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时间:2019年08月21日 16:38:01

IMF: Credit Squeeze in US Could Get Worse报告:全球信贷市场动荡或恶化  The International Monetary Fund Tuesday said the turmoil in world credit markets that began with rising home loan defaults in the ed States is not over and losses could hit 5 billion as the impact sps into the global economy. The Bloomberg financial news services estimates that banks and securities firms have so far written off only a fraction of that total, 2 billion.  国际货币基金组织星期二报告说,美国次贷危机引起的全球信贷市场动荡并没有结束,而且有可能恶化。 IMF specialists say the overall risks to global financial stability have increased sharply in recent months. Jaime Caruana is the principal author of the IMF report on financial stability. 国际货币基金组织的专家指出,最近几个月来,全球金融市场面临的风险急剧增加,直接威胁到金融市场的稳定。"The credit shock emanating from the US subprime crisis is set to broaden amid a significant economic slowdown," he said. "The deterioration in credit has moved up and across the credit spectrum." 杰米.卡鲁那(Jaime Caruana)是国际货币基金组织货币与资本市场部主任,也是国际货币基金组织关于全球金融稳定状况报告的主要作者。他说:“从美国次级房贷危机放射出来的信贷市场震荡随着经济的大幅度走缓将会进一步扩大。信贷市场的恶化已经加剧,而且扩散到了整个信贷领域。”As bank losses have soared, lenders have tightened standards and, despite lower interest rates, many commercial and consumer loans are still hard to come by. Caruana says more than six months into the crisis, credit markets are still not functioning normally. 亏损与日俱增,信贷机构纷纷收紧放贷标准,尽管利率不断降低,但很多商业和消费者贷款却还是难以落实。卡鲁那指出,次贷危机发生至今已经六个多月了,信贷市场依然没有恢复正常运作。"We have seen confidence quickly evaporate, ending in liquidity driven solvency events that threaten the core financial system," he added. 他说:“我们看到,人们的信心在快速蒸发,结果,流动性减少,违约率增加,这一切都威胁着我们的核心金融系统。”He is referring to the US central bank-orchestrated rescue of the Bear Stearns investment bank, which teetered on the brink of bankruptcy because of loan losses.  卡鲁那指的是上个月美国中央美联储合力帮助挽救华尔街投资贝尔斯登公司。贝尔斯登公司由于受到信贷亏损的打击而濒临破产。美联储认为,如果不对贝尔斯登公司伸出援手,美国的整个金融系统都将受到威胁。The IMF is not alone in its worry that the credit crisis could worsen. Morris Goldstein, a financial specialist at Washington's Peterson Institute, says if home prices continue to fall in the ed States, defaults on mortgage loans could grow beyond the two million predicted for this year. 担心信贷危机恶化的并不仅仅是国际货币基金组织。华盛顿智囊团彼得森国际经济研究所的金融专家莫里斯.戈尔茨坦也认为,假如美国的房屋价格继续下滑,今年的房贷违约数量有可能超过先前预期的两百万。"It's been estimated that if US housing prices fall by an additional 15 percent or so, approximately a third of US homeowners will have negative equity in their homes," he explained. "This raises the question of whether willingness to pay will have to be addressed along with ability to pay." 他说:“据估计,假如美国的房屋价格进一步下跌15%,那么,大约三分之一的美国房主就将面临资不抵债的困境,(也就是说,他们的房屋贷款额超过了房屋的市场价格)。由此引起的问题就不光是他们是否有能力偿还贷款了,而会还牵涉到他们愿不愿意偿还。”US home prices on average declined by 10 percent in 2007, a factor IMF economists say contributed to the global credit crisis. Many US mortgage loans were bundled into securities and sold to financial institutions worldwide. 美国的房屋价格在2007年平均下滑了10%,国际货币基金组织的经济学家认为,这个因素对全球信贷危机起了推波助澜的作用。美国的很多房屋抵押贷款被塞进有价券卖给了世界各地的金融机构。Caruana says if the situation worsens, it may be necessary for governments to spend taxpayer money to stabilize markets. 卡鲁那说,假如形势进一步恶化,各国政府也许有必要动用纳税人的钱来稳定市场。"I think we have to be careful on that," he cautioned. "And the question is to what extent the situation continues to deteriorate." 他说:“我认为,在这方面我们必须谨慎小心。关键问题是,形势会继续恶化到什么程度。”The IMF says lax regulation and a failure to recognize the risks of highly leveraged loans contributed to the credit crisis. Financial markets, it says, will come under increased strain as world economic growth decelerates. 国际货币基金组织说,管理松弛和对高度杠杆借贷的风险缺乏认识导致了目前的信贷危机。伴随着全球经济增长减速,金融市场势必受到越来越大的压力。 200804/34004

