still too high. The unemployment rate across the country and here in South Carolina is still higher than we want, which means we’ve got more work to do. And we’ve got to make sure those are good jobs that pay a living wage and have benefits with them.So we can’t let up now. We’ve got to do everything we can to keep this progress going. This community, I know, is doing its part to prepare students for this new economy. Programs like YouthBuild – (applause) – are giving young people who may have gotten off track a chance to earn a degree and get the skills they need for the for the 21st century. CityYear AmeriCorps – (applause) – in the house – I see their jackets – they’re working with the public schools in Columbia to increase graduation rates. The Benedict College community is doing outstanding work beyond your walls. (Applause.) We put you on the Higher Education Community Service Honor Roll. You earned that honor. (Applause.)So as long as I’m President, we’re going to keep doing everything we can to make sure that young people like you can achieve your dreams. We can’t do it for you; you’ve got to do it yourselves. But we can give you the tools you need. We can give you a little bit of a helping hand and a sense of possibility and direction. You got to do the work, but we can make it a little bit easier for you.That’s why, one year ago, we launched what we call My Brother’s Keeper. It’s an initiative that challenges communities to bring together nonprofits and foundations and businesses and government, all focused on creating more pathways for young people to succeed. And this week, we put out a report showing the progress that’s been made. That progress is thanks to the nearly 200 local leaders who’ve accepted what we call My Brother’s Keeper’s Challenge – including Mayor Benjamin and the mayors of Johnston and Holly Hill. They’re doing great work mentoring young people, giving them a new path for success. (Applause.) 201507/383438Hi, everybody. This week, we continued our mission to destroy ISIL. This remains a difficult fight, and the situation in Syria and Iraq is incredibly complex. ISIL is entrenched, including in urban areas. It uses innocent civilians as human shields. Despite these challenges, I can report that were making progress. And this week, I directed my team to continue accelerating our campaign on all fronts.大家好!本周,我们继续打击ISIL。这注定是一场艰难的战斗,叙利亚和伊拉克的局势也变得更加复杂。这些地方的ISIL根深蒂固,包括部分城区也是如此。他们利用无辜的平民做掩护发动攻击。尽管挑战多多,但我依然可以说我们逐步取得了胜利。本周,我指示我们的人马在各个层面加速我们的行动。Our 66-member coalition, including Arab partners, continues to grow stronger. More nations are making more contributions. Every day, our air campaign—more than 10,000 strikes so far—continues to destroy ISIL forces. And we continue to go after ISIL leaders and commanders—taking them out, day in, day out, one after another after another.66个国家和地区的联盟,包括阿拉伯的盟友在内变得更加强大。有更多国家提供了大量持和帮助。每天我们的空袭都在持续摧毁ISIL的武装,迄今为止已经超过1万余次。我们也持续搜捕ISIL的领导人和指挥官,将他们揪出来,一天接着一天,一个接着一个消灭掉。In Iraq, ISIL has now lost more than 40 percent of the areas it once controlled. In Syria, a coalition of local forces is tightening the squeeze on ISILs stronghold of Raqqa. As we bomb its oil infrastructure, ISILs been forced to slash the salaries of its fighters. Thanks to the work of many nations, the flow of foreign terrorist fighters into Syria finally appears to be slowing. In short, in Syria and Iraq, ISILs territory is shrinking, there are fewer ISIL fighters on the battlefield, and its harder for them to recruit and replenish their ranks.在伊拉克,ISIL曾经控制的地区现在已经丢掉了40%多。在叙利亚,当地的联合武装正在强力挤压ISIL在拉卡省的大本营。由于我们炸毁了他们的石油设施,ISIL现在被迫减少了成员的工资。由于多国的共同努力,外国的恐怖分子进入叙利亚的人数正在减少。总而言之,在叙利亚和伊拉克,ISIL的占领地正在减少,战场上的ISIL武装人员也在减少,他们招募武装人员重整队伍的难度也越来越大。