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2019年09月23日 00:44:52    日报  参与评论()人

哈尔滨哪个妇科医院看妇科好哈尔滨哪家医院做流产It’s a dark thought, and the sort of thing only a futurist would think of. Which is why I’m not surprised that Bre Pettis, founder and CEO of the 3D printing company Makerbot, brought it up. When I asked him about 3D-printed organs earlier this summer at the Northside Festival, a conference in Brooklyn, he told me that 3D-printed body parts won’t become a reality until autonomous vehicles arrive to market. It makes for a surprising connection between two futuristic technologies.这是一个阴暗的想法,只有未来主义者才会产生这样的联想。因此当3D打印公司Makerbot创始人兼首席执行官布利o佩蒂斯抛出这个问题时,我并不感到意外。今年夏初,在布鲁克林的北边艺术节(Northside Festival)上,我询问他关于3D打印器官的问题,他回答说,直到自动驾驶汽车上市,3D打印人体器官才会成为现实。两项富于未来气息的技术就这样意外地联系在了一起。“The self-driving car is coming, and right now, our best supply of organs comes from car accidents,” he said. “So, if you need an organ you just wait for somebody to have an accident, and then you get their organ and you’re better.” I suggested that was a dark way of looking at it.佩蒂斯说:“自动驾驶汽车就要来了,而目前,人体器官的最佳来源是车祸。也就是说,如果你需要进行器官移植,你必须得等待有人出车祸。获得遇难者的器官后你就会好起来。”我说,这种看法可够阴暗的。His response: “We have this huge problem that we sort of don’t talk about, that people die all the time from car accidents. It’s kind of insane. But the most interesting thing is, if we can reduce accidents and deaths, then we actually have a whole other problem on our hands of, ‘Where do we get organs?’ I don’t think we’ll actually be printing organs until we solve the self-driving car issue. The next problem will be organ replacement.”佩蒂斯回答道:“随时都有人在车祸中丧生,但我们似乎很少谈论这个大问题。多少有些荒唐。不过,最有意思的事情是,如果我们能够减少车祸数量和丧生人数,那么我们真的会遇到另一个棘手的大问题,那就是‘人体器官从哪儿来?’我觉得在解决自动驾驶汽车的问题之前,3D打印人体器官并不会真的实现。接下来的问题将是器官替换。”It’s not impossible to 3D-print an organ, he said, but there are challenges around raw materials. “Right now you take liver goo, and you squeeze liver goo into the shape of a liver and it grows together and hopefully becomes a liver. That’s the idea of 3D printing organs,” he said. The challenge, he said, will be getting the science of the “liver goo” right, before the actual printing part even comes into play.他指出,3D打印人体器官并非不可能,但原材料方面有一些难点。“现在的方法是取来肝细胞,把它们弄成肝脏的形状,再盼着它们生长发育成肝脏。这就是3D打印人体器官的思路。”佩蒂斯说,难点在于正确地“取来肝细胞”,随后才是真的进行3D打印。The self-driving car isn’t as far off as you might think. What once existed only the realm of science fiction is now roving around—albeit in an extremely limited fashion—in Nevada, Florida, California, and Michigan. What was once an easy punch line in parodies of Silicon Valley is now a fixture on Google’s corporate campus.自动驾驶汽车并不像大家想的那么遥远。这种以前只出现在科幻小说里的东西现在已经开始四处游走,只不过活动范围很小,仅限于内华达州、佛罗里达州、加利福尼亚州和密歇根州。以前人们奚落硅谷时,总会开自动驾驶汽车的玩笑,而现在,它已经是谷歌(Google)公司园区里的一款代步工具。Adoption continues. Last month the U.K.’s Department of Transport announced that it would allow self-driving cars onto British streets by next year. A county in Iowa recently announced—at a symposium designed to attract Google and other tech companies to its region, naturally—that it would allow driverless cars on its streets. California’s Department of Motor Vehicles has been pushing to get broader regulations in place to allow self-driving cars on public roads.自动驾驶汽车的应用范围正在扩大。英国交通部上个月宣布称,将在明年之前允许自动驾驶汽车在英国上路。爱荷华州的某个区也在最近的一次研讨会上表示,将允许自动驾驶汽车在本地行驶——举办这次会议自然也是为了吸引谷歌和其他科技公司入驻这一地区。加州机动车辆则一直在设法扩大监管范围,以便自动驾驶汽车成为普通交通工具。The potential benefits are hard to ignore. Each year 30,000 people die in traffic collisions in the U.S. Considering that 90% of U.S. auto collisions are blamed on human error—some 40% are the result of factors such as alcohol or fatigue—we have a lot to gain by outsourcing the task of driving to computers.这样做的潜在好处很难让人熟视无睹。在美国,每年有3万人死于交通事故。考虑到其中90%的车祸是由人为失误造成,而且大约40%的事故缘于酒后驾车或疲劳驾驶,把操控汽车的任务交给计算机会让我们受益匪浅。If 10% of vehicles were self-driving, it could reduce the number of accidents by 211,000 and in turn save 1,100 lives,according to a 2013 study by the Eno Center for Transportation in Washington, D.C. If 90% of vehicles were autonomous, an estimated 4.2 million accidents would be prevented and 21,700 lives would be saved.