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Revamping Skopje重塑斯科普里Stones of contention竞争与炫示的雕塑Macedonia writes a new story for its capital马其顿首都的新篇章Colouring the future描画未来IN 2010 a computer-generated of plans for the Macedonian capital was released to journalists.2010年,一份电脑生成的视频规划被公布给记者,展示了马其顿首都未来的面貌。There were to be statues and monuments, new museums and civic buildings, a triumphal arch, even an eternal flame. After decades in hibernation Skopjes turbocharged planners seemed determined that the city should make up for lost time. While Nikola Gruevski, the prime minister, was in office they planned to erect as much public art as some European capitals have put up in three centuries. Many assumed it was some sort of joke.视频规划里的首都,有无数雕塑和纪念碑,簇新的物馆和市政大楼,壮丽辉煌的,以及熊熊不熄的火焰。规划者们野心勃勃,决意一扫几十年来斯科普里的寂寂无名。尼古拉格鲁耶夫斯基任总理后,计划在首都建造和陈列的公共艺术作品数目之巨,达到了欧洲一些首都三个世纪以来才缓慢积累起来的总量。起初,很多人认为这不过是痴人说梦而已。Three years later, the project is nearing completion and this corner of the Balkans is suffering the shock of the new. For this is more than just a city rejuvenation project. Almost every structure and statue is part of a wider ideological scheme to recast Macedonias identity. The heart is Skopjes central square, which for decades was a bleak and empty space. Now it has been crammed with statuary. There are 19th-century Macedonian heroes, the medieval Tsar Samuel and Justinian, a Byzantine emperor who was born near Skopje. Nearby are two saints, Cyril and Methodius, the fathers of the Cyrillic alphabet. Centre-stage goes to a giant bronze Alexander the Great. He is encircled by warriors, who in turn are surrounded by a fountain, with music, roaring lions and lights that change colour.然而三年之后,规划已近峻工。其影响和冲击席卷了这个位于巴尔干一隅的国家;因为它已经远远超越了单纯城市复兴工程的范畴—它是一幅意识形态宏图,旨在重塑马其顿身份;几乎每一座建筑,每一尊雕塑都是这幅巨图的一个符号。其核心是斯科普里广场。该地几十年来都荒凉破败,空旷无人,如今却雕塑林立,石碑处处。除了在此济济一堂的19世纪的马其顿英雄雕像外,还有中世纪的撒母尔,生于斯科普里附近、后成为拜占庭皇帝的查士丁尼以及创制最早斯拉夫字母的两位圣人,西里尔和迪乌斯。广场中心,被武士雕塑众星拱月般环绕着的,是亚历山大大帝的巨大青铜像。武士是音乐喷泉,怒狮塑像穿插其间,无数灯斑谰变幻。Ever since Macedonia became independent in 1991 Greece has fought a bitter diplomatic war with its northern neighbour. The new state, created from a former Yugoslav republic, it argued, was a thinly veiled territorial claim on its own northern region of Macedonia. Worse the Slav Macedonians, said the Greeks, were trying to steal their Hellenic history and culture.马其顿共和国1991年独立。自此之后,希腊与这位北部邻居外交倾轧不断。希腊称,这个由前南斯拉夫共和国独立出来的新国家,对于马其顿北面希腊领土的觊觎之意,简直是司马昭之心,路人皆知。更让人不齿的是,这帮斯拉夫-马其顿人居然肖想窃取希腊的历史与文化。Until Greece blocked Macedonias accession to NATO in 2008, the government in Skopje never really took the history bait from Greece. Since then, however, the nationalist ideologues have become louder.对于希腊人后一个控诉,马其顿从未与之一较长短。然而,2008年马其顿加入北约的意图被希腊挫败之后,马其顿国内的民族主义呼声愈发高涨。Far from the Macedonians being an invented nation, as the Greeks argue, Vangel Bozinovski, one of the architects working on Skopjes revamp says that it is in fact the Greek nation that was invented in the 19th century, and hence it is they who are stealing Macedonian history, including that of Alexander the Great. Just to make the point, a statue of Alexanders father, Philip of Macedon, has been erected and several of his mother, Olympia. A neoclassical archaeological museum is nearing completion and a new foreign ministry with a classical temple-style portico has just been completed.Vangel Bozinovski是参与重建斯科普里的建筑设计师。他说,希腊人一直指责马其顿是个虚构的民族,事实上,希腊才是个在19世纪被虚构出来的民族,并自此一直在盗用马其顿的历史,包括亚历山大大帝。为了昭示这一点,他们还雕刻了一座亚历山大的父亲腓力二世的塑像和好几座他母亲奥林匹娅斯的雕像。一座新古典主义风格的考古物馆已近完工。新建的外交部官邸则采用了古典圆形柱廊式的庙宇风格。Neoclassicism is not the only style being reused. Mr Bozinovski, who has built a “memorial house” to honour Mother Teresa, the Skopje-born nun who found fame caring for the dying in Kolkata, speaks of “eclecticism”. He is working on a plan for redeveloping a building which he says “is going to be real baroque”. In 1689 the then Ottoman city was torched by the Austrians. Mr Bozinovski claims that by building baroque he is only restoring this style to its rightful place; before the fire, he says, Skopje was as baroque as Prague.新古典主义不是唯一被重新使用的建筑风格。Bozinovski说这里的建筑风格是“兼收并蓄”式的。他曾建造过一座特蕾莎修女的纪念堂,用以铭记这位生于斯科普里,在印度加尔各答照顾垂死者的著名修女。目前,他正在着手重建一座巴洛克风格的建筑。