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2019年08月20日 23:53:21|来源:国际在线|编辑:城市咨询
Religion in Turkey土耳其的宗教Erasing the Christian past抹煞基督教的历史A fine Byzantine church in Turkey has been converted into a mosque土耳其一座精致的拜占庭教堂成了清真寺Jul 27th 2013 | TRABZON |From the print editionSinful paintings on the ceiling?天花板上的水画有罪吗?ON JULY 5th the mufti of Trabzon gathered with other citizens for the first Friday prayers of the holy fasting month of Ramadan, not at a mosque but at an ancient Byzantine church. The gathering was a symbolic re-enactment of the conquest in 1462 of this ancient Greek Black Sea port by Mehmet II, the Ottoman sultan who had wrested Constantinople from the Byzantines in 1453. He marked his victory by converting the Haghia Sophia cathedral of today’s Istanbul into a mosque.7月5日特拉布宗的穆夫提和其他居民一道参加斋月的一个星期五礼拜,他们聚会的地方不是清真寺而是一座古老的拜占庭教堂。这次集会象征性地重演了1462年奥斯曼苏丹穆罕默德二世攻占这个古老的希腊黑海港口。穆罕默德二世于1453年夺取了拜占庭的君士坦丁堡。为了纪念胜利,他把今天伊斯坦布尔的圣索菲亚大教堂变成一座清真寺。Haghia Sophia’s sister of the same name in Trabzon is less grand. Yet with its dazzling frescoes and magnificent setting overlooking the sea, the 13th-century building is regarded as one of the finest examples of Byzantine architecture. As with other Christian monuments, the Haghia Sophia in Trabzon has become a symbol in the battle between secularists and Islamists. It was converted into a mosque around the 16th century and, after other incarnations, became a museum in 1964. But the Islamists won the last round in 2012 when a local court accepted the claim by the General Directorate of the Pious Foundations, the government body responsible for Turkey’s historic mosques, that the Haghia Sophia belonged to the foundation of Mehmet II and was being “illegally occupied” by the culture ministry.特拉布宗也有圣索菲亚大教堂,其规模不如伊斯坦布尔的那座恢宏。它有精美的壁画,从这座教堂可以俯瞰大海。这座建于13世纪的教堂堪称拜占庭建筑的典范。特拉布宗的圣索菲亚大教堂还有其他的基督教遗迹成了世俗主义者和伊斯兰教徒冲突的象征。16世纪左右,这座教堂成了清真寺,1964年又变成了物馆。最后还是伊斯兰教徒赢了,2012年当地法庭接受了虔信基金会总局提出(负责土耳其历史上有名的清真寺的政府机关)的诉求:圣索菲亚大教堂是穆罕默德二世创建的,正遭受文化部的“非法侵占”。The decision provoked surprising anger in a city notorious for its ultra-nationalist views. “It’s about erasing the Christian past, reviving Ottomanism,” says a local historian. “There are enough mosques in Trabzon, half of them empty, what was the need?” chimes in Zeki Bakar, a neighborhood councillor. A lawsuit has been brought to undo the conversion.这座城市因为极端民族主义观点而声名狼藉,这个决定叫人光火。当地的一位历史学家说:这是抹煞基督教的历史,复辟奥斯曼主义。Zeki Bakar的社区委员附和说:“特拉布宗的清真寺够用了,半数清真寺是空着的,还差这一个吗?”已经有人提出诉讼,要法庭改变这个决定。Even so, the mildly Islamist Justice and Development (AK) government carried out the conversion in time for Ramadan. A red carpet now obscures exquisite floor mosaics. Shutters and tents beneath the central dome shield Muslim worshippers from “sinful” paintings of the Holy Trinity. Shiny steel taps with plastic stools for ablutions clutter a once-verdant garden filled with ancient sculptures.即便如此,为了过斋月,温和的伊斯兰教正义和发展党掌权的政府还是把教堂变成了清真寺。现在红地毯盖上了地板上精致的图案。中央穹顶下面的百叶窗和帷幕把做礼拜的穆斯林和 “罪恶的”三位一体水画隔离开来。从前翠绿的花园里有古老的雕塑,现在为了斋戒沐浴,装了带着闪亮水龙头的塑料凳。Mazhar Yildirimhan of the Pious Foundations Directorate’s office in Trabzon shrugs off complaints as propaganda. But for experts the conversion is tragic, and will inevitably lead to damaging the building. “It seems to follow closely that of Haghia Sophia in Iznik,” warns Antony Eastmond of the Courtauld Institute of Art, referring to another conversion.