Pope Ends US Visit With Mass at Yankee Stadium教皇在体育场主持弥撒 群情振奋  Pope Benedict XVI ended his six-day visit to the ed States with a jubilant mass at the 57,000-seat Yankee Stadium. The leader of the world's one billion Catholics praised the ed States' tradition of religious freedom at the service. 罗马天主教皇本笃在拥有5万7千个观众席的洋基体育场主持了一场洋溢着兴奋之情的弥撒,以此结束了对美国的六天访问。这位全世界10亿天主教徒的领导人赞扬美国在宗教崇拜方面实行宗教自由的传统。 On his arrival, the pontiff circled the packed stadium in his popemobile. The crowds waved handkerchiefs of white and yellow, the Vatican colors, and roared their approval with the sort of noisy enthusiasm that is usually reserved for rock concerts.  教皇在抵达洋基体育场的时候,乘坐教皇专车在挤得密不透风的体育场里绕场一周。人们挥舞着代表梵蒂冈的黄白两色的手绢,欢声雷动,表达他们对教皇的赞赏。这种现象通常只有在摇滚音乐会上才能见到。During his homily, Pope Benedict addressed the issue of unity, which has been a theme of his visit. He also celebrated the bicentennial of Catholic dioceses in Baltimore, Boston, New York, Philadelphia and Louisville, Kentucky and the tradition of religious freedom in the ed States, which, he said, allowed successive waves of immigrants to build networks of strong churches and institutions. 教皇在布道时谈到团结问题,这是他此行的一个主题。他还对巴尔的、波士顿、纽约、费城、和肯塔基的路易斯维尔的天主教教区成立两百周年,和美国宗教自由的传统表示祝贺。他说,这种传统使移民源源不断而来,建立了强大的教会和各种机构的网络。"In this land of religious liberty, Catholics found freedom not only to practice their faith but also to participate fully in civic life, bringing the deepest moral convictions to the public square and cooperating with their neighbors in shaping a vibrant, democratic society," said Pope Benedict XVI. 他说:“在这个实行宗教自由的国度,天主教徒不仅找到信仰他们宗教的自由,也找到充分参与公民生活的自由,把最深刻的道德信条带到公共广场上,与他们的邻居共同建造一个充满活力的民主社会。”The pontiff also delivered comments in Spanish, recognizing a growing Catholic population in the ed States.  教皇还用西班牙语进行了,对美国天主教徒的人数不断增加表示肯定。More than 550 priests were on hand to distribute communion to the participants. 一共有550多位神父到场向与会者分发圣餐。Just before the mass began hundreds of doves were released at the end of a two-hour Concert of Hope that enlisted the participation of such major entertainment figures as tenor Ronan Tynan, Jose Feliciano, opera star Marcello Giord and Harry Connick Junior. 在弥撒开始前,先举行了两个钟头的希望音乐会,著名演艺界人士男高音歌手逖南、费里夏诺、歌剧明星吉奥德和科尼克都进行了表演。演出后会场上放飞数百只鸽子。Many political figures were also in attendance, including New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg. He said that Benedict's visit raised his profile, especially his willingness to address tough issues such as the sexual abuse scandal that has wracked the American Catholic Church in recent years. 许多政界人士参加了这次弥撒,包括纽约市长布隆伯格。这位市长说,教皇本笃的来访提升了教皇的地位,特别是凸显了教皇愿意应对一些艰难的问题,比如性侵犯丑闻。这些丑闻近年来损害了美国天主教会的声誉。布隆伯格市长说:"He is somebody who nobody knew a lot about before and I think his speeches have really gone a long way towards endearing himself to New Yorkers and Americans," said Michael Bloomberg. "He did not walk away from some bad things from the past. He addressed them, he pointed them out and he said we have to fix them, make sure it does not happen again, carry forward."  “过去,大家对教皇都不很了解。我认为,教皇的演讲让纽约人和美国人对他感到亲近。他并不回避过去的某些丑恶的事情。他处理这些事情。他指出这些丑事,并且表示,我们必须解决这些问题,确保它不再发生。然后大家继续向前走。”The mass marked the third - and last - time that a Pope has led religious services at the legendary Yankee Stadium. The stadium is being replaced at the end of the 2008 baseball season with a new facility.  这次弥撒是第三次,也是最后一次由一位教皇在传奇的洋基体育场主持宗教仪式。这个体育场将在2008年美国职业棒球赛季结束后被一个新的体育场所取代。 200804/35847