华盛顿非营利智囊机构伊诺交通中心(Eno Center for Transportation)在2013年进行的研究表明,如果美国10%的车辆可以自动驾驶,交通事故就会减少21.1万起,1100条生命就能得到挽救。如果自动驾驶汽车的比例达到90%,就可以避免420万起车祸,2.17万人将因此获救。Technological advances often come with unintended consequences, though, which is why these predictions support Pettis’ case that organ donations would be adversely impacted by safer driving. Motor vehicle accidents are the largest contributor to organ donations after natural-cause deaths. Since 1994, 16% of all organ donations came from motor vehicle accidents, according to the U.S. Department of Health amp; Human Services.不过,技术进步经常带来意想不到的影响。正是出于这个原因,这些预测数据印了佩蒂斯的观点,即驾车变得更安全,将对器官捐献产生不利影响。除了自然死亡,交通事故是器官捐献的最大来源。美国卫生及公共务部(Department of Health amp; Human Services)的数据显示,1994年以来,机动车事故在器官捐献中所占的比重为16%。The inventory pressure from increasing adoption of self-driving cars will add to an aly shrinking pool of organ donors. Traffic deaths have been in decline since 1969, when they peaked at 55,043. The drop occurred for a number of reasons: drunk driving deaths have fallen, seat belt use has increased, air bags are more effective, and we drive less.器官捐献者的数量已经呈下降趋势。自动驾驶汽车得到更广泛的应用后,器官供应的压力会变得更大。美国交通事故死亡人数在1969年达到55043人的最高点,随后不断下降。原因有很多,比如酒驾致死人数减少,更多的人佩戴安全带,安全气囊变得更有效以及驾车人次减少。All of this has led to a widening gap between the number of patients on the organ wait list and the number of people who actually receive transplants. More than 123,000 people in the U.S. are currently in need of an organ, and 18 people die each day waiting, according to the Department of Health amp; Human Services. Though the wait list has grown each year for the past two decades, the number of transplants per year has held steady in the last decade, at around 28,000. While that number is still dwarfed by other fatal but preventable situations—the Centers for Disease Control estimate that443,000 people die each year from smoking, for example—it’s enough to make anyone wary of the direction in which the trend is going, and hopeful that 3D printing technology can help turn it around.等待器官移植的病人一直比真正接受移植的病人多,以上种种因素让这个差距不断拉大。美国卫生及公共务部的数据表明,目前美国需要进行器官移植的人数超过12.3万,而且每天都会有18个人在等待中逝去。20年来,等待器官移植的人数逐年增多;而在过去10年中,每年进行的器官移植手术一直稳定在2.8万例。虽然和其他致命但可预防的疾病相比,这个数字相形见绌——举例来说,美国疾病控制与预防中心(Centers for Disease Control)估计,每年有44.3万人死于抽烟——但它足以让所有人对今后的趋势感到警惕。但愿3D打印技术能帮助我们扭转这种趋势。 /201408/323623哈尔滨医大二院在哪 Two teams of scientists published studies on Sunday showing that blood from young mice reverses aging in old mice, rejuvenating their muscles and brains. As ghoulish as the research may sound, experts said that it could lead to treatments for disorders like Alzheimer#39;s disease and heart disease.两个科学家团队周日发布的研究表明,幼龄鼠的血液能逆转老龄鼠的衰老,让它们的肌肉和大脑恢复活力。相关研究听上去可能令人毛骨悚然,专家却表示,这可能会有助于阿尔茨海默氏征和心脏病的治疗。;I am extremely excited,; said Rudolph Tanzi, a professor of neurology at Harvard Medical School, who was not involved in the research. ;These findings could be a game changer.;“我非常激动,”未参与前述研究的哈佛大学医学院(Harvard Medical School)神经学教授鲁道夫·坦齐(Rudolph Tanzi)说,“这些发现可能会带来巨变。”The research builds on centuries of speculation that the blood of young people contains substances that might rejuvenate older adults.这项研究是基于一个流传了数百年的猜测,即年轻人的血液可能含有能让老年人恢复活力的物质。In the 1950s, Clive M. McCay of Cornell University and his colleagues tested the notion by delivering the blood of young rats into old ones. To do so, they joined rats in pairs by stitching together the skin on their flanks. After this procedure, called parabiosis, blood vessels grew and joined the rats#39; circulatory systems. The blood from the young rat flowed into the old one, and vice versa.上世纪50年代,康奈尔大学(Cornell University)的克莱夫·M·麦凯(Clive M. McCay)和同事曾将幼龄鼠的血液输入老龄鼠体内,借此检验这一观念。为了做到这一点,他们将两只大鼠的侧腹皮肤缝在一起,使它们连接起来。经过被称作异种共生的这一步后,血管生长出来,两只老鼠的循环系统融合在了一起。幼龄鼠的血液流入了老龄鼠的体内,老龄鼠的血也流进了幼鼠。