虔信基金会总局驻特拉布宗办公室的Mazhar Yildirimhan对抗议不屑一顾,认为这种抗议在蛊惑人心。在专家看来,教堂变清真寺是个悲剧,必然会给这座建筑造成破坏。考特奥德艺术学院的Antony Eastmond警告说:“伊兹尼克的圣索菲亚教堂成为清真寺的日子可能不远了。”All this is prompting anxiety that the Haghia Sophia in Istanbul “will be next”. These fears are overdone. Restoration work on the famous basilica has continued under a decade of AK rule and Recep Tayyip Erdogan, the prime minister, has dismissed worries about its fate. Yet Mr Yildirimhan makes no secret of his desire for a conversion, which he says is shared by fellow Muslims. “It was ordained by the sultan,” he says. “We have all the records.”这些都让人们越发担忧伊斯坦布尔的圣索菲亚教堂“将成为下一个”。这些担心有点过头了。在伊斯兰教正义和发展党和总理雷杰普#8226;塔伊普#8226;埃尔多安十年执政期间,对著名大教堂的修复工作一直在持续。然而Yildirimhan先生没有掩饰把教堂变成清真寺的愿望,他说这也是穆斯林教胞的心愿:“这是苏丹下令建造的建筑,所有的记录我们都有。”201308/252607Tons of dinosaur fossils have been unearthed over the last hundred years.过去的一百年来,大量恐龙化石被发掘。These long-buriedbones tell us about the physical build and eating habits of dinosaurs.这些长埋的骨头告诉我们恐龙的体质和饮食习惯。But to tell how dinosaurs livedand behaved, you often need more than bones.但为了弄清恐龙的生活习性,你通常需要更多的骨头。Thats why the earliest dinosaur nests found todate are giving up secrets about dinosaurs that lived one hundred ninety million years ago.这就是为什么迄今为止发现的最早的恐龙巢穴能够披露生活在一亿九千万年前的恐龙的秘密。Massospondylus, whose name means “longer vertebrae,” was a two legged, omnivore that wasfrom thirteen to twenty feet long and weighed three hundred pounds.大椎龙,顾名思义,就是有更长的椎骨,两条腿,长13到20英尺,重达300磅的杂食动物。Its small head was perchedon a long neck and its forelimbs were armed with sharp thumb claws.它的小脑袋长在长长的脖子上,前肢装备着锋利的拇指爪子。An archeological site at Golden Gate Highlands National Park in SouthAfrica has been a treasuretrove of information for scientists.南非金门高地国家公园的考古遗址一直是科学家的信息宝库。Ten nests have been unearthed at several levels of the site.这里的几个地方曾出土了10个不同等级的巢穴,Each contains up to thirty four round eggs tightly clustered.每个巢穴中有多达三、四十枚紧密聚集在一起的圆蛋。Both eggs and dinosaur embryoshave been examined.蛋和恐龙胚胎都做了检测。The site not only gives us physical information, it shines some light on the behavior of these earlydinosaurs.这些遗址不仅给我们提供物体信息,还指引我们弄清早期恐龙的习性。It confirms that even early dinosaurs built nests in groups, similar to colonial birdsnesting today.它实了即使是早期恐龙也是集体筑巢的,与今天殖民鸟类筑巢相似。Despite their menacing claws, Massospondylus mothers kept highly organizednests, suggesting that they may have arranged the eggs in their nest after laying them.尽管有具威胁性的爪子,长椎龙妈妈在筑巢时礽保持着高度的组织性,这可能暗示着她们产蛋后会将其整理好。Nest locations within the strata indicate that the dinosaurs returned to the site year after year.筑巢点的地层表明恐龙会年复一年的返回筑巢地。This behavior is known as nesting fidelity.这种行为被称为栖息地忠实性。Footprints around the nest are also giving us an idea aboutyoung dinosaur behavior. Hatchlings didnt leave the nest site immediately, but stayed in the areauntil they were at least double their hatching size.巢穴周围的脚印也能帮我们了解小恐龙的习性。幼仔不会立刻离开巢穴,而是一直在该区待到至少是孵化时两倍大小才离开。 201402/274798