US Congress Demands Changes to Bush Bailout Plan国会担忧布什七千亿美元金融计划Members of Congress are demanding more taxpayer protections and more congressional oversight be included in the 0 billion bailout plan that is being debated to rescue failing U.S. financial institutions. Democrats and some Republicans voiced displeasure with the original plan proposed by the Bush administration. 美国国会议员要求在布什政府提出的七千亿美元金融机构救援计划中增加对纳税人的保护和美国国会的监管等内容。对于布什政府提出的最初计划,民主党议员以及一些共和党议员都表示不满。Lawmakers voiced their concerns as negotiations with the Bush administration continue, and drafts of legislation Congress could consider as early as Wednesday circulated on Capitol Hill. 国会议员们在跟布什政府继续谈判的同时表示了他们的担忧。有关法案目前正在国会山上传阅,国会最早可能在星期三就投票表决这个金融机构救援计划。Under legislation Congress will consider, the federal government would spend hundreds of billions to purchase de-valued assets, particularly U.S. mortgage debt, that has weighed down key financial companies. 根据有关法案,美国联邦政府将花费数千亿美元收购已经贬值了的资产,特别是美国金融机构难以收回的房屋抵押债务。这些坏帐拖垮了美国一些主要的金融公司。Holding a copy of the three page proposal originally given to Congress by Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson, Oregon Democrat Peter DeFazio said it would have placed American taxpayers in a vulnerable position: 来自俄勒冈州的民主党众议员彼得·德法兹奥(Peter DeFazio)手里举着财政部长保尔森交给国会的只有三页纸的救援计划初稿,他说,这个计划把美国纳税人放在了一个不堪一击的位置:"Secretary Paulson wants to set it up so that the taxpayers at best, and in all likelihood this couldn't happen, might break even some day. No, we need to take an equity assurance in these firms or we need to extend them loans. Have them mark down this junk to market it, there is a market for it, it's about 22 cents on the dollar, make them mark it down." 他说:“财政部长保尔森想告诉我们,这样做对纳税人最有利,即使最后没能实现最好的结果,至少也可以在将来的某一天扯平,弄个不赔不赚。不行,我们需要拿这些公司的资产作为担保,或者延长他们的贷款。我们要让他们把他们那些根本不值钱的垃圾资产减价出售,总会卖得掉的,一块钱的东西按两毛二卖,得逼着他们削价。”Congress needs to apply a more targeted and deliberative approach requiring more than a few days of work, DeFazio said, adding the world will wait for a thoughtful plan. 德法兹奥说,国会需要拿出一个更有针对性、更审慎的态度,这不是几天之内就能决定的,需要更长的时间。他补充说,全世界都在等待著我们拿出一个经过深思熟虑的计划。 Criticism was also heard from Republicans, such as Florida Republican Cliff Stearns, who said the original proposal gave the Treasury Secretary unprecedented authority while offering virtually no oversight. Stearns expressed alarm over the cost: 批评也来自共和党议员,比如佛罗里达州的共和党议员克里夫·斯特恩斯表示,最初的提案给予财政部史无前例的权力,同时实际上却没有任何监督。"This plan increases our excessively high national debt to .3 trillion while also allowing foreign banks which hold U.S. mortgage debt to benefit from the billions provided by this bail out. This plan constitutes the largest government bailout in history yet it does nothing to protect the taxpayers," he said. 斯特恩斯对这笔巨大开表示警觉:“这个方案使我们国家的债务攀升到11点3万亿美元,同时允许持有美国房贷债务的外国也从这个数千亿美元的救援计划中得到好处。这个方案是有史以来规模最大的政府救援计划,然尔它却没有采取任何措施来保护纳税人。”Describing the administration's initial proposal as a starting point but by no means the final product, Senate Democratic leader Harry Reid echoed calls for more accountability in any legislation Congress approves. "We will not let haste abandon good judgment in the process. The Bush administration has called on Congress to rubber stamp its bailout bill without serious debate or efforts to improve it. We can't let that happen," he said. 参议院民主党领袖哈里·雷德(Harry Reid)称当局的初步计划只是个开端而并非最终方案,他也呼吁国会通过的任何法案都必须更负责任。他说:“我们不会因急于求成而失去良好的判断。布什当局敦促国会批准它的援救法案而不必经过认真的讨论或对其作出改善。我们不会让这种事情发生。”Amid public anger over multi-million dollar salaries paid to executives of failing financial firms, lawmakers have also added provisions that would place limits on executive compensation. 