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Island Nations Top African Governance Index; Somalia Ranks Last岛国在非洲治国名录上名列前茅A newly-released list that ranks the effectiveness of governments in sub-Saharan Africa shows small island nations such as Mauritius, the Seychelles and Cape Verde at the top, and conflict-ridden countries such as Sudan, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Somalia at the bottom. The rankings were released in Addis Ababa. 最近发表的一份名录是撒哈拉以南非洲地区国家政府的治国效率排名。这份名录显示,像毛里求斯、塞舌尔和佛得角之类的小岛国名列前茅,而诸如苏丹、刚果民主共和国和索马里之类在战火蹂躏下的国家名次最差。这份名单在亚的斯亚贝巴发表。The rankings indicate two thirds of African governments are getting better year-by-year. Liberia is perhaps making the biggest strides toward good governance.  这一排名显示三分之二的非洲国家政府都在逐年改进。利比里亚可能是向良好治理迈进途中进步最大的国家。On the other end of the scale, a few countries, particularly those where wars are being waged,are failing. Somalia, ungovernable for more than a decade, ranked last of the 48 countries surveyed. 在另一极端,有几个国家,尤其是那些战火蔓延的国家治理越来越差。索马里十多年来一直处于无法无天的状态,它在被调查的48个国家里是最后一名。Those are the findings of the, an annual ranking of sub-Saharan African nations according to quality of governance. They are based on data for 2006, compiled and analyzed by experts from the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. 这是易卜拉欣非洲国家治理名录所发现的情况。这个名录每年把撒哈拉以南的非洲国家根据治国质量来进行排名。他们的依据是2006年的资料数据,哈佛大学肯尼迪政府学院的专家对这些资料进行了编撰和分析。The Index is the idea of Sudanese businessman Mo Ibrahim, who made a fortune bringing mobile-phone technology to much of Africa during the past decade. He is now devoting his time and a substantial portion of his fortune to addressing what many consider Africa's biggest failing, bad governance. 编排这份名录是苏丹企业家穆.易卜拉欣的主意,易卜拉欣在过去十年里因为把手机推广到非洲的大部分地区而发财致富。如今他把自己的时间和相当大部分的财产用来研究治国无方问题,许多人认为这是非洲的最大绊脚石。Ibrahim unveiled his second annual index at a news conference in Addis Ababa. He was joined by several board members of the Mo Ibrahim Foundation. Among them were Mary Robinson, the former president of Ireland and U.N. Human Rights chief, as well as Salim Ahmed Salim, the former head of the Organization of African y and former prime minister of Tanzania.  易卜拉欣在亚的斯亚贝巴的记者会上公布了他的第二次年度名次名录。穆.易卜拉欣董事会的几位成员也和他一起出席了这次记者会,其中有爱尔兰前总统和联合国人权主管玛丽.鲁宾逊,非洲统一组织的前主席,也是坦桑尼亚的前总理萨利姆.艾哈迈德.萨利姆。One of the most disturbing findings is that the quality of governance deteriorated between 2005 and 2006 in the Horn of Africa and the surrounding region, including Sudan. Salim Salim says regional conflicts are undermining all progress. 最令人忧心的发现是2005年到2006年间,非洲之角及邻近地区,其中包括苏丹,治国质量恶化。萨利姆说,地区冲突破坏了所有的进展。"You talk about conflicts. You talk of Somalia. You talk of the situation right now in Somalia which affects Ethiopia," he said. "You talk of the Ethiopia-Eritrea situation. You talk of Sudan, [this all] is involved in deterioration of the situation in Sudan, so the number-one problem that has affected this region has been the issue of conflict." 他说:“谈到冲突就会谈到索马里。你谈起索马里的目前形势,这一形势也影响埃塞俄比亚。你随即也会谈起埃塞俄比亚-厄里特里亚的局面。你也会谈到苏丹的形势全面恶化,所以影响这一地区的首要问题向来都是冲突问题。”Ibrahim admits the Governance Index is not perfect for two important reasons. First, the data is often provided by the rated governments themselves, and he says governments lie. Second, the picture is aly dated, since the most recent data is from 2006, the last year for which statistics are available.  易卜拉欣承认由于两个重要因素这个治国名录并非完美无缺。首先那些资料数据往往是那些被评比的政府自己提供的。他说,政府不说实话。第二,那些情况已经过时,因为最近的资料也是2006年的,这是能得到有关统计数据的最近的一年。But he says the index is a valuable tool, giving governments an assessment of the quality of services provided to their citizens. He says when he began looking at ways of re-investing the millions he made from his African company Celltel, he recognized good governance as the top priority. 但是他又说,这份名录是有价值的工具,它评估了政府为本国公民务的质量。他说,当他开始考虑把自己从非洲赛特尔公司赚取的几百万美元重新投资的各种途径时,他意识到治国有方是首选项目。"We could have given this money to the people in the camps in Darfur, to the vaccine for AIDS," Ibrahim said. "These are all pain killers, what we need is to define the root for conflict. Why Darfur happened. Why Somalia happened. Why DRC happened. What we need is to deal with the root of the disease, not to give aspirins. That is why I decided to give the money to this foundation." 他说:“我们可以把这笔钱花在达尔富尔难民营的难民身上,也可以花在艾滋病的疫苗上。这些都是止痛药,然而我们所需要的是挖掘冲突的根源。为什么会发生像达尔富尔那样的情况?