Still, the only way to deal ISIL a lasting defeat is to end the civil war and chaos in Syria upon which ISIL thrives. A cessation of hostilities in the civil war is scheduled to take effect this weekend. Were not under any illusions. There are plenty of reasons for skepticism. Even under the best of circumstances, the violence will not end right away. But everyone knows what needs to happen. All parties must end attacks, including aerial bombardment. Humanitarian aid must be allowed to reach areas under siege. Much will depend on whether the Syrian regime, Russia and their allies live up to their commitments. The coming hours and days will be critical, and the world is watching.但是,一劳永逸的解决ISIL问题的唯一途径就是停止内战,正是在叙利亚的这种混乱状态,ISIL才得以发展壮大。停火协议将在本周末正式生效。但我们不抱任何的幻想。有各种各样的理由产生怀疑。即便在最好的环境下,暴力依然不会马上停止。但每个人都知道应该怎么做。所有各方都要停止攻击,包括空袭在内。人道主义援助必须能够进入被占领地区。这在很大程度上取决于叙利亚当局、俄罗斯及其盟友能否恪守承诺。接下来的几个小时乃至几天都极为关键,全世界都在密切关注。That said, there will be absolutely no cease-fire in our fight against ISIL. Well remain relentless. Beyond Syria and Iraq, we continue to use the full range of our tools to go after ISIL wherever it tries to take root, as we showed with our recent strike on an ISIL training camp in Libya. With partners around the world, well continue discrediting the ideology that ISIL uses to radicalize, recruit and inspire people to violence, especially online.同时,我们对ISIL的打击绝对不会停止。我们将继续对其进行无情的打击。在叙利亚和伊拉克之外,我们将继续利用我们所有的能力打击ISIL,无论他们想去哪里扎根,最近我们对利比亚境内ISIL的训练基地的打击就说明了这一点。我们与全世界的盟友一起,将继续瓦解ISIL的意识形态,他们以此来激化矛盾,招募人员,怂恿人们参加武装袭击,这种手段在网上尤为猖獗。Finally, well continue to stay vigilant here at home, including for lone actors or small groups of terrorists like those in San Bernardino, which are harder to detect. Our homeland security and law enforcement professionals are hard at work—24/7. At the same time, well keep working to build partnerships of trust and respect with communities to help them stay strong and resilient. That includes upholding our values—including freedom of religion—so that we stay united as one American family.最后,在国内,我们将继续保持警惕,像圣·贝纳迪诺的孤僻演员这样的小撮恐怖分子是很难发现的。我们的国土安全部门和执法专家都在7×24小时辛苦工作。同时,我们将与社会各界建立基于信任和尊重下的合作关系,帮助大家保持内心的强大和坚韧。这包括坚持我们的价值观,对宗教信仰自由的坚持,正是这样的理念让我们团结成为一个美国大家庭。Again, this fight against ISIL will remain difficult. But well continue to draw on all elements of our national power, including the strength of our communities and our values as Americans. And Im confident that we will prevail. We will destroy this barbaric terrorist organization and continue to stand with those around the world who seek a better, safer future.需要强调的是,打击ISIL的战斗依然会异常艰难。但我们将继续调动所有力量,包括社会各界的力量,以及我们作为美国人的价值观的力量。我坚信我们终将取得胜利。我们将摧毁这个野蛮的恐怖组织,继续与全世界一起建设更美好、更安全的未来。201603/429250

I study the behavior of investors,how they react to policy and the economy. 我研究投资者的行为,研究他们如何应对政策和经济。It gives me a different angle on the aid issue.这在救助问题上给我新的启迪。But it took an innocent question from my then-four-year-old daughter to make me appreciate that.但是当时我年仅四岁的女儿问的一个童真的问题让我对此心有感激。Pia and I were on the way to a local cafe and we passed a man collecting for charity.当时皮娅和我正在去当地一家咖啡厅的路上我们经过了一个为慈善募捐的男人身边。I didnt have any change to give him,and she was disappointed.我当时没有给他零钱,她就有些失望了。Once in the cafe, Pia takes out her coloring book and starts scribbling.到了咖啡厅, 皮娅拿出她的图画本开始涂画。After a little while, I ask her what shes doing,and she shows me a drawing of a 5 note to give to the man outside.过了一会儿, 我问她在干什么,她给我看了她画的一张5欧元的钞票要给外面的那个男子。Its so sweet,and more generous than Dad would have been. 非常温馨,远比她爸爸要慷慨得多。But of course I explained to her,you cant do that; its not allowed.当然我跟她解释,你不能这么做,这行不通得。To which I get the classic four-year-old response:结果我得到的是四岁小孩经典的回答:Why not?为什么啊?Now Im excited, because I actually think I can answer this time.现在我有点激动了, 因为我觉得我现在可以回答这个问题了。So I launch into an explanation of how an unlimited supply of money chasing a limited number of goods sends prices to the moon.所以我开始解释无限量供应的货币去购买限量供应的商品,是会把价格抬高到离谱的地步的。