Later, Dr. McCay and his colleagues performed necropsies and found that the cartilage of the old rats looked more youthful than it would have otherwise. But the scientists could not say how the transformations happened. There was not enough known at the time about how the body rejuvenates itself.后来,麦凯士和同事解剖了老鼠的尸体,发现老龄鼠的软骨看起来比它未经实验的应有状态更年轻。但这些科学家无法说明这种变化是如何发生的。当时,人们对身体恢复活力的方式还没有足够的认识。It later became clear that stem cells are essential for keeping tissues vital. When tissues are damaged, stem cells move in and produce new cells to replace the dying ones. As people get older, their stem cells gradually falter.后来,人们清楚地认识到,干细胞对保持组织的活力至关重要。组织受损时,干细胞会进入,生成新细胞来取代失去活力的老细胞。随着年龄的增长,人的干细胞会逐渐衰退。In the early 2000s, scientists realized that stem cells were not dying off in aging tissues.本世纪初,科学家意识到,干细胞并没有在日渐衰老的组织中逐渐消亡。;There were plenty of stem cells there,; recalled Thomas A. Rando, a professor of neurology at Stanford University School of Medicine. ;They just don#39;t get the right signals.;“干细胞是很多的,”斯坦福大学医学院(Stanford University School of Medicine)神经学教授托马斯·A·兰多(Thomas A. Rando)回忆说,“它们只是没有接收到正确的信号而已。”Dr. Rando and his colleagues wondered what signals the old stem cells would receive if they were bathed in young blood. To find out, they revived Dr. McCay#39;s experiments.兰多士和他的同事想要知道,如果沐浴在年轻的血液之中,老的干细胞会收到什么信号。为了找到,他们重新进行了麦凯士的实验。The scientists joined old and young mice for five weeks and then examined them. The muscles of the old mice had healed about as quickly as those of the young mice, the scientists reported in 2005. In addition, the old mice had grown new liver cells at a youthful rate.科学家们将老龄鼠和幼龄鼠连接在一起,五周之后再去观察它们。他们在2005年通报称,老龄鼠的肌肉愈合速度几乎和幼龄鼠一样快。此外,老龄鼠以幼龄鼠的速度长出了新的肝细胞。The young mice, on the other hand, had effectively grown prematurely old. Their muscles had healed more slowly, and their stem cells had not turned into new cells as quickly as they had before the procedure.另一方面,幼龄鼠实实在在地未老先衰了。它们的肌肉愈合得更慢,干细胞转化成新细胞的速度也不如实验之前快。The experiment indicated that there were compounds in the blood of the young mice that could awaken old stem cells and rejuvenate aging tissue. Likewise, the blood of the old mice had compounds that dampened the resilience of the young mice.这个实验表明,幼龄鼠的血液含有一些化合物,这些化合物可能会唤醒老的干细胞,让日渐衰老的组织恢复活力。同理,老龄鼠的血液含有抑制幼龄鼠活力的化合物。Amy J. Wagers, a member of Dr. Rando#39;s team, continued to study the blood of young mice after she moved in 2004 to Harvard, where she is an associate professor. Last year, she and her colleagues demonstrated that it could rejuvenate the hearts of old mice.兰多士的团队成员埃米·J·韦杰斯(Amy J. Wagers)在2004年进入哈佛,之后继续研究幼龄鼠的血液。她现在是哈佛的副教授。去年,她和同事明,幼龄鼠的血液可以恢复老龄鼠心脏的活力。To pinpoint the molecules responsible for the change, Dr. Wagers and her colleagues screened the animals#39; blood and found that a protein called GDF11 was abundant in young mice and scarce in old ones. To see if GDF11 was crucial to the parabiosis effect, the scientists produced a supply of the protein and injected it into old mice. Even on its own, GDF11 rejuvenated their hearts.为了确定这种变化究竟与哪种分子相关,韦杰斯和同事对老鼠的血液进行了测试,发现幼龄鼠体内含有大量名为GDF11的蛋白质,而这种蛋白质在老龄鼠体内较少。为了确定GDF11是不是对异种共生效应的关键因素,科学家制造了一些这种蛋白质,并将它注入老龄鼠体内。单是GDF11就能使它们的心脏恢复活力。Dr. Wagers and her colleagues wondered whether GDF11 was responsible for the rejuvenation of other tissues. In the current issue of the journal Science, they report an experiment on skeletal muscle in mice. They found that GDF11 revived stem cells in old muscles, making old mice stronger and increasing their endurance.韦杰斯和同事想知道GDF11是否起到了使其他组织恢复活力的作用。他们在本期《科学》(Science)杂志中阐述了针对老鼠骨骼肌肉的一项实验,实验发现GDF11能使老龄鼠肌肉中的干细胞恢复活力,增强老龄鼠的体质,延长它们的寿命。At Stanford, researchers were investigating whether the blood of young mice altered the brains of old mice. In 2011, Saul Villeda, then a graduate student, and his colleagues reported that it did. When old mice received young blood, they had a burst of new neurons in the hippocampus, a region of the brain that is crucial for forming memories.斯坦福大学(Stanford)的研究人员曾对幼龄鼠的血液是否能改变老龄鼠的脑功能进行过研究。