在斯科普里还属于土耳其时,它和布拉格一样充斥着巴洛克建筑,然而在1689年它被奥地利人付之一炬。Bozinovski称,巴洛克风格的建筑将使城市恢复到大火前的面貌。But the city also wants to reclaim its more recent past. Close to the parliament building, on top of which new glass cupolas are now sprouting, is a war memorial for Macedonians killed fighting guerrillas from the countrys Albanian minority in 2001. Albanians make up at least a quarter of the population and many loathe what has been done to the capital. “I hate it,” says Lura Pollozhani, a young Macedonian-Albanian journalist. “I dont see me here.” By concentrating on ancient Macedonian themes, she believes, Albanians are being told: “We were on this land first.”当然,这座城市也想展示其更近的历史。议会大厦上崭新的玻璃穹顶正在施工,它的旁边就是一座战争纪念碑,用以铭记2011年在抵抗阿尔巴尼亚少数民族游击队入侵时牺牲的马其顿勇士们。作为占该国人口四分之一以上的少数民族,很多阿尔巴尼亚人憎亚斯科普里的大改造。“我恨这些。”一位年轻的阿尔巴尼亚族记者说,“在这里我找不到自己的民族。”她觉得改造过分集中于马其顿历史,好像在告诉阿尔巴尼亚人:“我们才是头一个来这儿的。”But Albanians have political clout in Macedonia and a new square in the predominantly Albanian part of the city is also being built. A statue of Skanderbeg, their medieval hero was aly here, and more monuments will follow. A 30-metre statue of Mother Teresa, an Albanian, is planned for the citys main square. The reconstruction of a church destroyed in 1963 was stopped as part of a vicious quarrel in which Albanians, for their part, demanded the reconstruction of a mosque.但是由于阿尔马尼亚人的政治影响力,在斯科普里的阿尔马尼亚人聚集区,一座广场也正在兴建。一座阿尔马尼亚中世纪民族英雄斯坎德培的雕像已然完工,更多的纪念碑将紧随其后。修女特蕾莎是阿尔巴尼亚人,她的雕像足有30米高,将被矗立在城市的主要广场上。一座焚毁于1963年的教堂的重建工作被迫叫停,因为阿尔巴尼亚人想重建一座清真寺。Macedonians have mixed feelings about the governments cultural aggrandisement. Something needed to be done, they say, and something has been done, even if sometimes it is over the top. But Macedonian liberals and the opposition feel aggrieved. Questions are being asked in parliament about how much the projects are costing. Saso Ordanoski, a veteran commentator, is especially critical. “It is a catastrophe. It is a Disneyland. They consider Macedonia to be the ancient cradle of civilisation and not a normal, small, modern European country. That would be below their standards.”对于政府好大喜功式的文化炫示,马其顿人喜忧参半。他们觉得有些事儿该做,也确实做了,虽然过头了些。但是马其顿自由主义者和反对派则心怀不满。有人在国会公然质疑该计划所费几何。一位叫Saso Ordanoski的资深员极为尖锐地指出:“这是一场灾难。这简直是个迪斯尼乐园。他们自诩马斯顿为文明的摇篮,却忘了它只是一个普遍的欧洲现代小国——仿佛承认这一点有损品格似的。 /201406/303766。

Syria A step too far 叙利亚 偏离正轨If Bashar Assad really has used chemical weapons on his own people in a big way, America must intervene如果巴沙尔阿萨德真的对其子民大规模使用了化学武器,美国必须干涉了。Aug 24th 2013 |From the print edition“WE HAVE been very clear to the Assad regime…that a red line for us is [if] we start seeing a whole bunch of chemical weapons moving around or being utilised,” said Barack Obama a year ago this week. “That would change my calculus.” If reports from the Syrian opposition that hundreds of people have been killed by rocket-launched chemical weapons turn out to be true, then Mr Obama should keep his promise.一年前的这个星期,奥巴马表示,阿萨德政权要很清楚自己的警戒线,如果我们看到大规模的化学武器运送或者是使用的话,这会改变我的计划。如果反对党所说的数百人被火箭发射的化学武器谋杀属实,奥巴马应该遵守自己的诺言。In recent months, those who previously argued for intervention in Syria have gone quiet. That’s not because the Syrian people are suffering any less—far from it. The death toll is now reckoned to be more than 100,000, 2m people have fled the country and a quarter of the population of 23m is reckoned to be displaced within it. But failure to intervene early has had consequences which strengthen the arguments against intervention. Sectarian chaos in the country has grown, undermining hopes that toppling Mr Assad would bring peace. The more fighting there is between rebel groups, the more damage giving them weapons would do. And al-Qaeda-linked rebel groups have gained strength at the expense of the more moderate ones the West would be happy to see take power. The stronger the radicals become, the weaker the case for arming the rebels.最近几个月,之前争论干涉叙利亚的人安静了。不是因为叙利亚人民的苦难有所减少,而是更多了。死亡人数现在被认为超过了10万,200万人离开这个国家,2300万人中的四分之一被迫在国内转移。但是之前没有干涉导致的结果增强了反对干涉的声音。叙利亚教派纷争增加,破坏者希望阿萨德的下台会带了和平。反对派之间纷争越多,给他们武器带来的破坏就越大。与基地组织有关的反对派在牺牲西方乐意看到的温和派的情况下实力有所增强。激进分子越强大,武装反对派的理由就越弱。