为什么会出现索马里的灾难?为什么会有刚果的战乱?我们需要的是解决这些弊病的根源,而不是给一颗阿斯匹林来止痛。这就是我决定把这笔钱用在这个基金会的原因。”This year's index ranked Mauritius as the best governed sub-Saharan African nation for the second year. Next came Seychelles, Cape Verde, Botswana and South Africa, in that order. Liberia showed the most progress, jumping more than 10 points on the index, to move up to 38th place among the 48 countries surveyed.  在今年的名单上,毛里求斯再次被列为撒哈拉以南非洲地区治国最有方的国家。名列第二的是塞舌尔,随后依次排列的是佛得角、茨瓦纳和南非。利比里亚显然取得的进步最大,它在这个名单上的得分跃升了10分以上,在48个被调查的国家里,上升到第38名。After Somalia, Africa's worst governed countries are the Democratic Republic of Congo, Chad, Sudan, Angola and the Central African Republic.  治国最差的国家是索马里,其它排名最低的国家依次倒数分别是刚果民主共和国、乍得、苏丹、安哥拉和中非共和国。Zimbabwe ranked 33rd among African nations in 2006, though analysts say recent developments will push it further down in future surveys.  在这份2006年的名单上,津巴布韦在非洲国家中排在第33名,但是分析人士说,最近津巴布韦的局面将使得它在未来调查中的排名更低。The index measures governance based on five criteria: safety and security; rule of law; transparency and corruption; participation and human rights; economic opportunity and human development. 这份名单根据五项标准来衡量国家治理的优劣,即安全和保安、法治、透明度和腐败程度、民众参政和人权、以及经济机遇和人才发展。200810/52058。

How The Downturn Affects Students Students are traditionally low on funds, but how will the recession affect their immediate futures? A report out last week suggests badly, with a fall in graduate vacancies. David Bowden meets the next generation reconsidering their career options. There is a chill wind blowing through the campus of Keele university these days and it's nothing to do with the weather. Students fear the recession and the downturn in graduate recruitment, may mean their studies lead them nowhere, but a dole queue. Students' Union president Talah Omran Al Rubaie aly has her degree, and will give up her union post this summer, but she's not looking forward to launching herself onto the jobs market. The fact that, you are graduating today and tomorrow, you might not be able to get a job, is a very very scary prospect, I think it also has an impact on the students that have just graduated from high school, or leaving at 16, and they're thinking “Is it worth coming to university, is it worth getting a degree.”In the Union cafe, student life goes on as it always has. But these undergraduates know the bubble of academia will not protect them from the recession for long.Particularly over Christmas and Easter when you're only home for months, no one's got any jobs to give out for a few weeks.My dad works for HBOS which obviously he knows, has just gone under,so that's a fact that means he is gonna be made redundance by probably at least an hour, and he was one of the main offers of money for helping with bills and he's used to paying my tuition fees.As the recession deepens, some students find themselves with a dilemma: do they stay at university, continue their studies, and hope the graduate job market improves by the time they leave, or do they bailout now and take a job, any job, so they don't get left on the employment shelf.Keele’s performance in the graduate jobs market has been good so far. The latest figures available show 95% of students leaving do get a job, but that was before the economy fell off a cliff , and the university is working hard to equip its students with the skills to compete in an ever gloomier employment field.I think the important thing for us is actually to give them tools and ability to actually respond to the environment, I think our students are well enough, aware of the external circumstances.It's been a long time since the degree guaranteed a job when you left university. But never in the living memory of these students have their job prospects looked so bleak.02/63084。