2011年,当时还是研究生的索尔·比列达(Saul Villeda)和同事表示,是肯定的。接受幼龄鼠的血液之后,老龄鼠的海马体就会大量产生新的神经元。海马体是大脑中的一个区域,对记忆的形成具有关键作用。In a study published Sunday in the journal Nature Medicine, Dr. Villeda, now a faculty fellow at the University of California, San Francisco, and his colleagues unveiled more details of what young blood does to the brains of old mice.在周日发表于《自然医学》(Nature Medicine)杂志的一篇文章中,现已成为加州大学旧金山分校(University of California, San Francisco)研究员的比列达和同事披露了更多细节,阐述了幼龄鼠的血液对老龄鼠大脑造成的影响。After parabiosis, Dr. Villeda and his colleagues found that the neurons in the hippocampus of the old mice sprouted new connections. They then moved beyond parabiosis by removing the cells and platelets from the blood of young mice and injecting the plasma that remained into old mice. That injection caused the old mice to perform far better on memory tests.比列达和同事发现,异种共生过程之后,老龄鼠海马体中的神经元长出了新的联结。然后,除了异种共生之外,他们还移除了幼龄鼠血液中的细胞和血小板,再把剩下的血浆注入老龄鼠体内。这种注射大幅改善了老龄鼠在记忆测试中的表现。Dr. Wagers#39;s team has been investigating a specific region of the brain involved in perceiving smells.韦杰斯的团队一直在对大脑中与嗅觉相关的一个特殊区域进行研究。In a second study in Science, the team reports that parabiosis spurred the growth of blood vessels in the brain. The new blood supply led to the growth of neurons and gave older mice a sharper sense of smell.他们的团队在《科学》刊载的另一篇文章中指出,异种共生能刺激脑血管的生长。新的血液能促进神经元的生长,让老龄鼠具有更灵敏的嗅觉。After linking the GDF11 protein to the rejuvenation of skeletal muscle and the heart, Dr. Wagers and her colleagues studied whether the protein was also responsible for the changes in the brain. They injected GDF11 alone into the mice and found that it spurred the growth of blood vessels and neurons in the brain, although the change was not as large as that from parabiosis.将GDF11蛋白质与骨骼肌肉和心脏的复苏联系起来以后,韦杰斯和同事还对这种蛋白质是否与脑部变化有关进行了研究。他们对老鼠注射了单一的GDF11,然后发现它促进了脑部血管和神经元的生长,虽然相关变化并不像异种共生那么明显。;There#39;s no conflict between the two groups, which is heartening,; said Dr. Richard M. Ransohoff, director of the Neuroinflammation Research Center at the Cleveland Clinic.克利夫兰医学中心神经炎症研究中心(Neuroinflammation Research Center at the Cleveland Clinic)负责人理查德·M·兰索霍夫士(Dr. Richard M. Ransohoff)称,“两个团队的发现没有冲突,这很令人振奋。”Dr. Ransohoff and others hope the experiments on mice will lead to studies on people to see if the human version of GDF11, or other molecules in the blood of young people, has a similar effect on older adults.兰索霍夫和其他一些人都希望,以小鼠为对象的实验能够衍生以人为对象的研究,以探明人类版的GDF11或年轻人血液中的其他分子能否对老年人产生类似影响。;We can turn back the clock instead of slowing the clock down,; said Dr. Toren Finkel, director of the Center for Molecular Medicine at the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. ;That#39;s a nice thought if it pans out.;“我们可以让时间倒流,不只是让它放慢脚步,”美国国家心脏、肺和血液研究所(National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute)分子医学研究中心负责人托伦·芬克尔士(Dr. Toren Finkel)说。“如果能成功,这将是个不错的想法。” /201409/326654哈尔滨武警黄金第一总队医院妇产科生孩子检查怎么样

哈尔滨市维多利亚医院电话哈尔滨市那家妇科医院好啊 After John F Kennedy was murdered on November 22 1963, Dallas became known as “the city of hate”. Its citizens were charged with creating a fervid rightist atmosphere in which Lee Harvey Oswald felt moved to shoot the president. Mike Rawlings, the city#39;s current mayor, told me: “There are stories of people going to places and almost being embarrassed to be from Dallas back in the 1960s, early 1970s.” 1963年11月22日,美国总统约翰#8226;肯尼迪(John F.Kennedy)遇刺身亡后,达拉斯就背上了“仇恨之城”的名声。人们指责达拉斯市民制造了一种狂热的右翼氛围,从而促使李#8226;哈维#8226;奥斯瓦尔德(Lee Harvey Oswald)杀了总统。达拉斯现任市长迈克#8226;罗林斯(Mike Rawlings)告诉我:“有报道称,在20世纪60年代和70年代初,达拉斯人去外地时,会因为自己是达拉斯人而感到尴尬。” I found Rawlings sneaking a catnap at the New Cities Summit in Sao Paulo in June. The man who came to Dallas in 1976 with 0 in his pocket and made it to president of Pizza Hut was taking the briefest break from his usual activity: plugging Dallas. But how does any city incorporate a global trauma into its image? It#39;s taken Dallas 50 years to learn to deal with the murder. 今年6月,在圣保罗的新城市峰会(New Cities Summit)上,我趁罗林斯偷偷打盹时找到了他。