But the use of chemical weapons would tip the argument back in favour of intervention, for three reasons. First, they are banned by international agreement, and if the rules of war are to have any force, then the world must do its best to ensure that they are respected. Second, however unwilling outside powers are to intervene, the world accepts that there are limits to the atrocities that governments may perpetrate on their people: it was the massacre of 8,000 Bosnians by Serbs at Srebrenica in 1995 that provoked outside powers to intervene decisively in Yugoslavia’s civil war. Third, America’s credibility depends on intervening. Mr Obama made no response to a previous claim of chemical-weapons use. It seems likely that Mr Assad was testing the water to see if he could get away with a bigger one. If he is allowed to, nobody will take American threats seriously, at least while Mr Obama is president. Why should Iran or North Korea, for instance, listen to him hector them about their nuclear weapons programmes?但是化学武器的使用会使得争论再次回到是否应该干涉的问题上。原因有三。第一,化学武器是国际协议禁止的,如果战胜的规则有效力,世界必须尽最大努力确保规则得以遵守。第二,无论外界力量如何不想干涉,国际社会要承认国家对自己子民的暴行是有限度的。1995年在斯瑞不里尼卡,塞维利亚人杀害了8000名波斯尼亚人,此事件导致外界力量直接干预南斯拉夫的内战。第三,美国的信誉来源于对国际事务的干预。奥巴马对此前关于化学武器使用的声明没有作出回应。看起开阿萨德正在试水,看他能不能发起更大的袭击。如果被允许了,没有国家把美国的警告当回事儿,至少奥巴马任职期间。比如说,为什么伊朗或者朝鲜听从美国对他们核项目的威吓呢?T carefully but firmly一步一个脚印Nobody should act rashly in the wake of this report. The opposition’s claims need to be verified. A ed Nations inspection team, aly in the country to investigate the earlier allegations, needs to do its utmost to get to the site where the latest attacks are said to have taken place.看完这份报告,大家都不应贸然行动。反对派的发言需要实。联合国观察团已经进入叙利亚调查早期的指控,需要尽力到达最近袭击发生的现场。If the reports turn out to be correct—or the inspectors are not given a chance of verifying them—then the world needs to take action. America should not shoulder the burden alone. China and Russia, who have supported Mr Assad’s regime, must also accept their responsibility to uphold a standard of behaviour to which even they have signed up. But if they are not persuadable, then America and its allies should consider the full range of hard options, from strikes to limit Mr Assad’s fighting capacity, to destroying his air force, to imposing no-fly zones in the country.如果报告属实,或者观察员没机会实这些报告,国际社会就需要采取行动了。美国不应该自己承担这个责任,持阿萨德政府的中国和俄罗斯也应该承担起维护行为规范的责任。因为他们已经在行为规范上签上了自己的名字。但是如果他们执意不配合,美国及其盟国就只能选择限制阿萨德的战斗力,破坏其空军,在叙利亚设立禁飞区。This paper believes that America is generally a force for good in the world. If Mr Obama does not keep his promises, it will no longer be much of a force at all.这份报告相信美国一向是为世界造福的力量。如果奥巴马总统不遵守自己的诺言,那美国就称不上是一力量了。201308/254606。

Science and technology科学技术How dung beetles navigate蜣螂如何导航Stars in their eyes眼里有星辰An insect that steers by the Milky Way观天识途的昆虫THE number of animals that navigate by the stars is small.靠观察星辰行走的动物不多。Only some birds, a few seals and, of course, humans have the ability.仅仅有某些鸟类、海豹,当然人也有这个本事。It had been assumed that other creatures that might do this would need reasonably well-developed brains.过去人们设想其他具备这种能力的生物很可能拥有发达的大脑。That notion has now been proved wrong as the celestial-navigation club welcomes its latest member: the humble dung beetle.现在这种见解被推翻了,因为天文导航俱乐部迎来了自己最新的成员—不起眼的蜣螂。Life in the world of dung beetles is fiercely competitive.蜣螂在这个世界上过着你争我夺的生活。After rolling up a ball of highly nutritious dung, the beetle must race off with it or risk having the ball stolen by other beetles.蜣螂必须把自己团好的极富营养的粪球搬走,否则劳动成果会被其他的蜣螂偷走。Strength is important, but so too is the route taken.力量很重要,运输路线也不能轻视。The ideal tactic on the open plains where many dung beetles live is to move in a straight line.很多生活在广阔平原上的蜣螂采用走直路的理想策略。This is easy enough during the day, but at night—when the beetles are most active—it is more challenging.这在白天不难办到,然而晚上才是蜣螂最活跃的时间,此时走直路对它们来说就是挑战了。Previous work has shown that dung beetles can make use of the moon to help them navigate, yet some still set a straight course on moonless nights.以前人们发现蜣螂利用月亮导航,如果晚上没有月亮,也有蜣螂走直路。To find out how, a team working in South Africa led by Eric Warrant and Marie Dacke, of Lund University in Sweden, designed an intriguing experiment.为了找到蜣螂夜里能走直路的原因,Eric Warrant和Marie Dacke领导的瑞典隆德大学工作团在南非设计了一个有意思的试验。They made caps for 19 dung beetles.他们给19只蜣螂做了帽子。