公众对倒闭的金融公司高管拿着数百万美元的薪酬感到气愤,国会议员也在有关法案中加入了一些限制高管薪酬的条款。Briefing reporters Monday, House Financial Services Committee chairman Barney Frank agreed that the initial bill gave the Treasury Secretary much too much authority. 美国国会众议院金融务委员会主席弗兰克(Barney Frank)星期一对记者表示,当局的方案给予财政部太多太多的权限。He says lawmakers are building in provisions to provide more accountability, including judicial review of government asset purchase decisions, and creation of a special board which have a powerful oversight although not operational role. "We are talking about a very powerful board with its own budget and funding that will get all of the reports and all the information, but won't have any operational role, [but will ask] what are you buying, what is your assumption about how you are buying, what kind of companies are you buying it [assets] in?" 他说,国会议员正致力于使该法案的条款更加合理,包括对政府收购资产的决定进行司法审核,以及建立一个特别委员会,以发挥强有力的监督职能。他说:“我们讨论的是一个很有权力,拥有自己的预算和拨款的委员会。这个机构将获得所有的报告和信息,但不会行使任何运作职能。不过,这个委员会有权过问你们购买什么资产,购买资产的理由是什么,购买的是哪种公司的资产。”Representative Frank says differences remain with the Bush administration over the executive pay issue and provisions on corporate governance, saying lawmakers intend to eliminate "golden parachutes", or large payment packages for executives who leave a company. 弗兰克众议员说,国会(民主党人)和布什行政当局之间在公司高管的薪酬和企业管理的条款上仍然存在分歧。他说,一些议员希望解除所谓的“金降落伞”,停止为那些离开公司的执行官付巨额报酬。However, the administration has agreed to provisions aimed at preventing foreclosures on property mortgages the government acquires from companies as part of the bail out plan. 不过,白宫方面同意,在政府收购私人公司房贷坏帐的救援计划中,加上防止屋主丧失住房赎回权的条款。Lawmakers say they hope the House and Senate will be able to consider and pass identical pieces of legislation, hopefully in the next few days.  至于时间问题,弗兰克众议员说,参众两院都希望能在未来几天内审议和通过内容相同的法案。但至关重要的是,国会和行政当局都要显示他们取得了进步。However, in Wall Street trading Monday, the key Dow Jones average lost 371 points, reflecting continuing market volatility in the absence of a final deal and legislation to address the U.S. financial crisis. 但是,星期一在华尔街,道琼斯平均指数下滑了371点,显示市场在美国政府没有推出正式救助计划之前仍在继续大幅波动。200809/49969

10第十单元Conversation 1会话 1A:Rose,is this you?A:是罗丝吗?B:Yes,what is up?B:是的,有什么事吗?A:This is Susan. Would you mind taking charge of decorating the office for our Christmas party?A:我是苏珊,你愿意负责将办公室布置成圣诞晚会的会场吗?B:Sure.B:当然愿意。A:You can get your supplies upstairs from Mrs. Horn.A:你可以到楼上霍恩太太那儿拿需要的东西。B:Will I be getting any help?B:有没有人可以帮我的忙?A:You can ask Frank and Cathy to help you.A:你可以找法兰克和凯西帮忙。Conversation 2会话 2A:Good morning everyone,we will have a party in the evening, so I will delegate responsibilities to you.A:大家早上好,今天晚上我们公司要举办一个小型聚会,所以我要分配一下任务给大家。B:This job belongs to Xiao Wu,does not it?B:办聚会的事情不一直是小吴在办吗?A:Yes,but today Xiao Wu cant do it because he was ill.A:是的,但是,今天很不巧,小吴生病不能来。C:But,we have a lot of things to do.C:但是,我们自己也有一大堆事情要做。A:Calm down, OK? I just delegate a little task for you. It wouldnt waste your much time.A:请安静一下,我只是分配给大家一些小任务,不会耽搁大家很多时间的。D:That is all right. What can we do?D:那还行,你说说我们都做些什么?A:Firstly,Sun Wu and Li Feng go to the market to buy some fruit, drinks and nuts. Xiao Mei and Li Jun sweep the meeting room. Mary and Tracy buy some presents and flowers. And I will dial someone to take part in our party. Anyone questions?A:首先,孙武和李峰你们去买点水果,饮料,坚果之类的东西,小梅和李俊就把咱们的会议室打扫一下,Mary 和Tracy就到外面去买些小礼品和花。而我呢马上也 要打电话邀请几位来参加我们的聚会。还有什么疑问吗?E:Who will pay for these things?E:我们买东西的钱谁出?A:Dont worry about this. I have aly calculated the money about your bought things. Later, I will give you. When you come back,give me the receipt.A:这个你们不必担心,我已经算好了你们要买的东西的大概数目,一会儿我就会给你们,买回来之后,把发票给我就行了。D:OK, Let is do it right now.D:那我们就马上行动吧。 /201604/438772