这位1976年揣着200美元来到达拉斯、后来当过必胜客(Pizza Hut)总裁的达拉斯市长正在小憩,暂时把他的日常活动——宣传达拉斯——放在了一边。但一个城市在经历一场闻名全球的创伤之后,如何在世人面前构建自己的形象?达拉斯花了50年的时间,才学会坦然接受那起刺杀事件。 Many Americans in 1963 couldn#39;t accept that a lone loser like Oswald had changed history. Consequently, they blamed larger entities. Conspiracy theorists accused the Central Intelligence Agency or Cuban exiles. Others blamed Dallas itself. 1963年,让许多美国人无法接受的是,历史居然被奥斯瓦尔德这么个孤独的失败者改写了。因此,他们怪罪于一些更大的组织和群体。阴谋论者指责美国中央情报局(CIA)或古巴流亡者策划了刺杀事件。其他人则谴责达拉斯这个城市。 To e Texas Monthly magazine: “The tragedy seemed to seal the perception of our state as being populated by a bunch of trigger-happy yeehaws who were beyond forgiveness.” Because few outsiders knew anything else about Dallas, the assassination branded the city. In truth, Dallas in 1963 did house some noisy rightist Kennedy-haters. Days before he arrived, “Wanted for Treason” leaflets featuring him appeared around town. And on the day, the Dallas Morning News published an ominously black-bordered full-page ad portraying him as a communist fellow-traveller. Reading it, Kennedy told his wife: “We#39;re heading into nut country today.” 《德克萨斯月刊》(Texas Monthly)写道:“那起悲剧似乎把世人对本州的印象固定了下来,即一个充斥着牛仔的州,那些牛仔动辄开、根本不值得原谅。”因为外面的人对达拉斯的其他方面知之甚少,于是刺杀事件成了这座城市的标签。事实上,1963年的达拉斯确实有一些讨厌肯尼迪、吵吵嚷嚷的右翼分子。在肯尼迪抵达达拉斯之前的几天,印着他的肖像、写有“通缉叛国者”(Wanted for Treason)的传单在城里随处可见。就在肯尼迪遇刺当天,《达拉斯晨报》(Dallas Morning News)整版刊出了一则颇不吉利的黑边广告,将他描绘为“共产主义的同路人”。看到广告,肯尼迪对妻子说:“我们今天要去一个疯子国了。” After the murder, many diagnosed city-wide hate. Bill Minutaglio, co-author of the new book Dallas 1963, says: “Nothing like this could have happened, but in Dallas.” 肯尼迪遇刺后,许多人称达拉斯充斥着仇恨。新书《达拉斯1963》(Dallas 1963)的合著者比尔#8226;米努塔利奥(Bill Minutaglio)说:“除了达拉斯,这种事不可能在其他任何地方发生。” Yet blaming Dallas is illogical. Oswald was a Marxist nut, not a rightwing nut. And as Rawlings says, “Dallas loves its presidents.” Nearly one in three Dallasites turned out to see Kennedy, with barely an unfriendly sign on display. In the motorcade, the Texan governor#39;s wife, Nellie Connally, gushed, “Mr President, you can#39;t say Dallas doesn#39;t love you.” She was mostly right. Assassinations, Americans soon learnt, can happen anywhere. Cities don#39;t kill people. People kill people. 但谴责达拉斯是没有道理的。奥斯瓦尔德是马克思主义疯子,而不是右翼疯子。正如罗林斯所说:“达拉斯人爱戴总统。”近三分之一的达拉斯人为了亲眼一睹肯尼迪尊容而走出家门,现场几乎没有不友好的迹象。在车队中,德克萨斯州州长夫人内莉#8226;康纳利(Nellie Connally)充满感情地说:“总统先生,您不能说达拉斯人不爱戴您。”她的话几乎没错儿。美国人很快明白,刺杀事件可能发生在任何地方。凶手不是城市,而是人。 After 1963, says Rawlings, many Dallasites “wanted to move on as quickly as possible”. They rarely discussed the murder. Gradually, though, the mood changed. Rawlings says: “In the 1980s, people started to think: we are the home of a very important moment in history. Not only because of the assassination, but that seemed to be the dawning of a new era. After that came the Vietnam war, civil rights came to its fruition, women#39;s liberation. There was a new world, a door that somehow people walked through. Citizens said, #39;We#39;ve got to make sure we capture the truth of this history.“” 罗林斯说,1963年以后,许多达拉斯人“希望尽快走出这件事的阴影”。他们很少谈及刺杀事件。但民众的情绪渐渐变了。罗林斯说:“20世纪80年代,人们开始认为,达拉斯见了一个非常重要的历史时刻。这不仅是因为那一刻发生了刺杀事件,更是因为那一刻似乎标志着一个新时代的到来。在那之后,越战升级、民权运动开花结果、第二波女权运动兴起。世界焕然一新,人类历史不知怎么的翻开了新的篇章。当时的达拉斯人说,‘我们必须确保准确地理解这段历史。’” Oswald had shot from the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository. Plans to tear the building down were dropped. In 1989 it became a museum. Rawlings says, “For many years it was the one site that if someone visited you and said, #39;What do you want to do in the afternoon?” you would say, #39;Want to go down to the Sixth Floor Museum?“” 奥斯瓦尔德开的地方,位于达拉斯的德克萨斯州教科书仓库大楼(Texas School Book Depository)六层。达拉斯有过种种拆除那座大楼的计划,但后来都未执行。1989年,那座大楼变成了一座物馆。罗林斯说:“多年以来,那座物馆一直是来达拉斯的人必须造访的景点。如果有人来达拉斯拜访你,问你下午想干嘛?你会回答说,想不想去六楼物馆(Sixth Floor Museum)?” He adds: “I don#39;t think we should be defensive or try to remove anything. It is what it is. That part of history will always be in Dallas.” Even Oswald, says Rawlings, belongs in the city#39;s history. He attended elementary school in Dallas, and returned in 1962 after his Soviet jaunt. 