Ten wore caps made of cardboard to prevent them seeing the sky and, as a control, nine wore caps made of transparent plastic.10只蜣螂戴着薄纸板做的帽子,这样他们就看不到天空了。作为对比,其他9只蜣螂戴上了透明塑料制成的帽子。The beetles and their dung balls were then released in the centre of a circular arena made of flattened sand and enclosed by a featureless circular wall.这些蜣螂和它们的粪球都被放在了一个平铺着沙子圆形场地的中央,场地的围墙也没有什么特别之处。As the beetles rolled away under a moonless night sky they were filmed by infra-red cameras.在没有月亮的晚上,红外线摄影机记录蜣螂搬运粪球的活动。The team found that the beetles prevented from seeing the sky by their caps had path lengths that averaged 476.7cm, much longer than the average of 143.4cm travelled by the beetles wearing clear hats.试验人员发现被帽子遮挡了天空的蜣螂平均行走476.7cm,远远超出戴着透明帽子的蜣螂的平均路程143.4cm。As the beetles might have used other overhead landmarks, like trees,因为蜣螂可能使用位于高处的其他地标。a second arena was built with a high black wall and a small, dry moat around it.第二个场地是黑色高墙围起来的,This time the beetles—minus their hats—were timed to see how long it took them to roll their balls from the centre to the point where they could be heard falling into the moat.附近有一条干涸的壕沟—这次蜣螂没有戴帽子—实验人员要看看他们从场地中央滚粪球到跌入壕沟能用时多久。Under a full moon the beetles took an average of 21.4 seconds to reach the moat.满月之夜蜣螂抵达壕沟平均耗时21.4秒。On a moonless, starry night, their speed was somewhat reduced, but not significantly so.在繁星满天的无月之夜,它们的速度有所下降,但降得不多。However, under overcast conditions, when neither moonlight nor the stars were visible, the beetles took an average of 117.4 seconds.如果晚上阴天,看不到星星和月亮,蜣螂抵达目的地要平均耗时117.4秒。Curious as to what it was in the sky that the beetles were using to navigate, the team moved their arena inside the Johannesburg planetarium and reran their experiments.因为试验人员急于了解蜣螂到底利用天上的什么物体导航,他们到约翰内斯堡天文馆做室内实验。As they report in Current Biology, the beetles presented with a full starlit sky, including the Milky Way or just the Milky Way, took statistically the same amount of time to exit the arena.他们在《当代生物学》杂志上统计了蜣螂在繁星满天的夜空下走出场地用的时间在统计学上是相同的,Under a sky full of dim stars they were only a little slower.天上的星光不亮,它们要稍微慢一点。This, speculates Dr Warrant, is because they were still able to spot the cluster that forms the Milky Way.通过试验Warrant,士推测,这是因为蜣螂还能认出系形成的星团。When allowed to see only the 18 brightest stars or immersed in total darkness, the beetles took more than twice as long to exit the arena.如果暗夜里只有18颗最亮的星星,蜣螂离开场地的时间要高出两倍以上。The team now wonders how many other animals might be able to use the glowing strip of light created by the Milky Way to guide them.这个团队的工作人员现在想知道到底有多少动物可以利用系形成的发光带活动。 /201310/261132。

Science and technology科学技术Microbiomics微生物组学A virus shield病毒防护Viruses help keep people disease-free病毒能够帮助人类免遭疾病THE story of the microbiome—the community of tiny organisms that coexist symbiotically with people and other animals—gets weirder every day.微生物组指的就是能与人类和其他动物互依共存的微有机体群,关于生物体组的传言一天比一天古怪。Until now that story, which has emerged over the past few years, has seemed one of friendly collaboration.自其前些年出现至今,已经看作成一种友好互利的合作。In exchange for a place to live, bacteria aid digestion and help regulate their hosts metabolism.只要它们寄住在寄主体内,细菌可以帮助寄主消化也可以调节寄主的新陈代谢。The storys latest chapter, though, describes a different deal: between the animal host and viruses.但是,关于生物体组的最新研究提出了一种不同的理论:在动物宿主和病毒的关系链之间还有细菌,And in this deal, bacteria are the targets.细菌是需要被消灭的。Jeremy Barr of San Diego State University and his colleagues, who have just published their results in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, were intrigued by the high concentrations of viruses called bacteriophages in the mucus secreted by soft-tissue membranes ranging from the outer layers of sea anemones via the skins of fish to the mouths of people.来自圣地亚哥分学的Barr及其同事,对叫噬菌体的一类病毒产生了浓厚的兴趣,它广泛存在于软组织膜分泌的粘液中,不管是海葵的外表面、鱼表面还是人类的口腔,他们将这一发现发表在《美国科学院院刊》上。Such membranes are prime targets for pathogens, which is why so many people suffer from throat and lung infections, and upset guts.这些软组织膜就是病原体的主要存在区域,这就是为什么许多人会嗓子发炎、肺部感染和得肠炎。Bacteriophages parasitise bacteria, a process pictured schematically above.噬菌体寄生在细菌内,寄生过程难以用一两句话说清楚。