Yaeuml;l: Hey Don, whatcha doing?嘿,Don, 你在干什么?Don: Booking a trip to Glacier National Park. I want to go there before the glaciers disappear.订张去冰川国家国家公园的票。在冰川融化之前我想去那儿一趟。Y: What do you mean?你是什么意思啊?D: Scientists predict that within twenty years the parks remaining glaciers will melt away.科学家们预测20年之内这个公园内的冰川将渐渐融化。Y: Why?为什么啊?D: Whether its because of human industry or natural cycles, temperatures are rising. And when temperatures rise, glaciers melt.不管是因为人类工业还是自然循环,气温都在逐渐上升。而当气温上升时,冰川就会融化。Y: Forgive me for sounding insensitive, but so what? Glaciers are nice to look at, but what difference will it make if they melt?原谅我的后知后觉,但是那又如何?冰川看起来很漂亮,但是如果它们融化又会有什么不同呢?D: Glaciers are more than just pretty pictures. Theyre the main sources for many rivers that people depend on for drinking water, irrigation, and hydroelectric power.冰川不只是壮美这么简单。它们是许多河流的源头。人们的饮用水、灌溉和水力电气的能源都需要依赖这些河流。Y: So are rivers drying up?那么,河流会变得干涸吗?D: Not yet, but the amount of glacier water affects a rivers flow volume. 还不确定,但冰川水的量会影响河水的流量。The lower the flow volume the less water there is for drinking, power, and everything else people depend on rivers for. 流量越少,供人们饮用,发电以及做其他一切事的水就会越少。Also, greater water volume helps dilute a rivers chemical content. 另外,丰富的水量可以帮助稀释河流内的化学物质。The less water a river has, the higher the chemical concentration, which can pollute a lake fed by the river.一条河的水量越少,其内的化学物质浓度就会越高。这会污染这条河注入的湖泊。Y: I didnt know that. But how about this...Higher temperatures mean that more water will evaporate from the oceans, which means more precipitation, including snow. 我倒不清楚那个。但这个呢?温度越高就意味着海洋的水将会有更多被蒸发,也就是说降水量也会增多,包括雪。So maybe some glaciers will actually grow even though its getting warmer.所以说尽管气候是在变暖,但冰川的数量还可能会增加。D: Some scientists make that argument, but most dont buy it. 有些科学家做出了那样的论断,但大部分人并不认同。Sure, some glaciers are growing temporarily thanks to unusual amounts of snow, but theyre the exception to the rule. 确实,一些冰川的暂时性生长是因为不寻常的降雪数量,但这只是冰川生成过程中的例外情况。Generally, glaciers grow when the amount of snow that melts in the summer is less than the amount that falls in the winter. 一般来说,夏天雪融化的数量少于冬天降雪的数量时才会生成冰川。Right now, more snow is melting than falling.现在,融化的雪量比降雪量多。Y: I guess you should book that trip. 我想你该订下这趟旅程。201308/251506

Governing partnerships管理合伙人制Electing the boss选举新老板Deloitte prepares to vote for a new CEO德勤准备选举新任CEOEVER since the inception of the corporation, the “principal-agent” problem has bedevilled shareholders. The partnership structure that prevails at consulting, accounting and law firms is supposedly free of the risk of executives acting in their own interest at the ownersexpense. As the businesses belong to the employees, the incentives of managers and proprietors should be aligned. But leaders there must pay greater heed to the views of their worker-shareholders than do corporate bosses, who need only answer to boards selected by proxy votes that are rarely contested, and can simply issue orders to staff.自公司成立以来,“委托代理”问题一直困扰着股东们。这种合伙制结构在咨询公司、会计师事务所和法律公司当中非常盛行,它被认为能够避免这样一种风险,即高管用所有者的资金从事跟自己利益相关的活动。虽然公司业务是由雇员经手,但是管理者的目标应该与企业所有者的利益一致。但领导人必须更加注意他们的同时也生为公司股东的员工们的意见,而不是公司老板们,因为他们只需要向精选出来并很少提出质疑的董事会回答问题、只需要简单地命令员工就行了。This distinction is never more apparent than when the head of a partnership steps down. They will be dusting off the ballot boxes at Deloitte, the biggest of the “Big Four” global accounting firms. On August 15th Joe Echevarria, the boss of the American arm, said he would be leaving the firm. Rather than summon an executive-search agency to do some discreet recruiting, Deloitte will hold a leadership election.