他补充道:“我觉得我们不应该戒备心太强,或抹掉过去的任何痕迹。事实就是事实。那段历史将永远留在达拉斯身上。”罗林斯说,即便是奥斯瓦尔德,也将永远在达拉斯的历史占有一席之地。他曾在达拉斯上小学,短暂游历苏联后于1962年又回到该市。 The city can face these facts today largely because the assassination#39;s stigma has faded. Rawlings says: “With time that changed, with the arrival of the Dallas Cowboys [football team] and different things that Dallas started to become known for. It became a secondary branding for the city.” 达拉斯如今能够直面这些现实,很大程度上是因为刺杀事件带来的耻辱感已经褪去。罗林斯说:“随着时间的推移,人们开始因达拉斯牛仔队(Dallas Cowboys,美式橄榄球队)等各种其他的东西知道达拉斯。刺杀事件成为了达拉斯众多标志中比较不显著的一个。” On Friday, the world will be watching Dallas. Rawlings says: “Before I became mayor, I realised that the one moment people were going to pay more attention to Dallas while I was mayor was November 22 2013. People look to 50th anniversaries. They remember where they were, and you retell the story.” Friday#39;s commemoration will be sober and “very untouristy”, he adds. “I#39;m very shy about trying to do too much on this day. If I can stand up straight, salute the president and move on, I think Dallas has done what#39;s right. Our brand won#39;t be made because of this.” 本周五(11月22日),达拉斯将汇聚世界的目光。罗林斯说:“我在当上市长之前就意识到,我任期内人们最关注达拉斯的时刻将是2013年11月22日。人们关注50周年。他们回忆过去,而你要重新讲述那段历史。”他补充道,周五的纪念活动将是庄重的,也“尽量不会带有吸引游客的色”。“我很担心这一天的纪念活动过于大张旗鼓。如果我能笔直地站起身,向肯尼迪总统致敬,然后把历史的这一页翻过去,我觉得达拉斯就做对了。我们无法凭借纪念活动树立我们的形象。” Where was Rawlings on November 22 1963? “In elementary school in Leawood, Kansas. They moved us to the gymnasium, and I remember sitting Indian-style on the floor when the principal told us, and we were sent home. My mother was a teacher, and before she passed away she gave me a stack of letters that she had had her elementary-school grade write about their reflections on that weekend. It was marvellous. Just a bunch of kids in a random school in Kansas talking about this shows the depth and bth of this moment in people#39;s lives.” 1963年11月22日那天,罗林斯在哪儿?“那天我在堪萨斯州利伍德(Leawood)的一所小学里。校方将我们转移到体育馆,我记得大家盘腿坐在地板上,校长向我们介绍了事件的经过,然后学校就宣布放学了。我母亲是小学教师,她曾让自己教的小学生写作文,叙述他们对周末那起事件的感想,后来她在去世前将那一叠作文交给了我。看到那一叠作文,我感觉很奇妙。堪萨斯州一所普通的小学里的孩子们都在作文里谈论此事,仅此就能表明,这一历史瞬间对人们的生活产生了多么广泛而深刻的影响。” /201311/265569哈尔滨医科大学附属第一医院妇科

哈尔滨市南岗区妇幼保健所预约挂号平台 With so many books and so little time, re-ing seems an indulgence. So why is it so popular? Hephzibah Anderson reveals why we do it – and why it’s such a joy.在这个快节奏的时代,大量图书被印刷出来,我们忙得没时间去看新书,而重读旧书似乎更是在浪费时间。但是为什么有越来越多的人翻开了旧书?英国广播公司(B)网站的海瑟堡·安德森向我们揭示了原因,并深入探讨了重读旧书的乐趣。How many times have you your favourite book?你一定有最喜欢的书吧,你一共读过几遍?As parents learn with frustration, as small children we love immersing ourselves in the same story over and over. But in adulthood that joy tends to become a forgotten pleasure. We have so little time to and there are so many great books that we’ve yet to get around to (War and Peace looms large on my literary guilt list#8722; never mind the ceaseless tide of new releases). You could a book a day for the rest of your life and still not make it through even a quarter of the titles published in 2013 in the UK alone. With the shelves thus groaning, pulling down a well-thumbed favourite feels an unconscionable indulgence.好比父母重复犯错后会吸取教训,小孩子则会沉浸在同一个故事的情节里。但成年后,我们逐渐忘却了读旧书的乐趣。我们忙得没时间去看书,但仍有许多经典书籍我们尚未翻阅(我为未读的文学作品专门列了一张清单,其中包括《战争与和平》这样的经典,其他那些不断出版的新书就更别提了。)。英国2013年一年就出版了许多新书,假设你每天看一本书,直到去世,你可能都看不完其中四分之一。如今书店里到处都是新书,你若选择翻阅旧书那几乎可以说是在浪费时间。Yet if my admittedly unscientific research on Facebook is anything to go by, furtive re-ers are everywhere in our midst. For certain fans, re-ing The Lord of the Rings is an annual ritual. Devotees of The Great Gatsby, Pride and Prejudice and Tess of the D’Urbervilles also return regularly to the book they prize above all others. One friend told me that Jane Austen’s Emma can still surprise him, despite his having ing it over 50 times.