Dr Barr wondered if they were actively working with their hosts to keep down the level of pathogenic bugs that might otherwise set up shop in the hosts mucus membranes.Barr士觉得噬菌体或许可以帮助寄主降低致病菌的数量,防止病菌将在寄主的粘膜液中大量繁殖。Regardless of which type of membrane they looked at, Dr Barr and his colleagues found about four times more phages per bacterium in the mucus than were in its immediate surroundings.Barr士和他的同事发现,无论在何种类型粘液中,每一个病菌对应噬菌体的数量要比粘液附近其他组织里的多四倍。This suggested that phages are sticking specifically to mucus, and in an elegant series of experiments they found that this was true and that the thing on a phage which is doing the sticking is a “hypervariable” protein called Hoc.这暗示噬菌体特定存在于粘液中,在一系列巧妙的实验之后,他们发现确实是这样并且发现噬菌体上存在一种称为Hoc的高变蛋白,正是由于这种蛋白质才会使噬菌体特定存在粘液中。Hypervariable proteins come in thousands of slightly different versions.细分的话,高变蛋白有好几千种。The best studied is the mammalian antibody protein, immunoglobulin.对这类蛋白研究最深入的要属哺乳动物抗体蛋白—免疫球蛋白。Each of the versions of this protein that exist in every individual is capable of locking onto and neutralising a different invading pathogen, by interacting with different molecules on the pathogens surface.人体内有各种高变蛋白的噬菌体,噬菌体通过识别不同细菌的表面分子,做到一种噬菌体只侵噬一种入侵细菌。In phages, Dr Barr discovered, the various versions of Hoc stick to the varied branched sugar molecules characteristic of mucus.Barr士发现不同的HOC蛋白与不同的粘液特征性多糖分子的链相结合。That helps the phages, because their bacterial prey also accumulate in mucus, which is thus a rich hunting ground.因为细菌的侵染过程也是发生在粘液中,这就为噬菌体提供了大量的寄生宿主。And it helps the animal host, be that host sea anemone, fish or human being, by stopping any particular bacterial species running out of control—for if a species does start to multiply, which is a normal precursor to infection, there will be more phages around to attack it and multiply in their turn, bringing the uppity bug rapidly under control.这也帮助诸如海葵、鱼、人类一样的动物寄主防止某种细菌大量繁殖,因为细菌要感染宿主就必须先大量繁殖,这样周围会聚集更多的噬菌体来侵噬它们,并且噬菌体开始繁殖,迅速控制住这繁殖快速的细菌的数量。The phages are thus acting as a backup immune system for their hosts, and one whose mode of operation has a surprising parallel with that of the more familiar antibody-based system.对于寄主来说,噬菌体属于免疫系统的一部分,并且噬菌体的这种免疫系统与与它很相似的抗体免疫系统不相伯仲。 /201311/265283。

Yael:My grandmother.雅艾尔:我的祖母。Shes Miss Sunshine; always looking on the bright side of things, even now that shes ninety-eight years old.她总是很阳光,总是看事情的光明面,即使现在她已经98岁高龄。Its rather extraordinary.这的确难能可贵。Seems to me there couldnt be much to be happy about at that age, except that youre still alive I suppose.我想要是除了你还活着,否则对我来说活到那个岁数也不可能会快乐。Don:Thats exactly what Im talking about.唐:那正是我接下来想谈论的话题。Research shows that whether a person is an optimist or a pessimist is related to their quality of life, including their physical health.研究表明,无论一个人是乐观主义者还是悲观主义者都和他们的生活质量息息相关,也括他们的身体健康。The subjects involved first took personality tests in the 1960s and then thirty years later they completed a follow-up self-assessment of their health status.受试者在20世纪60年代参与第一次性格测试,而30年后他们又完成了一次接下来的自我健康状况的评估。Researchers found that not only did the optimists from the 1960s report better physical and mental functioning thirty years later, but that optimists also lived longer on average than pessimists.研究人员发现30年后不仅当年报告的乐观主义者具有更好的生理和心理功能,而且比悲观主义者的平均寿命要长。Its hardly clear that there is a causal relationship between optimism and health;乐观的生活态度与健康之间的因果关系并不明显;it could be that they are related to the same underlying gene complex or set of mechanisms.有可能是相同的潜在复杂基因或机制所致。Still, it sure is tempting to surmise that its partly your grandmothers positive attitude that has kept her alive this long.不过,当然很容易推测部分是你祖母的积极态度使她这么长寿。It may actually be possible that a lot of what my parents have been telling me for years is true.实际上可能多年来父母一直千咛万嘱我的是正确的。If you think positively, good things may happen to you.如果你态度积极乐观,好运终会降临到你身上。If you think negatively, then you may doom yourself.如果你自身消极,那么你可能会毁灭自己。Yael:They also say that a positive or negative attitude can be contagious.雅艾尔:他们也认为积极或消极的态度可以传染。If thats true then I guess I ought to spend more time with my grandmother.如果这是真的,那么我想我应该花更多的时间陪陪祖母。Im not getting any younger.我已经不再年轻。Don:Can I come too?唐:我可以一起去吗? 201310/260340。