Afghan Provincial Official Assassinated阿富汗地方官员遭暗杀 There is continuing violence in southern Afghanistan, where a resurgent Taliban is continuing to carry out strikes against civilians. 阿富汗南部的暴力活动在持续进行。暴乱集团塔利班继续在当地袭击平民。A Kandahar provincial official and his bodyguard on their way to work were shot dead by two gunmen on a motorbike. Dost Mohammad Arghestani headed the labor and social affairs department.  坎大哈省官员阿吉斯塔尼和他的保镖在上班的路上被两名骑托车的武装分子开打死。阿吉斯塔尼当时正前往劳动和社会事务部。The killing is similar to the September 28 assassination of Kandahar's most senior policewoman. The Taliban claimed responsibility for shooting her. 这起谋杀事件和9月28号坎大哈最资深的女警察被暗杀的事件很相似。塔利班声称对杀这名女警察承担责任。Along with Taliban rebels, organized criminal gangs, including the drug mafia, are also blamed for killings there.  除了塔利班叛乱分子外,包括毒品集团在内的有组织的犯罪团伙,也在那里从事杀人行径。The assassinations are a challenge to President Hamid Karzai, up for re-election next year, to convince Afghans that they are better off than they were before the Taliban were driven from power.  这些暗杀事件在明年选举前对卡尔扎伊总统说来是个挑战,他难以说阿富汗人他们的生活比塔利班时期改善了。The major complaint of the Afghan public is despite democracy, a massive international military presence, and billions of dollars of foreign aid, security is deteriorating and official corruption is rampant.  阿富汗民众主要的抱怨是,安全局势恶化和官员腐败猖獗,尽管有民主、有大规模国际军事力量驻守境内,以及数十亿美元的外国援助。Responding to the assassination in Kandahar, presidential spokesman Humayun Hamidzada says the Afghan government is doing all it can to protect its public servants.  总统发言人哈米德扎达在对坎大哈的暗杀事件作出回应时说,阿富汗政府正在尽全力保护公职人员。"Unfortunately we have enemies who are sworn or determined to destroy the way of life," he said. "They are determined to destroy what we have achieved in the past six years. And by attacking civilians cowardly they are showing one more time that they are purely terrorists and that they have no mission." 他说:“不幸的是,我们的敌人誓言或者下定决心要摧毁我们的生活方式。他们决心要破坏我们过去6年取得的成绩。而且他们采用的袭击平民的懦夫方式,再次显示他们纯粹是恐怖分子,而且他们没有所追求的使命。”Police in the southern province of Uruzgan say nine people, including two children, riding in a small bus died when their vehicle hit an explosive device. Police blame the Taliban and say the bomb was likely planted to attack NATO troops who frequently use the road.  警察说,在南部省份乌鲁兹甘,9名小客车乘客在他们的车辆撞上一个爆炸装置时丧身,其中包括2名儿童。警察认为是塔利班所为,他们说,炸弹可能原来是用来袭击经常使用这条道路的北约军队的。NATO said in a statement that three of its soldiers were killed Tuesday in eastern Afghanistan when a roadside bomb went off near their vehicle. Kandahar province has been wracked by increasing violence.  北约在声明中说,星期二在阿富汗东部,当一枚路边炸弹在北约军队的车辆附近爆炸时,3名北约士兵被炸死。坎大哈省一直受日益增多的暴力活动的困扰。Afghan Defense Minister Abdul Rahim Wardak says the rise in attacks by insurgents has made 2008 the bloodiest year since the ouster of the Taliban seven years ago. 阿富汗国防部长瓦尔达克说,暴乱分子更为频繁地进行袭击,使得2008年成为塔利班下台七年来死亡人数最多的一年。 General Wardak partly blames foreign insurgents driven out of Iraq and other countries by coalition forces. But he is expressing confidence that the enemy - whom he acknowledges are becoming better trained and equipped - cannot sustain their operations against a growing Afghan National Army and the massive foreign military presence. 瓦尔达克认为,部分根源在于被联军从伊拉克等地赶出来的外国暴乱分子。他承认敌人的训练和装备都在改进,但是他相信,有日益成长的阿富汗国家军队和大规模外国军事力量的驻守,敌人维持不了针对阿富汗的袭击行动。200810/52848。

Hi-tech Family Time With new technology like cell phones, instant messaging and e-mail, families are able to multi-task and stay closely connected at the same time. Daniel Sieberg reports. We are liveing in a hi-tech world, cellphones, the Internet games, the list of gadgets that keep invading our lives keeps growing. You’d think that all those distractions would pull families apart but that may not be the case. Here’s CBS News Science and Technology Correspondent Daniel SiebergMaybe the best example of Ozzie and Harriet living in the digital age is the Romoser family from SeattleHa…my grandma just texted me. My dad, my grandma, my friend Katie …That was in like two minutesWhether it’s 15-year-old Katie who defines multi-tasker, to a 13-year-old David in grows and in games Don’t…Don’t take itTo mom Tracy and dad Michael trying to keep track at the door .I will text them or else I ‘ll ..…get turners started and practice who trump on, so we know where they are at all times, which it’s really great. Cellphones, e-mail, instant messaging, it’s part of nearly every busy family's life on the go. But those have technology actually bring them closer together. It’s just different. I think we are just as close uh, but, but it’s in a different wayAccording to a new study, 25% said their family is closer today than when they were growing upThanks to all the new tech-gadgets that connect us, the Web and cellphones; just 11% said their families weren’t as close and 60% said the technologies made no differenceMaybe parents uh, need, need to feel like they can reach