但如果我在脸书(Facebook)上做的非科学调查有那么一丁点参考价值的话,我想我们之中仍然有许多人在重拾旧书。那些魔戒(Lord of the Rings)迷每年必回看原著,对他们来说,这是一个仪式。许多人对《了不起的盖茨比》(The Great Gatsby),《傲慢与偏见》(Pride and Prejudice)或是《苔丝》(Tess of the D’Urbervilles)称赞有加,他们也会定期重读经典。我的朋友告诉我他已把简·奥斯丁(Jane Austen )的《艾玛》(Emma)翻了起码五十遍,但每次读都会有新发现。Now, two new bibliomemoirs have arrived to showcase the insights – both literary and personal – that are to be gained from that ultimate guilty pleasure: re-ing. Journalist Rebecca Mead, a long-time Englishwoman in New York, first encountered George Eliot’s Middlemarch at 17. Since then, she has it again every five years. With each re-ing, it has opened up further; in each chapter of her life – as she itched to leave home, as she moved to America, had love affairs and become a mother – it has resonated differently.两位藏书爱好者发表了他们的看法,即花时间重看旧书也许是种奢侈,但却能收获文学和精神上的感悟,新闻记者丽贝卡·米德出生于英国却在美国呆了很久,她在十七岁时第一次接触到了乔治·艾略特(Middlemarch)的小说《米德镇的春天》(Middlemarch)。自那以后,她每五年就重读一遍该书。每当她的人生到达新的阶段,米德都会翻看书重读,而每次阅读都能给她带来新的感悟——从渴望外出闯荡的少年时期,到最后移民美国,再到经历了多段感情,最后成为一名母亲,该书始终与她的心灵契合。Reaching her 40s, Mead decided on a fresh approach: she would apply the tools of her day job to this private passion. Her aim was to discover what writing the novel meant to Eliot, and how ing it has shaped her own life. She chronicles her relationship in The Road to Middlemarch (published in the US as My Life in Middlemarch), a delightful book filled with sharp observations and told in a voice poised between chatty confidant and brilliant teacher.米德在四十岁时做了一个新的决定:她决定拾起笔杆,书写自己心中的情感。米德打算深入研究《米德镇的春天》这本书对艾略特来说是否有重大意义,并结合自身经历,谈谈这本书如何塑造了自己。米德成功撰写了《通往米德镇之路》(The Road to Middlemarch)一书,并融入了自己的经历(美版名为《我在米德镇的日子》),该书销路甚广,见解独到,作者像一位睿智的师长,又像一位健谈的知己,向你讲述米德镇和她的故事。Playwright Samantha Ellis has clocked up even more time with Wuthering Heights. She was 12 when she first Emily Bront#235;’s gothic romance, and without fail, she’s returned to it annually in the run-up to her birthday. This year when she will turn 39 might just be the first time that she skips it, but only because all those re-ings have now inspired a book, How to Be a Heroine.萨曼莎·埃利斯是一位剧作家,她花了许多时间研究《呼啸山庄》(Wuthering Height)。十二岁时埃利斯第一次读艾米莉·勃朗特(Emily Bront#235;)的这本哥特式浪漫小说,她立刻身陷其中,欲罢不能,从此每当生日前夕,埃利斯就要重读这本书。今年是埃利斯的第三十九个生日,但她不得不打破这一传统,因为她要完成新书《如何成为一个女主人公》(How to Be a Heroine),该书是埃利斯在反复阅读《呼啸山庄》后的有感而发之作。It begins with a heated conversation Ellis had with her best friend while on a pilgrimage to Yorkshire in the north of England, where the novel is set. Which heroine was best, Jane Eyre or Cathy Earnshaw? As they quarrelled, Ellis realised she’d spent her life trying to be Cathy when Jane was a far savvier role model. This sets her off on another journey, back to the books that shaped her ideas about how to move through the world as a woman. It’s a risky enterprise because, just as Mead knows, though the words on the page stay the same, our ings of them change.埃利斯曾与好友结伴前往英格兰北部的约克郡(Yorkshire),途中两人曾就《呼啸山庄》有过一次激烈讨论,由此定下该书的写作事宜。简·爱(Jane Eyre)和凯瑟琳·恩肖(Cathy Earnshaw)谁更伟大?讨论过后,埃利斯才意识到她将简·爱视为偶像,渴望像她一样独立,实际上却一直在向凯瑟琳看齐。为此,她又重回书中,开启一趟心灵之旅,终于了解如何像一个真正的女人那样生活。写自己的感悟其实很难,就像米德所说的,经典还是经典,我们在不同年龄阶段的感悟却不同。Both Mead and Ellis testify to the myriad ways in which really good books not only stand the test of repeat s, but also bestow fresh gifts each time we crack their spines. These kinds of books grow with us. The writers also explore the motivations behind re-ing.米德和埃利斯无数次的阅读经历都表明,好书经得起反复推敲,每一次阅读都能带给我们新的体验。这样的书足够我们读一辈子。此外,这两位作者也探究了重复阅读背后的动机。For children, it’s a comfort. As we become accustomed to a world in which change is the only real constant, the familiarity of the book at bedtime is something to cling to. Adults aren’t immune to those feelings, either. To e the septuagenarian writer Larry McMurtry: “If I once for adventure, I now for security. How nice to be able to return to what won’t change.”对于孩子来说,读书是一种享受。现实世界瞬息万变,而读书可以使我们放松。孩子一旦养成了睡前阅读的习惯便会一直保持。对成年人来说也一样。 正如老年作家拉里·麦克默特里(Larry McMurtry)所说,“从前我读书是为了寻求新奇感,现在我读书是为了寻求安全感,书中世界平稳安逸,读书能使我放松。”