G8 Leaders Praise 'Momentum' on Climate Change as Summit Ends八国峰会结束 提出减排远期计划   Leaders of the world's advanced economies have drawn their three-day summit to a close by meeting with counterparts from major emerging economies to propose what they call a "vision" on climate change. 世界上最发达国家的领导人结束了三天的峰会,他们会见了主要新兴经济体国家的领导人,提出了关于气候变化问题的远期计划。U.S. President George W. Bush became the first to depart the G8 summit, shortly after its close in northern Japan, praising the gathering's progress on a wide range of issues. 美国总统布什在首脑会结束以后立即离开会议地点。他赞扬这次会议在广泛的问题上取得了进展。"By protecting our environment, and resisting protectionism, and fighting disease, and promoting development, and improving the daily lives of millions around the world, we've served both our interests as Americans and we serve the interests of the world," President Bush said. “我们保护环境,抵制保护主义,控制疾病,推动发展,改善全球数亿民众的生活,这不仅符合美国的利益,也符合世界的利益。”The centerpiece of the three-day gathering was Tuesday's broad agreement among G8 leaders to slash carbon emissions, blamed for global warming, at least in half by the year 2050. Japanese Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda says the leaders discussed that goal with leaders from major emerging economies, Wednesday, including China, India and Brazil. 布什是第一个离开会议的领导人。这次会议为期三天,它取得的重要成果是工业8国集团领导人就2050年之前把造成全球气候变暖的碳排放量减少一半的目标达成了广泛的一致。日本首相福田康夫表示,八国领导人星期三跟中国、印度和巴西等主要新兴经济体的领导人讨论了这个目标。He says this the first time that there has been a discussion on the broad on the topic of fighting global climate change. He says all of the nations involved expressed strong political will to reduce their emissions. 福田康夫说,这是第一次就解决全球气候变化问题展开如此广泛的讨论。他还表示,所有与会的国家都对减少排放表示出强烈的政治意愿。But only three of the emerging economies, Indonesia, South Korea and Australia, explicitly committed to the 50 percent reduction plan. That leaves out two of the world's fastest growing carbon emitters, India and China. 不过,新兴经济体中只有三个国家明确对百分之50的减排计划做出了承诺。这三个国家是,印度尼西亚、韩国和澳大利亚。而碳排放量增长最快的两个国家中国和印度没有做出承诺。Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh says ensuring food security, public health and management of scarce water resources are his first priority. More than a half-billion Indians live in extreme poverty, on less than a dollar a day. China is also reluctant to take steps that would jeopardize economic growth and risk political instability. 印度总理辛格说,他的头号优先工作是保食品安全、公共健康和管理好稀缺的水资源。印度有5亿多人还生活在每天不到一美元的极度贫困之中。中国也不愿意采取那些可能威胁到经济增长和引起政治不稳的措施。Environmental activists are sharply criticizing the G8 climate goals for failing to set hard numerical targets for carbon reduction. The 50 percent goal is not linked to any specific base year for calculation. Shorter-range targets are being urged, but left completely up to the discretion of member countries. Prime Minister Fukuda says the agreement sets the stage for more talks in the future. 环保人士严厉批评八国集团设立的气候目标没有给减少碳排放设定硬性的数字目标。50%的目标没有一个具体的参照年份,无法计算。会议虽然也提出了较为短期的目标,但这完全取决于各成员国自己的意愿。福田康夫首相表示,会议达成的协议只是给今后继续谈判创造了条件。He says the strong will expressed in the climate agreement will translate into momentum next year, when a ed Nations-hosted gathering will seek a global agreement on climate change. He promises Japan will show leadership, by sticking to some of the world's more ambitious targets for emissions reduction. 福田康夫说,这个气候协议中所表达的强烈意愿将在明年联合国开会争取达成世界气候变化协议的时候转化成一股推动力量。他保,日本将坚持世界上某些更为严格的减排目标,并发挥表率作用。200807/43734


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