their kids more, you know, than our parents did.The study also found that some families gather around the computer together, much like / ball games of the pastExperts like Jeffery Core who was not part of the study says while hi-tech communication lacks face-to-face time, it can still be meaningfulAs far as it’s affecting family relationships in almost every meaningful way, it makes people feel better connected.The Romosers who set limits for their kids worry about a larger impact Here we are raising a generation of people that are you know texting on their phones and on line with chatting and all that and I wonder about the suicidal impact of their communication skillsIn the meantime it’s back to being crawled in. For The Early Show Daniel Sieberg CBS news, Los Angeles 200811/55300。

Russians Pull Back in Georgia But Scars of War Remain格鲁吉亚北部人民生活渐恢复正常 Life is returning to normal in parts or northern Georgia - two months after open warfare there between Georgian and Russian troops and Russian-backed separatists from the enclaves of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Russian troops pulled out of their self-declared buffer zones in the area last week and Georgian families are moving back into their homes there. 格鲁吉亚共和国北部生活正在恢复正常。两个月前,格鲁吉亚跟俄罗斯军队以及俄罗斯持的阿布哈兹以及南奥塞梯分离主义力量进行了公开的战争。俄罗斯军队上个星期已经从他们自行宣布的缓冲区撤退。格鲁吉亚人家正在返回他们在那里的住所。Until last week, few wanted to venture back into Ergneti, a small village in northeastern Georgia, caught in the midst of the war in early August and then part of a buffer zone under the control of Russian troops and their South Ossetian allies. But, the Russians have gone and Georgian families are coming back to their homes - Goderdzi Kasradze is one of them. 就在上个星期,还没有多少人愿意冒险返回厄尔涅梯村。这是格鲁吉亚东北部的一个小村庄,在8月发生的战争中成为战区,随后成为缓冲区的一部分,在俄罗斯军队及其南奥塞梯同盟的控制之下。但是,俄罗斯人已经离去,格鲁吉亚人家正在返回他们的住所。卡斯拉泽是返回家园的人之一。The men stand on the wide front porch, examining the damage: a mattress ripped and strewn on the floor, shattered glass, even a wooden window frame left dangling. Goderdzi Kasradze looks on in dismay. 一些男子站在宽敞的门口,察看房屋受到的损害。一个床垫子被撕破,扔在地上。窗户玻璃破损,一个木窗框摇摇欲坠。卡斯拉泽悲愤地看着这一切。"The Russians destroyed my house and Ossetians looted it. They took everything we had," he said. 他说:“俄罗斯人毁坏了我的房子,奥塞梯人进行了劫掠。他们把我们所有的一切都拿走了。”Nine family members call this home. They fled when the shooting and shelling started. 这家人家有9口人。在战争打响的时候,他们逃离当地。"The whole family was here when the shooting started. We evacuated the women and children. Then, I also had to flee," he explained. 卡斯拉泽说:“战争打响的时候,我们全家人都在这里。我们疏散了妇女跟儿童。然后,我也不得不逃走。”They've just returned - to find this. 他们现在回来了,结果发现家园已经成为废墟。No room escaped damage. The children's bedroom - the living room. Kasradze's wife Lena tries a few keys on the once-prized piano. It too has been destroyed. 孩子的房间,起居室,所有的房间都受到损坏。卡斯拉泽的妻子丽娜弹了弹家人一直很珍重的钢琴的几个键。钢琴也完全损坏了。Whatever was left behind when the family fled was ransacked - even an old stove pipe ripped out of the ceiling to search for any hidden valuables. The family reacts with disbelief and despair. 他们全家人逃离的时候没能带走的东西都被捣毁。甚至老式的炉灶的烟筒也被劫掠者从天花板上扯下来,看看里面有没有什么值钱的东西。卡斯拉泽一家看着这一切,不禁目瞪口呆,陷入绝望。PACE: What was your reaction when you came back here?"I cry and that is my reaction," Kasradze responded. 卡斯拉泽对记者说,他最初看到眼前的这一切不禁哭起来。The Kasradze home is just a kilometer from the dividing line with South Ossetia. 卡斯拉泽住所离南奥塞梯分界线只有一公里。Until recently, the last checkpoint here was under Russian control, but now Georgian security forces have taken over. Across here is South Ossetia - its capital Tskhinvali less than two kilometers up the road. The soldiers say this is as far as we can go. It was events in Tskhinvali that sparked the fighting in August - when Georgian forces launched an attack to try to rein in Russian-backed separatists and regain control of the enclave. Russian forces moved in quickly, driving the Georgians back, pushing deep into Georgia and creating buffer zones around South Ossetia as well as the other breakaway region - Abkhazia in the northwest. Under a European Union-backed cease-fire accord Moscow promised to withdraw by October 10.  直到最近,这里的最后的一个检查站还是在俄罗斯军人的控制之下。但是,现在格鲁吉亚保安力量已经接管。这里不远处就是南奥塞梯,其首府茨欣瓦利在不到两公里之外的地方。当地的驻军说,这是我们能够走访的最远的地方。今年八月的战斗最先是从茨欣瓦利爆发的。当时,格鲁吉亚军队发动进攻,试图遏制俄罗斯持的分离主义分子,并重新夺回南奥塞梯的控制权。俄罗斯军队迅速开进,把格鲁吉亚军队击退,并深入格鲁吉亚境内,在南奥塞梯以及西北部寻求独立的阿布哈兹地区周围设立了缓冲区。