Science and technology科学技术The genetics of politics 政治遗传学Body politic 人体政治Slowly, and in some quarters grudgingly, the influence of genes in shaping political outlook and behaviour is being recognized在某些方面,塑造政治前景和行为的基因影响正在慢慢地被人们所接受,虽然还是不情愿。IN 1882 W.S. Gilbert wrote, to a tune by Sir Arthur Sullivan, a ditty that went I often think its comical how Nature always does contrive/that every boy and every gal thats born into the world alive/is either a little Liberal or else a little Conservative.在1882年,W.S吉尔伯特写的一首小诗-是为阿瑟-沙利文爵士的一首曲子而作,我一直认为,大自然的精工雕作是那么可笑/每个出生到这个世界上,并存活下来的男孩和女孩们/不是有一点自由倾向,就是有一点保守。In the 19th century, that view, though humorously intended, would not have been out of place among respectable thinkers.在十九世纪,这个观点虽然有一点幽默的意味,但是在那些备受尊敬的思想家眼中,也并不是一无是处。The detail of a mans opinion might be changed by circumstances.一个人意见的详细观点可能会由于环境而改变。But the idea that much of his character was ingrained at birth held no terrors.但是,这种与生俱来的,由他的性格决定的观念也没什么恐怖的。It is not, however, a view that cut much ice in 20th-century social-scientific thinking, particularly after the second world war.然而,它在二十世纪的社会科学思想中没有占到一席之地,特别是二战之后。Those who allowed that it might have some value were generally shouted down and sometimes abused, along with all others vehemently suspected of the heresy of believing that genetic differences between individuals could have a role in shaping their behavioural differences.那些认为它有一些价值的人们发出的呐喊,通常会被持不同观点人们的声音所掩盖,有时还会遭到辱骂,和那些对当时的异端邪说----即个体之间的遗传差异在塑造他们各自不同的行为上起了一定的作用----有些猜测的人们一样受到不公平对待。Such thinking, a product compounded of Marxism and a principled rejection of the eugenics that had led, via Americas sterilisation programmes for the feeble minded, to the Nazi extermination camps, made life hard for those who wished to ask whether genes really do affect behaviour.这样的想法,与马克思主义融合后的产物,加上美国借口弱智而产生的绝育计划,这种优生学的原则性排斥反应直接导致了纳粹集中营的大屠杀,让那些想知道基因是不是对行为真的有影响的人们更加难以生存了。Now, however, the pendulum is swinging back.然而,现在,这个一直在变化的问题又摆到了人们面前。In the matter of both political outlook and political participation it is coming to be seen that genes matter quite a lot.就政治观点和政治参与而言,即将可以看出,基因确实起到了很大的作用。They are not the be-all and end-all.他们并不是最重要的。But, as a review of the field published in September in Trends in Genetics, by Peter Hatemi of Pennsylvania State University and Rose McDermott of Brown University, shows, they affect a persons views of the world almost as much as his circumstances do, and far more than many social scientists have been willing, until recently, to admit.但是,由美国宾夕法尼亚州立大学的彼德-哈特米和布朗大学的罗斯麦克德莫特合著的遗传学的发展趋势于今年九月出版,书中所持的遗传学观点认为,基因对人们世界观的影响几乎等同于环境的影响,而且,远远超过了许多社会科学家愿意承认的影响,直到最近他们才愿意接受这个结果。Family values 家庭价值The evidence for this claim comes from two types of source, one relatively old and one spanking new.这种说法的据有两种来源,一种比较古老,一种非常新颖。The old is studies of twins, comparing identical and non-identical pairs.古老的来自于对双胞胎的研究,以同卵双胞胎与异卵双胞胎进行对比研究。The new is a direct examination of peoples DNA, searching for genes whose variation correlates with observable behavioural differences.新颖的是对人类的DNA直接进行检查研究,探求基因变异与观察到的行为变异的关系。Twins studies, which seek to control for the effects of upbringing by comparing identical twins with fraternal ones, have been going on since the 1950s.双胞胎研究从二十世纪五十年代就开始了,主要是通过对同卵双胞胎和异卵双胞胎进行比较,寻求控制成长的影响基因。In that time, quite a number, in many countries, have looked in part at political questions.那时候,很多国家的大多数人,他们的注意力主要集中在政治问题上。Dr Hatemi and Dr McDermott pored over 89 peer-reviewed papers on the effects of genes and environment on political matters.哈特米士和麦克德莫特士认真钻研了,89名同行对于基因和环境对政治问题影响的文章。These included twins political knowledge, their attitudes to racial, sexual and religious questions, their views on defence and foreign policy, and their identification with particular political parties.这些报道包括了双生子的政治知识,他们在种族,性别和宗教问题上的态度,他们对国防和外交政策的看法,还有他们对特别党派的认同感。On all counts, identical twins were found to be more alike than fraternal twins.通过这些项目的研究,发现同卵双胞胎比异卵双胞胎更相像。That knowledge, refracted through the prism of statistical theory, allows calculations of the proportionate influences of genes, family environment and general environment on particular traits to be made.通过统计理论分析得到的结果,可以推算出基因、家庭环境和外部环境对特别性状的相应比例的影响。Some show strong genetic influence.其中,一些结果表明受到了很强的基因影响,Some show little.而有一些几乎不受基因影响。