Except that often, that’s not quite the case. We notice fresh details. Our interpretations change as we evolve – cheerleading for the strivers, for instance, gives way to admiration for characters who are slow and steady.只是很多时候,事情往往不是这样,每次重读旧书我们都能发现新细节。随着我们思想的成熟,我们的见解也在发生改变——比如,我们会为书中努力拼搏的人喝,又敬佩那些脚踏实地,慢慢前进的人。Vladimir Nabokov had a theory about this. He believed that the process of moving our eyes from left to right, line after line, page after page, stood between us and artistic interpretation the first time round. By the fourth ing, the experience has apparently assumed more of the directness of looking at a painting. “One cannot a book: one can only re- it, ” he said.对此,弗拉基米尔·纳科夫(Vladimir Nabokov)就有相应的看法。他认为,人在第一次读一本书时眼睛需要从左向右逐行逐页的移动,这会干扰人们对文字的艺术性解读。当读到第四遍时,出于对文本的熟悉,人们再看书就像看一幅画那样直接。“读书这个说法并不恰当,一本书是不能被一次性读懂的,只能去重读。”Scientists have weighed in, too, citing the mental health benefits of re-ing. Research conducted with ers in the US and New Zealand found that on our first ing, we are preoccupied by the ‘what?’ and the ‘why?’. Second time round, we’re able to better savour the emotions that the plot continues to ignite. As researcher Cristel Russell of the American University explained of re-ers in an article published in the Journal of Consumer Research, returning to a book “brings new or renewed appreciation of both the object of consumption and their self”.经过反复验,科学家也表示,阅读旧书有益于我们的身心健康。通过对美国和新西兰的读者进行调查,发现我们读完第一遍书时,心中难免会存疑。当我们再次拿起书本,才能品味细节,才能随着情节发展,体会心潮起伏的感觉。美国一所大学的研究员克里斯特·罗素曾在《消费者研究》(Consumer Research)杂志就重读旧书这一问题发表了一篇文章,文章指出,重读旧书不仅能加深对书的理解,也能增进读者的自我认识。Heart of the matter本文重点It’s true that we often find former selves on the pages of old books (literally, if we’re fond of scribbling in the margins). But even without the aid of marginalia, these texts can carry us back to a time and place, and remind us of the kind of person that we were then.我们通过重读旧书,还可以发现我们上次的阅读思路(如果你有在书页上涂鸦的习惯的话)。其实,即使你未做任何笔记,读到熟悉的文字,你也会想起旧时旧景,以及那时的自己。We’re changed not only by lived experience but also by experience – by the books that we’ve discovered since last ing the one in our hand.多读书,多经历,都能帮助我们成长——读旧书更是如此。More so than the movie director or the musician, the writer calls upon our imaginations, using words to bid us picture this declaration of love or that betrayal. It’s not surprising that in my social media poll, of the many and varied titles that people returned to, only one was non-fiction (Enemies of Promise, Cyril Connolly’s hybrid of literary criticism and memoir). A book is a joint project between writer and er, and for its alchemy to work, we must pour so much of ourselves into ing that our own life story can become braided with the story that’s bound between the book’s covers.比起导演和音乐家,作家更能激发我们的想象力,那些爱,誓言以及背叛,种种情感都由作者寥寥数语勾勒而出,具象化地浮现在我们眼前。我在各个社交网站上发布调查,询问别人正在重读的书籍,回复中只有西里尔·康诺利(Cyril Connolly)的《希望的敌人》(Enemies of Promise)一书不是虚构故事而是文学及回忆录合集。书籍将作者与读者联结起来,而为了达到这种效果,我们必须在阅读时将书的内容与自己的生活经历相关联,以便与之产生共鸣。Perhaps what’s really strange is that we don’t re- more often. After all, we watch our favourite films again and we wouldn’t think of listening to an album only once. We treasure tatty old paperbacks as objects, yet of all art forms, literature alone is a largely one-time delight. A book, of course, takes up more time, but as Mead and Ellis confirm, the rewards make it amply worthwhile. They needn’t be anointed classics, either. Sabbath’s Theatre by Philip Roth, EL Doctorow’s Ragtime and Donna Tartt’s The Goldfinch are all on my re-ing list – just as soon as I’ve finished War and Peace, that is.也许,更多时候我们应该问问自己为什么不经常翻翻旧书。毕竟,我们会挑出自己喜欢的电影反复看,也会把一张唱片听上好几遍。我们把破旧的平装书当做宝贝,却鲜少重读它们。不可否认的是,读一本书就会占据我们很多时间,但正如米德和埃利斯所说,重读旧书会是我们收获颇丰。我们不一定要读那些文学经典,我的清单上列出的重读书目有:菲利普·罗斯(Philip Roth)的《安息日剧院》(Sabbath’s Theatre),EL·多克托罗(EL Doctorow)的《拉格泰姆》(Ragtime),唐娜·塔特(Donna Tartt)的《金翅雀》(The Goldfinch),——等我看完《战争与和平》(War and Peace)就去重翻这些旧书。 /201406/302881哈尔滨市道外区妇幼保健所剖腹产费用哈尔滨医大三院是公立

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