根据欧洲联盟持的一项停火协议,俄罗斯承诺在10月10号撤退军队。The Ergneti crossing is quiet - not much traffic either way - with the occasional exception. Ildizar Talibov slowly walks up the road toward the checkpoint. The soldiers quickly move to stop and query him. They let him pass. 厄尔涅梯过境点静悄悄的。来往的行人和车辆不多。塔利波夫从远处向检查站走过来。军人迅速示意他停下来,并对他进行了讯问。然后,军人让他通过。Talibov says he regularly sold goods in the Tskhinvali market. He fell ill and was in the hospital when fighting broke out. He says he had to take shelter and could not leave until now. 塔利波夫说,他按时在茨欣瓦利市场出售货物。他在战争爆发的时候生病住院。他说,他不得不躲避起来,只是现在才出来。"Tskhinvali is much destroyed," he said. "A friend who was in the hospital with me took me to his house. In those Georgian villages there is hardly any building left." 他说:“茨欣瓦利遭受了很多的毁坏。一个跟我一起在医院的朋友把我带到他家。在战区的那些格鲁吉亚村庄几乎没有什么建筑物依然挺立。”Thirty kilometers away - the Russians are still manning the Akhalgori checkpoint. They say they've received no orders so far to pull back any farther. A few hundred meters back is the Georgian checkpoint and on this occasion a European Union monitoring patrol has just stopped by. 在三十公里之外,俄罗斯军人依然控制著阿哈尔戈里检查站。他们说,他们还没有接到进一步撤退的命令。在几百米之外是格鲁吉亚的检查站。一个欧洲联盟的观察巡逻队正好经过。"Do you know if there are any mines anywhere?" asks Fredrik Nylyn, part of an observer force sent here to monitor the cease-fire. 一个欧盟的观察员询问格鲁吉亚军人,“你知道这周围一带有地雷吗?”奈林是负责监督停火的欧盟观察团的成员。The Russians were to have moved back to pre-conflict positions on this day. There are differing views as to where those exact positions are and whether the Russians have fully complied. 在今天,俄罗斯军队理应撤退到冲突爆发之前的位置。那些位置具体究竟在哪里,以及俄罗斯方面是否完全履行了停火协议,各方意见不一。"There is room for different interpretations on both sides, actually," noted Nylyn. "Yes, there will be different opinions on whether this agreement has been fulfilled from both parts or not." 奈林说:“实际上,协议当中包含了双方作出不同解释的空间。不错,今后双方在协议是否得到履行的问题上还会有不同的意见。”The Russians have pulled out of their self-declared buffer zones, but they remain inside Abkhazia and South Ossetia. But, back in Ergneti, Goderdzi Kasradze says there'll be no security until the Russians are really gone. 俄罗斯军人已经从他们自行宣布的缓冲区撤退。但是,他们依然驻守在阿布哈兹和南奥塞梯。但是,在厄尔涅梯村,卡斯拉泽说,只要俄罗斯人不真正撤退,就不会有安全。"We had fruits and flowers. It looked like people had lived here. It does not look like that now, but we hope we can change that and make it a home again," he said. 他说:“我们先前在这里有水果和鲜花,很有人气。现在这里已经面目全非。但是,我们希望能够改变这一切,重建家园。Making life normal again is what many Georgians hope, especially in these areas ravaged by fighting. Life is returning to normal, people are moving back to tend their orchards and farms and to rebuild. But for some, looking at their destroyed homes, it's hard to know just where to begin. 很多格鲁吉亚人,尤其是遭受战斗蹂躏地区的人希望生活恢复正常。这里的生活正在恢复正常。人们正在返回他们的果园农场,进行重建。但是,对一些人来说,面对他们被毁坏的住房,他们不知道重建从什么地方开始。200810/53011。

Sydney Weapons Summit Warns of Growing Nuclear Threat一核不扩散组织警告全球核武扩散  A new non-proliferation group warns the world is on the brink of a massive increase in nuclear weapons. The global organization has spent the past two days in Sydney looking at ways to strengthen international agreements to halt the sp of nuclear arsenals. 一个新的核不扩散组织警告说,世界处于核武器大扩散的边缘。在过去两天里,这个全球组织在澳大利亚的悉尼寻求加强国际协议的途径,停止世界核武库的增长。Leaders of the new International Commission on Nuclear Non-proliferation and Disarmament say the world had been "sleepwalking" on the issue of nuclear weapons for a decade.  新成立的“核不扩散与裁军国际委员会”的领导人表示,十年来,世界一直在核武器问题上梦游。They warn that a nuclear attack would dwarf the September 11 terrorist attacks in the ed States.  他们警告说,一次核攻击将使恐怖分子对美国的911攻击相形见绌。The organization was first proposed by Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd after his June visit to the Japanese city of Hiroshima, which was devastated by an American atomic bomb in 1945.  澳大利亚总理陆克文今年6月访问了日本的广岛,第一次提出成立“核不扩散与裁军国际委员会”。1945年,广岛被一枚美国的原子弹摧毁。It aims to reinvigorate the global debate on the nuclear weapons before a 2010 conference that will review the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.  该委员会的宗旨是,在2010年世界各国开会重新审议核不扩散条约之前,加强国际社会就核武器问题的辩论。The co-chairman of the group, Gareth Evans, said Tuesday that tough new measures are needed to stop the sp of nuclear warheads.  “核不扩散与裁军国际委员会”的共同主席、澳大利亚前外长埃文斯星期二说,需要采取新的强硬措施,制止核弹头扩散。"