然而当其中一位合伙人下台时,这样的差别对待就更加明显了。他们将准备在德勤重新使用投票选举。8月15日,德勤美国CEO乔埃切瓦里,说他要离开公司。此次,德勤决定举行领导人选举而不是通过猎头谨慎招聘来产生新任CEO。The firm does not disclose the mechanics of the process. But most partnerships form a nomination committee on their executive boards to assess candidates on both their visions for the firm and how much support they command from peers. After a series of informal consultations with fellow partners, the committee delicately advises likely losers to bow out gracefully. If these “soundings” yield a clear-cut heir apparent, the firm may proceed straight to a coronation vote where the new leader is rubber-stamped.虽然德勤没有披露选举过程中的机制,但大多数采用合伙制的企业都会在董事会形成一个提名委员会,通过对公司未来的计划以及同行持率等指标来评估候选人。在与合作伙伴进行一系列非正式磋商之后,委员会委婉地建议可能的失败者退出竞选。如果这些“声音”能够产生一个明确的候选人,那么公司可以不再进行评估和审核,而直接授权这位候选人。If there are a few strong contenders, the process starts to resemble a political campaign. Candidates often write manifestos outlining their plans, and occasionally address the electorate at annual partnersmeetings. Behind the scenes, horse-trading abounds, as the candidates promise juicy posts to influential partners who can deliver a block of support from colleagues. Each partner usually gets one vote, regardless of their equity stake.如果竞选中出现了多个强有力的竞争者,这个竞选过程就开始变得像一个政治运动。候选人经常写下竞选宣言提出他们的计划,偶尔也会在每年的合作人会议上强调选举事宜。但是在幕后,交易比比皆是,因为候选人会向具有影响力的能带来同事持的合伙人承诺以丰厚的回报。每个合伙人无论股权多少都只能投一票。The race to succeed Mr Echevarria is likely to be hotly contested. Under his stewardship since 2011, Deloitte has grown impressively. In the first two years of his term, revenues at its American arm rose from .9 billion to .9 billion. The other members of the Big Four—EY, PwC and KPMG—sold their consulting arms after the Enron scandal and have since had to rebuild them from scratch. Deloitte stayed in consulting and Mr Echevarria has pushed that side of the business.想要从埃切瓦里先生手里拿下接力棒也不是件容易的事。自2011以来,在他的领导下,德勤的业绩是非常惊人的。在他任期的前两年,其所在的美国分部收入从119亿美元上升到139亿美元。而四大的其他成员,安永、普华永道和毕马威,现在不得不重新建立他们在安然事件中出售的咨询分。德勤仍然保持着咨询业务,这也是埃切瓦里先生努力的方向。Since consultings profit margins are fatter than for auditing, Mr Echevarrias strategy has surely inflated partnerspaypackets. But it carries a greater risk of conflicts of interest, given the temptation for accounting firms to cut their clients slack on audits and compliance work in order to retain lucrative consulting business. On August 18th New Yorks regulators fined PwC m for watering down a report on sanctions-busting transactions with Iran at a Japanese bank; they punished Deloitte for a similar violation last year. The leaders of the Big Four have customarily come from the auditing side. If Deloittes partners vote for a consultant, it will leave little doubt that the firms roots in bean counting are being left further behind.由于咨询的利润率比审计要高,埃切瓦里先生的策略肯定已经让合伙人的荷包膨胀了许多。但同时,考虑到如果要保持咨询业务的丰厚利润,它就需要削减审计和合规业务的客户,因此德勤也面临着更大的利益冲突的风险。8月18日,纽约监管机构因为普华永道淡化了日本违反制裁伊朗禁令的报告而对其处以2500万美元的罚款;他们在去年也对德勤类似的违规行为做出了惩罚。四大的领导人通常来自审计方。如果德勤合伙人投票给咨询顾问,那它就是毫无疑问地向外界表示,该公司的审计业务会落得更远。 /201408/324725

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