Something about that exchange stuck with me,not because of the look of relief on Pias face when I finally finished, but because it related to the sanctity of the money supply,a sanctity that had been challenged and questioned by the reaction of central banks to the financial crisis. 这次的交流让我久久不能忘怀,并不是因为在我快要结束的时候皮娅脸上露出安心的表情,而是因为它涉及到货币供应的神圣性,这种神圣性一直被中央对财政危机的反应所挑战和质疑。To reassure investors,central banks began buying assets to try and encourage investors to do the same. 为了使投资方安心,中央开始购置资产尝试鼓励投资者也这么做。They funded these purchases with money they created themselves.他们用他们自己造出来的钱去投资这些购置。The money wasnt actually physically printed.而这些钱并没有真正被印刷出来。Its still sort of locked away in the banking system today.在今天这笔钱仍处于被锁在系统的状态。But the amount created was unprecedented.但造出来的这笔钱的数量却是空前的。Together, the central banks of the U.S.,U.K and Japan increased the stock of money in their economies by 3.7 trillion dollars.各国的中央,美国,英国和日本都一起增加了各自经济的货币存量增加了3.7万亿美金 (人民币约22.2万亿元)。Thats three times, in fact thats more than three times,the total physical stock of dollar notes in circulation.这是三倍,其实不止三倍,实际流通中的美金货币存量总和。Three times!三倍啊!Before the crisis,this would have been utterly unthinkable,yet it was accepted remarkably quickly. 在经济危机之前,这是完全不能想像的,但它还是非常快就被接受了。The price of gold,an asset thought to protect against inflation,did jump,but investors bought other assets that offered little protection from inflation. 黄金的价格,黄金是被当作用来抵御通货膨胀的确实下跌了,但投资者购买了其他的资产,而这些资产却基本无法抵制通货膨胀。They bought fixed income securities, bonds.他们购买固定收益券,债券。They bought equities too.他们也买普通股。For all the scare stories,the actual actions of investors spoke of rapid acceptance and confidence.对于那些吓人的报道,投资者真正的行为显示出快速的接受和信心。That confidence was based on two pillars.这种信心建立在两个柱上。The first was that, after years of keeping inflation under control,central banks were trusted to take the money-printing away if inflation became a threat.第一个就是在控制通货膨胀的多年后,中央被人们所信任,如果通货膨胀构成威胁时他们可以停止钞票的印刷。201505/373588

Now, let me tell you, careers focused on lifting up our communities—— whether its helping troubled schools or creating after-school programs or training workers for green jobs —these careers are not always obvious, but today they are necessary, solutions to our nations most challenging social problems are not going to come from Washington alone. Real innovation often starts with individuals who apply themselves to solve a problem right in their own community. Thats where the best ideas came from.现在,让我来告诉你们,那些旨在提高我们社区生活水平的职业——无论是帮助改善陷入困境的学校,还是建立课外项目,还是培训工人从事绿色工作——这些职位常常并不显眼,但是今天我们确实需要这些职业。解决我们国家所面临的最具挑战性的社会问题的方法并不一定单单来自于华盛顿。真正的革新经常始于那些致力于解决他们自己社区问题的个人。最好的主意来自他们。And some pretty incredible social innovations have been launched by young people all across this world.一些很有创意的社会革新已经由世界各地的青年人发动起来了。Teach for American in this country is a great example. It was created by Wendy Kopp as a part of her undergraduate senior thesis in 1989. And now, as a result of her work then, more than 6,200 corps members are teaching in our countrys neediest communities, reaching approximately 400,000 students.“为美国而教书”就是很棒的一个例子。该口号是文帝·科普1989年在其本科毕业论文里提出来的。由于她当时的努力,现在有超过6200名队员正在我国最贫穷的社区教书,他们教授的学生数量大概有40万名。And then theres Van Jones, who recently joined the Obama administration, as a special adviser to the President on green jobs, Van started out as a grassroots organizer and became an advocate an d a creator of ;Green collar; jobs—jobs that are not only good for the environment, but also provide good wages and career advancement for both skilled and unskilled workers; jobs similar to ones beig created right here at UC Merced as this green campus continues to grow.还有凡·琼斯,他最近也加入了奥巴马政府,成了总统在绿色工作方面的特别顾问。凡开始时是一名民间组织者,后来成了“绿领”工作口号的创始者和倡导者——这种工作不但对环境有利,而且技术工人和非技术工人都会得到不错的工资待遇及职业生涯,这种工作类似于加州大学赛德分校随着绿色校园面积的扩大而创造出的工作。 /201303/228018