The big problem with both North Korea and Iran is the demonstration that while doing what you're totally allowed to do under the Non-Proliferation Treaty, namely develop energy for peaceful purposes, you can acquire the capacity to create enriched uranium, which in turn gives you the capacity to very quickly convert that into the material for making bombs," said Evans. 埃文斯说:“北韩和伊朗的大问题是,核不扩散条约允许它们发展核能用于和平目的,同时他们获得制造浓缩铀的能力,这种能力又使它们很快把浓缩铀转变成制造核武器的材料。”North Korea has tested a nuclear device, although it is negotiating with China, Japan, South Korea, Russia and the ed States to give up its nuclear programs. Many governments, including the ed States, think Iran is trying to violate its NPT commitments by developing a nuclear weapon. Evans says that there are between 13,000 and 16,000 nuclear warheads deployed around the world.  埃文斯说,目前在全世界部署着一万三千枚到一万六千枚核弹头。The former Australian foreign minister says it is "a bit of a miracle" that a nuclear catastrophe had not occurred during the Cold War or afterward.  他说,在冷战期间和冷战以后没有发生核灾难,这是一个奇迹。Evans heads the International Commission on Nuclear Non-proliferation and Disarmament along with a former Japanese diplomat Yoriko Kawaguchi.  埃文斯和前任日本外交官川口顺子是“核不扩散与裁军国际委员会”的共同主席。The new body includes representatives from five nuclear powers - the ed States, China, Russia, Britain and France - as well as other countries, including South Africa, Indonesia and Germany.  这个机构包括五个核大国的代表。它们是美国、中国、俄罗斯、英国和法国。该机构还有来自南非、印度尼西亚和德国的代表。Two senior figures from Pakistan and India also attended the Sydney conference. Both governments have developed nuclear weapons, and neither has signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty.  来自巴基斯坦和印度的高级官员也出席了在悉尼举行的会议。这两个国家都研发了核武器,而且两国都没有签署核不扩散条约。The NPT allows nations to develop peaceful uses of nuclear energy - such as power generation, but bars the sp of nuclear weapons.200810/53610。

The tantalizing mysteries of Stonehenge may have come one step closer toward being solved. New radiocarbon dates of human cremation burials there indicate that Stonehenge was used as a cemetery from its inception just after 3,000 until well after the large sarsen stones went up around 2,500 . Archeologist Mike Parker Pearson has a new theory that Stonehenge was just half of a large religious complex and also functioned as a huge cemetery."Stonehenge is full of burials. It's our biggest cremation cemetery from that time." With National Geographic's support, Mike Parker Pearson leads the Stonehenge Riverside Project. Parker Pearson's teams excavating the plain surrounding Stonehenge have discovered the largest Stone Age settlement found in northern Europe."We knew this was a big village, and I was thinking maybe a few hundred houses. But what we found out this year is that it was really big. We are looking at well over a thousand houses."Parker Pearson suspects this was the lost city of the builders of Stonehenge."I think what we are seeing is a community that are bringing all their stock with them coming here for short parts of the year. This isn't a full-time permanent settlement."He has found evidence that people came here to celebrate an important event in their calendar, the longest day of the year, the midsummer solstice. He believes they used Stonehenge as a monument to the death.Perhaps on the same day, less than two miles away at Durrington Walls the ancient Britons celebrated life. Here a vast circular earthwork known as a henge dominates the landscape. It's 20 times larger than Stonehenge and was surrounded by a ditch and bank 18 feet deep and 30 feet wide.In new excavations outside the henge of Durrington walls, archeologists found remains of houses from the third millennium . Among the most remarkable discoveries are the remains of an oval-shaped hearth with two thick grooves visible in the floor where the person who did the cooking kneeled."The thing that really got my imagination going was the, the knee holes that you get by the hearth over there. And that, that just triggers the imagination of someone everyday sitting by the fire to cook or tend to the hearth, and little things out there really get your imagination going."Parker Pearson hopes to find more clues to the Stonehenge mystery over the final three years of the excavation project. His findings are featured in the June issue of National Geographic Magazine and