Intriguingly, political knowledge and party identification are at opposite ends of the spectrum.有趣的是,政治知识和党派认同分别处于研究结果的两端。As the chart shows knowledge is highly genetically determined. Identification with a particular political party, by contrast, is largely a question of family upbringing—much more so than are opinions about the sorts of policy that it might be thought would determine voting patterns.就像上表揭示的,政治知识受到基因的影响最大。相反,对特别政治党派的认同主要是家庭教育的问题,而对于各种政策的意见,家庭教育对这个的影响远远不如对前者的影响。But even family ties weaken when people leave home—and they do so in a way that helps disentangle genetic influence.但是当人们离开家,家庭联系甚至日益减弱时,这样在某种程度上就把研究的方向聚集到了基因的影响上。Dr Hatemi showed this in when, along with a group of colleagues, he looked at twins aged between 11 and 75.哈特米士在年-当时他与他的同仁们一起工作,对11岁到75岁的双生子进行了研究-公布了这个研究结果。His results demonstrated that until their late teens both kinds of twins had equally similar political views.他的研究结果说明了,直到这些双生子十几岁时,他们的政治看法都很相似。Soon after they flew the nest, though, as might be expected, their views began to diverge.但是,可能就像预测的一样,在他们离巢后不久,这些双生子之间的看法就开始有分歧。And, just as would be expected if genes have political influence, the views of fraternal twins diverged more than did those of identical ones.而且,就像预计的,如果基因有政治影响力的话,那么异卵双胞胎的意见分歧将会比那些同卵双胞胎更加严重。Between the ages of 18 and 20 identical and fraternal twins both shared nearly 70% of their political ideology.18到20岁的同卵和异卵双胞胎的政治思想近70%都相同。Between the ages of 21 and 25, that had shrunk to 60% for identical twins and 40% for fraternal twins. Clearly, then, genes matter.21到25岁,同卵双胞胎的这个数值减小到了60%,而异卵双胞胎只有40%。那很明显,基因影响。Nor do they merely affect a persons opinions.基因不仅仅影响一个人的意见。They also affect his level of political engagement.它们也影响人的政治参与水平。This was shown in a study published in 2008 by James Fowler of the University of California, San Diego.2008年公布的一项研究-研究者是位于圣地亚哥的美国加州大学的詹姆斯福勒揭示了这点。Dr Fowler and his team analysed the voter-registration records of identical and fraternal twins from Los Angeles, and also from a more nationally representative database.福勒士和他的团队分析了洛杉矶市的同卵和异卵双胞胎的选民登记记录,也对更多有代表性的国家数据库的数据进行了分析。They found that identical twins are 53% more likely either both to register or both not to register than are fraternal twins.他们发现,在登记或者不登记这点上,53%的同卵双胞胎的选择可能相同,远远高于异卵双胞胎。Political signals 政治信号Twins studies like these unequivocally demonstrate the heritability of politically related behaviour.像这样的双胞胎研究明确地实了有关政治行为的遗传性。What they do not do, though, is explain the underlying biology.虽然他们不这样做解释了基本生物学原理。That is an area which is only now starting to be explored.这是一个现在刚刚开始进行探索的领域。In 2010 a study published by Dr Fowler and his colleagues implicated a gene known asDRD4 in the development of political affiliation.2010年,福勒士和他的同事公布的一项研究暗示,被称为多巴胺D4受体基因是政治立场发展过程的关键因素。DRD4 encodes a receptor molecule for a neurotransmitter called dopamine.DRD4对一种称为多巴胺的神经传递素的受体分子进行了编码。Those with a variant of DRD4 called 7R, and also a large network of friends acquired during their adolescence, tended to be liberals—ie, left wing.那些带有称为7R的DRD4的变异体,在他们青春期也需要一个朋友圈的人,往往会成为自由派,即左翼。One interesting point about this observation is that it requires both a genetic input and an environmental one to take effect.这次观察的一个有趣的地方是,政治背景的形成需要一种遗传性输入,也需要环境输入才能产生影响。DRD4-7R has previously been associated with novelty-seeking behaviour.长外以来,DRD4-7R一直与寻求新颖的行为有所关联。The authors of the paper speculate that the interaction of that tendency with possible exposure to lots of different ideas held by lots of different people might push an individual in a leftwardly direction.本文作者猜测,许多不同持不同观念的人可能会相互接触,而他们之间的相互影响可能会让他们成为左翼阵营。Following up on Dr Fowlers work, research published earlier this year by a team led by Dr Hatemi found a further 11 genes, different varieties of which might be responsible for inclining people towards liberalism or conservatism in the way that Gilbert described.今年初,在福勒士研究的基础上,哈特米士领导的团队公布了他们的继续研究成果。他们发现,还有11个各不相同的基因,它们可能影响了人们对自由派或者保守派的倾向,而这却是吉尔伯特在那首小诗中描述到的。These included genes involved in the regulation of three neurotransmitters—dopamine, glutamate and serotonin—and also G-protein-coupled receptors, which react to a wide variety of stimulants.这些基因包括了参与调节三种神经传递素-多巴安,谷氨酸和5-羟色胺-的基因,它们也参与调节G-蛋白偶联受体。