You flip a coin. Fifty percent risk. Thats quite a lot.这和掷硬币的几率一样。 50%的风险,不是一般的高。If he instead would go to Hamburg,如果他换而选择去汉堡,and to a clinic called the Martini-Klinik,去一个叫Martini的医院,the risk would be only one in 20.风险几率则减少到5%。Either you a flip a coin,一边是像掷硬币一样的50%的风险,or you have a one in 20 risk.另一边是仅有的5%。Thats a huge difference, a seven-fold difference.这是个巨大的差别,有7倍之多。When we look at many hospitals for many different diseases,我们调查过很多医院,和很多不同的疾病,we see these huge differences.我们都发现了这样巨大的差别。But you and I dont know. We dont have the data.但是你我不一定都知道,因为我们没有数据。And often, the data actually doesnt exist.而通常,这些数据根本不存在。Nobody knows.没人知道。So going the hospital is a lottery.于是,去医院看病变成了买乐透。Now, it doesnt have to be that way. There is hope.但是,其实不一定得这样。我们还是有希望的。In the late 70s, there were a group of Swedish orthopedic surgeons who met at their annual meeting,在70年代后期,有这么一群瑞士外科整形医生,在年会上,and they were discussing the different procedures they used to operate hip surgery.他们讨论到目前众多的用于髋关节手术的方法。To the left of this slide, you see a variety of metal pieces, artificial hips that you would use for somebody who needs a new hip.在幻灯片的左边,是各种各样的金属配件和髋关节假体,用于治疗需要髋关节置换手术的病人。They all realized they had their individual way of operating.他们意识到他们每个人的方法都不同。They all argued that, My technique is the best,而且他们都认为我的方法最好。but none of them actually knew, and they admitted that.但其实,没人知道哪个办法最好,他们也承认这一点。So they said, We probably need to measure quality so we know and can learn from whats best.所以他们说,我们可能需要做质量评估来得知哪个是最好的方法,并学习它。So they in fact spent two years debating,事实上,他们花了两年时间来辩论,So what is quality in hip surgery?该如何评价髋关节手术的质量。Oh, we should measure this. No, we should measure that.有的说应该评价这个指标,有的说那个。And they finally agreed.最终他们达成了共识。And once they had agreed, they started measuring,之后,他们便开始(给手术结果)做评估,and started sharing the data.也开始共享数据。Very quickly, they found that if you put cement in the bone of the patient before you put the metal shaft in,很快,他们发现如果在把金属轴插入大腿骨之前先打入粘合剂,it actually lasted a lot longer,这能使手术结果保持更长时间,and most patients would never have to be re-operated on in their lifetime.而且绝大多数病人终身不用再做手术。201509/399382

Both of us needed to be adults very early, but when we were together, we were two little kids having fun. We never collaborated together, we never performed together or danced on the same stage. Although he did try in vain one night to unsuccessfully teach me the ;moon walk;. And he just basically shook his head and crossed his arms at my attempt.我俩小小年纪就要做成大人的样子。但是当我们在一起时,就是两个贪玩的小孩子,真的非常非常开心。虽然我们从没合作过,从没在同一个舞台上表演过或一起跳过舞,不过我还记得有一天晚上,他教我“月球漫步”,可我没有学会。而他只是摇了摇头,抱着手臂,微笑地看着我尝试。We never filmed the or recorded a song, but what we did do was laugh. It was a competition to see who could make the other one laugh and his heart would just burst out of him when he was laughing. He adored it when I did silly imitations or told him stories about my life.我们从来没有一起拍过录像,或者录过歌,但是我们曾一起欢笑过。我们常比赛谁能笑得更多,或者谁能表现得更傻。迈克尔超级爱笑。他笑的时候就好像他的心都要跳出胸口了。当我做了傻乎乎的模仿或者和他讲我的生活故事时,他都会很喜欢。MJs laugh was the sweetst and purest laugh of anyones that I had ever known. His sense of humor was delightful, and he was very mischievous. I remember the night before Elizebeth Taylors wedding and he had called me prior and asked if I would join him. He didnt want to be alone for all the festivities. And it was the night before the big day. Michael and I tried to sneak in to get the first peek of the dress. We were giggling like crazy, and we almost passed out in his hysterics when we realized that Elizabeth was actually asleep in the bed. We thought she was in an entirely different room. We had to laugh and sneak out.迈克尔的笑声是我听过的最甜美、最纯净的笑声。他的幽默感也令人愉快,他还很顽皮。泰勒婚礼的前一晚他最先打电话给我,问我是否能陪他一起参加活动。他不想孤单一人出席这些活动。我还记得我们参加伊丽莎白·泰勒婚礼的前一晚,他和我尝试着偷偷溜进存放婚纱的房间,去偷看伊丽莎白的婚纱。我们一路狂笑,歇斯底里得几乎都要笑昏过去了,直到我们发现伊丽莎白就在那间房里睡觉,然后我们就笑着偷偷溜出来。我们原以为她会睡在另一个房间!201401/271498

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