revealed in a National Geographic Channel special Stonehenge Decoded premiering Sunday June 1st. Check local listings.Notes:Stonehendge: a group of very large, tall stones that are arranged into a large circle with a smaller circle inside it, which stand on Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire, southern England. People think that they were put there about 4000 years ago and were used for studying the movements of the Sun, Moon, and stars. Some people also believe that they were used by the Druids (ancient priests before the Christian period) in religious ceremonies. inception: the beginning of somethingSarsen stones: stone blocks found in quantity on Salisbury Plain, the Marlborough Downs, in Kent, and in smaller quantities in Berkshire, Oxfordshire, Dorset and Hampshire. They are the remains of a cap of tertiary sandstone which once covered much of southern England.Vocabulary Mix:cremation: the reduction of a corpse to ashes as a way of disposing of it200811/56270。

Coping with Japan's nuclear disaster应对日本核灾难Living with radiation与辐射共生A sping cloud of economic and human costs 经济和民众开销忧虑蔓延开来Giving the brassicas a once-over测量青花菜的辐射量A PEN-LIKE dosimeter hangs around the neck of Katsunobu Sakurai, the tireless mayor of Minamisoma, measuring the accumulated radiation to which he has been exposed during the past two weeks of a four-week nuclear nightmare. The ing of 43 microsieverts is about the dosage he would get from a single chest x-ray. No cause for alarm, then. Yet he believes the radioactive particles from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear-power plant, 25km from his office, have led this once-prosperous city of 70,000 into a fight for its life.形似钢笔的放射量测量器戴在樱井胜延的脖子上,这位不知疲倦的南相马市市长正在测量他在过去两周中吸收的累积辐射量,而核噩梦已经持续四个周了。测量器显示的43毫西弗大约是他做一次胸透所接收的辐射量,这完全无害。然而,樱井市长相信:从距离自己办公室25千米外的福岛第一核电站飘来的放射性粒子,已经导致居住在这座曾经繁荣的城市的70,000市民不得不为生存而战。About 50,000 inhabitants who lived closest to the plant have been evacuated or have fled since radiation levels started to rise after the March 11th tsunami—which also left at least 1,400 of the town’s residents dead or missing. Even though external radiation has since returned to near-harmless levels, Mr Sakurai fears many of Minamisoma’s evacuees may never come back.3月11日发生海啸之后,辐射水平开始上升,居住在核电站附近的50,000名居民已经被疏散或者是逃离了住所,这场海啸至少造成镇上1,400名居民死亡或者失踪。尽管在此之后外部辐射回到了几乎无害的水平,樱井市长还是担心一些从南相马市疏散的居民可能不会再回到市里。Three worries predominate. One, the information passed out by the government and Tokyo Electric Power (TEPCO), which owns the Dai-ichi plant, may be unreliable. Two, the plant is still unstable, at risk of suddenly emitting vastly greater amounts of radioactive particles. Three, the longer it takes to stabilise, the more lasting damage wind- and waterborne radiation may do to the livelihoods of the farmers and fishermen who are the economic lifeblood of the community. If they go, so does the town.人们主要有三个顾虑。第一,政府和拥有第一核电站的东京电力公司(TEPCO)放出的信息可能不可靠。第二,核电站还是处于不稳定的状态,存在着突然释放大量放射性粒子的风险。第三,用于稳定核电站的时间越长,所产生持续的伤害存在的时间也就越长,同样的,水性辐射可能影响到农民和渔民的营生,他们可是这个城市的经济命脉。如果他们离开了,那么镇子也就完了。These worries resurfaced on April 7th when TEPCO started to inject nitrogen into one of the plant’s six stricken reactors. That was to prevent a repeat of the hydrogen explosions that blew radiation out of the plant soon after cooling systems failed in the wake of the tsunami.4月7日,东京电力公司(TEPCO)开始向核电站中六个损坏的反应堆的其中之一注入氮气,这令那些忧虑开始重新浮出水面。海啸发生之后冷却系统失效导致了氢气爆炸,这把放射物吹出了核电站,注入氮气的行为就是为了防止这一悲剧再次发生。Even before that news, Mr Sakurai was saying that he was fearful of another explosion. It was why he continued to discourage hope that the town could get back to normal. “The lack of information is making people deeply stressed and frustrated,” he said.即便在这消息发布之前,樱井市长就在说他害怕再次发生爆炸。这就是他一直不相信南相马市能恢复原样的原因。他说:“信息的缺乏让人们感到巨大的压力和沮丧。”201104/131793。