Most astonishingly, the researchers found that olfactory receptors are also implicated, giving a whole, new twist to the idea that someones political platform smells wrong.最令人惊讶的是,研究者发现,嗅觉受体也牵连其中,提出了一个新的,整体颠覆性的观念,即人的政治纲领闻起来是错误的。The word inclining is important.这个倾向要注意。No one is suggesting that there are particular genes, or versions of genes for liberalism or conservatism. But inclinations there do seem to be.没有人认为,有什么特别基因,或者说带有自由主义或者保守主义基因的这种说法。Moreover, direct studies of genes also support what the twins studies suggest about political engagement, independent of opinion.但是,这种倾向又似乎存在。而且,对基因的直接研究也持双胞胎研究上有关政治参与、独立意见的结果。In particular, work by Dr Fowler implicates another dopamine receptor, DRD2, and also 5HTT, which regulates serotonin levels, in influencing voter turnout.特别是,福勒士的研究暗示了另一种多巴胺受体-多巴胺D2受体,还有五羟色胺转运基因-功能是调节血清素水平,这些基因都影响到选民的投票率。People with versions of these genes that increase the effect of the neurotransmitter are more likely to vote than those with low-activity versions.拥有这些增加神经传递素效力的基因变体的人,他们比那些拥有相同基因,但活性较低的人更有可能参加选举投票。The will and the way 愿望和方式The third part of the question, though, is how this all links up with the fundamental driver of biology, evolution.这个问题的第三部分则是分析这些是怎样和生物学的基本驱动力-进化连接起来的。The suggestion of Dr Hatemi and Dr McDermott is that political action is the collective expression of some pretty primal biological motives: those of survival and procreation.哈特米士和德默特士认为,政治行为是一些很原始的生物性动机的集中表达:那些生存和繁衍的原始生物动机。Deciding whether or not to be part of a particular group, whom else to admit to your group, how to keep or share resources, and how much sexual freedom to afford oneself, ones neighbours and ones children are all, and always have been, lively matters of political debate.确定是不是一个特别团体的一部分,其他人是不是承认你这个团体,怎样保存或者共享资源,自己可以承担多少的性自由,一个人的邻居和孩子,这些都是原始的生物性动机,还有政治辩论一直以来的热闹事项等。But they are also all matters that have an impact on the crucial Darwinian business of getting genes into the next generation.但是它们也对达尔文重要理论--提取基因以塑造优秀下一代的研究-有一定影响。Dr Hatemi and Dr McDermott are not suggesting genetic factors directly create ideologies that relate to these matters.哈特米和麦克德莫特士都不相信,基因因素直接导致了与这些事务相关的思想意识。They are suggesting, though, that genes assist in deciding which opinions an individual will find it most attractive to cleave to.但是,他们认为,基因对决定个人发现并坚持他认为的更有吸引力的意见有一定的辅助作用。Unlike the social determinists of old, however, who frequently refused to concede even the possibility of genetic influence on behaviour, the new generation of genetic political scientists are perfectly happy to acknowledge nurture along with nature.然而,并不像过去的社会决定论-这种理论甚至一直拒绝承认基因对行为影响的可能性,新一代的遗传学的政治科学家们乐于接受先天和后天的共同作用。Dr Hatemis own work, for instance, has shown that external shocks, such as unemployment and divorce, effectively abolish the genetic influences he has detected on many ideological questions as other responses, more appropriate to survival in the changed circumstances, kick in.比如,当其它更适合在变化成千的环境下成立的理论出现时,哈特米士自己的研究展示了外部冲击的影响,比如,失业和离婚,有效地抵消了他在许多意识形态问题上检测到的基因影响。These responses too, of course, are probably under evolutionary—and hence genetic—control. But they are different from the ones being looked for at present.当然,这些理论的出现也可能受到进化论的影响。但是它们和目前的研究是截然不同的。That sort of granularity, and the need to accept partial rather than universal explanations for biological phenomena, led the two researchers to one other thought.这种间隔差距,及为了接受部分而不是普遍的生物现象解释的需要,让两位研究者又产生另一个想法。This is that part of the problem social science has had in the past in accepting biological explanations is that its practitioners do not understand the nature of the claims being made.即在过去已经被接受的生物现象解释的社会科学的部分问题是,从事这门科学的人员不明白这种理论的本质。There are, to repeat, no genes for socialism or conservatism, or for prejudice or tolerance, any more than there are genes for Christianity or Islam.再次重申一遍,没有什么社会主义基因或者保守主义基因,或者偏见或容忍基因,更不用说还存在基督教或者伊斯兰教基因。But a persons genes can sometimes propel him more easily in one direction than another.但是一个人的基因有时会驱使他更容易走上另一条道路。His free will is, if you like, a little freer to turn right than left, or vice versa.换句话说,他的自由意愿可能会更倾向于偏右,而不是偏左,反之亦然。Gilbert was therefore not quite right. But he was not exactly wrong, either.因此,吉尔伯特并不完全正确。但是他也没有完全错。 /201401/273114。