Google enters the browser war 谷歌浏览器Chrome问世 Search giant joins crowded field in hopes of increasing advertising revenue. But will users switch? Sam here in Francisco, well a lot of us are wondering yet again, what is Google thinking. The company just launched another product that at least on the surface it doesn't seem to have a whole lot to do with its core business, search and online ads. So what it is, it’s a web browser; it's called Chrome. This is going to compete with other existing web browsers like Microsoft, Internet Explore, Apple Safari, and Firefox. So why is the company that makes the majority of its revenues from online ads, launching its own branded web browser? Well, the thinking here is that if Google can provide a better, faster, easier Internet experience, then more people are going to spend more time online. And that in turn drives more ads for Google and more revenues. So Google could have a top seller here though, because Internet Explore unlike Google's Chrome is, is available as, as a preloaded browser on many, many computers. And for users to actually use / Chrome, they’re, they are going to have to go out, be proactive and download Chrome from Google. Um, is it available for free, it’s going to be available in about a hundred countries. So it's going to had, have a very wide availability, but for users’ tasks, they are not only find out about Chrome, but then go out and download it is a whole different challenge. Microsoft’s Internet Explore has about 72% of the market share right now and Microsoft actually just recently launched an updated version of Internet Explore ads. The closest runner-up which is Firefox has about 20% of the market share. So is there room for yet another web browser here. Well, yeah, I think consumers can always use a faster, more reliable browser, but whether Chrome is going to be that browser remains to be seen.200811/55402。

Bush Administration Nears Decision on Helping Auto Industry布什对政府救援美汽车业举棋不定  President Bush on Thursday said he has not yet decided what government assistance to provide the distressed U.S. automobile industry. The president says he worries about the economic consequences that an automaker bankruptcy could cause. 布什总统星期四说,他还没有决定政府应该对陷入困境的美国汽车工业施以何种援助。Mr. Bush said he is concerned about how an uncontrolled bankruptcy could affect the psychology of financial markets. He said he is also worried about putting good money after bad. 布什总统说,他担心一旦汽车工业破产并失去控制后,会对金融市场心态产生影响。他说,他还对资金使用不当后,如何有效使用资金感到担忧。The administration is near a decision on what kind of government assistance to provided U.S. car companies. They have asked for billion in loans to assure their survival. 布什政府对美国汽车公司的援助方案即将最后拍板。汽车公司要求政府提供140亿美元的贷款,以确保可以存活下来。"The president is not going to allow a disorderly collapse of the companies," said White House Press Secretary Dana Perino. "That is not an option. Some people have assumed that is one of things we would decide. That is not going to be the case." 白宫新闻发言人佩里诺说:“总统不会随意让这些公司倒闭。这不是选择。一些人认为政府会这样决定,但是事情不是这样的。”In Detroit, the U.S. automotive capital, the mood is somber. Chrysler - the weakest of the "Big Three" carmakers - is closing all of its U.S. assembly plants for a month, beginning next week. General Motors and Ford are also closing some plants beyond the usual two-week end of year production break. Unionized workers at the plants will continue to receive at least 85 percent of their pay, as stipulated in their contracts.  在美国汽车工业之都底特律,气氛一片萧瑟。从下星期开始,三巨头当中状态最糟糕的克莱斯勒公司在美国的所有装配厂将关闭一个月。通用汽车和福特也准备在年终通常的两个星期停产时间外,再延长一些工厂的关闭时间。根据合同规定,工会工人将继续领取原工资的85%。The credit squeeze and recession have caused U.S. car sales to plummet - down 37 percent in November, 25 percent for the year overall. 信贷停滞以及经济衰退使得美国汽车销售下滑。11月汽车销售下跌37%,全年销售量下降25%。Jack Nerad is a marketing analyst for Kelley Blue Book, which keeps close watch on the auto industry. 内拉德是新旧车辆信息供应公司凯利蓝皮书(Kelley Blue Book)的市场分析员,他一直在密切关注着汽车工业。"I think it is devastating," Nerad spoke to Bloomberg Television. "It is hard to overestimate the importance of this industry and the importance of what is going on right now. It is as if sales absolutely hit a wall in October. They're not recovering. And one of the major industrial corporations of the world-of all time [General Motors] could be on the brink." 他在接受彭电视采访时说:“我认为这是灾难性的。很难过高估计汽车工业的重要性以及现在面临问题的严重性。但是,10月份汽车销售看起来好像确实停滞不前,而且也一直没有恢复元气。一直以来在全球工业公司中占主导地位的通用汽车可能面临破产。”It is not just the U.S.-based auto industry that is suffering. Sales of British-made cars in the ed Kingdom were down 33 percent in November. And Fiat in Italy is closing all of its production plants for one month because of lagging car sales in Europe. 美国汽车工业并不是唯一受影响的。英国产汽车在英国的销售11月份下降了33%。另外,由于欧洲汽车销售的不景气,意大利菲亚特汽车公司决定将所有生产厂关闭一个月。200812/59303。