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2019年07月18日 19:19:26

Science and Technology科技Art criticism and computers艺术和计算机Painting by numbers数字图画Digital analysis is invading the world of the connoisseur数字分析正侵蚀艺术品鉴赏界JUDGING artistic styles, and the similarities between them, might be thought one bastion of human skill that machines could never storm.对艺术风格,跟他们之间的相似之处的评价,可能被认为是一块机器无法侵犯的人类技艺圣地。Not so, if Lior Shamir at Lawrence Technological University in Michigan is correct.并非如此,加入密歇根州老孙死理工大学的Lior Shamir没错的话。A paper he has just published in Leonardo suggests that computers may have just as good an eye for style as humans do-and, in some cases, may see connections between artists that human critics have missed.他刚刚在李奥纳多发表的一篇文章之处电脑的眼力可能不必人类差——而且,某些情况下,电脑甚至能够发现一些家忽略的,艺术家之间的相似之处。Dr Shamir, a computer scientist, presented 57 images by each of nine painters-Salvador Dali, Giorgio de Chirico, Max Ernst, Vasily Kandinsky, Claude Monet, Jackson Pollock, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Mark Rothko and Vincent van Gogh-to a computer, to see what it made of them.Shamir士,一位计算机专家,将Salvador Dali, Giorgio de Chirico, Max Ernst, Vasily Kandinsky, Claude Monet, Jackson Pollock, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Mark Rothko和 Vincent van Gogh九位画家的每人57幅作品扫描到计算机中,看看它能得出什么。The computer broke the images into a number of so-called numerical descriptors.于是电脑将图像分解为许多所谓的数字描述符。These descriptors quantified textures and colours, the statistical distribution of edges across a canvas, the distributions of particular types of shape, the intensity of the colour of individual points on a painting, and also the nature of any fractal-like patterns within it (fractals are features that reproduce similar shapes at different scales; the edges of snowflakes, for example).这些符将质地和颜色量化,帆布的边缘的统计分布,特定种类的形状的分布,一幅作品上独立的点的颜色的深浅,还有任何蕾丝不规则碎片的本质,不规则碎片是指大小不同形状相似的特质,比如雪花的边缘。All told, the computer identified 4,027 different numerical descriptors.结果,电脑总共确认了4027种不同的符。Once their values had been established for each of the 513 artworks that had been fed into it, it was y to do the analysis.一旦它们对于这513件被反哺给电脑的每件艺术品的价值被确立,计算机马上可以开始分析。Dr Shamirs aim was to look for quantifiable ways of distinguishing between the work of different artists.Shamir士的目的事项寻找区分不同艺术家作品的可量化的方法。If such things could be established, it might make the task of deciding who painted what a little easier.如果上述事实能够被实成立,区分各个画家的作品的工作将会简单一点儿。Such decisions matter because, even excluding deliberate forgeries, there are many paintings in existence that cannot conclusively be attributed to a master rather than his pupils, or that may be honestly made copies whose provenance is now lost.这样的决定对我们很重要,因为即使是在排除有意伪造之后,任然有许多作品不能被确认出自某位画家,而非他的学生,或是某个出处无可探寻的逼真的复制品。To look for such distinguishing features, Dr Shamir programmed the computer to use a statistical method that scores the strength of the distance between the values of two or more descriptors for each pair of artists.为了寻找这种能有助于区分的特质,Shamir士设法使计算机能利用一个统计学方法来评价用来比较每两位画家的两个以上的描述符的价值之间距离的大小。As a result, he was able to rank each of the 4,027 descriptors by how useful it was at discriminating between artists.最后,他就能根据描述符分辨艺术家的能力来给它们打分。Surprisingly, the values of 19 of the 20 most informative descriptors showed dramatically higher similarities between Van Gogh (left below) and Pollock (right) than between Van Gogh and painters such as Monet and Renoir, who conventional art criticism would think more closely related to Van Goghs oeuvre than Pollocks is. (Dali and Ernst, by contrast, were farther apart then expected.)令人吃惊的是,在提供的消息最有用的20种描述符中,有19种显示出梵高和波洛克作品之间的相似度,要远远高于梵高和像莫内和雷诺瓦的画家之间,而传统的家认为后者的作品与梵高作品更接近。相反地,达利和恩斯特的作品的差距却比预期要大。What is interesting, according to Dr Shamir, is that no single feature makes Pollocks artistic style similar to Van Goghs.有趣的是,Shamir士指出,没有一个特质能单独明波洛克的艺术风格与梵高的相似。Instead, the connection is based on a broad set of image-content descriptors which reflect many aspects of the two artists styles, including a shared preference for low-level textures and shapes, and similarities in the ways they employed lines and edges.相反,他们的联系是在长长的一系列反映了这两名画家的许多艺术风格的图像内容符的基础上形成的,风格中包括,他们都偏爱低档面料跟外形,他们勾勒线和边的方式相似。What was intended, then, as a way of improving the ability to distinguish between different hands has also thrown up a new way of looking for stylistic similarities.于是,原本用来宜于区分不同画家的作品的方法,也能用来寻找艺术家的不同风格。Whether Pollock was actually influenced by Van Gogh, or merely happened upon a similar way of doing things through a similar artistic sensibility, is not clear.虽然波洛克实际上到底是受到了梵高的影响,还是仅仅是由于在处在相似的艺术风气下,不得而知。But it gives art historians a new line of investigation to pursue.但是它给艺术历史学家提供了一条新的线索。 /201211/210030成都第七人民医院网上预约Long term now, where does Renren go? Whats the strategy as you build your company and try and take market share?从长远来看,人人网会往什么方向发展?你在建立公司时采用了什么样的策略来占有市场份额?Well, we are in the business of the real…er… real name based social networks and only less than a quarter of the user base, well, only less than a quarter of the Chinese Internet user base are our users.好吧,我们的网站是实名制的社交网站,只有不到四分之一的网民,不,只有不到四分之一的中国网民是我们的用户。So, well, what we have a lot of room to grow, in the next, in the days to come.因此,下一步,我们的发展空间还很大。And most importantly, Chinese is going through a sweeping innovation on the mobile Internet space, when really low-cost smart phones penetration are going on really fast.而且最重要的是,中国正在经历一场手机上网革新风暴,低价智能手机已经快速渗透到市场的每个角落。So we experienced very rapid growth on the mobile Internet space, and thats where we are gonna focus our strategy on and we are gonna leverage on our largest open platform in China to help us do that as well.所以我们见了手机网络的高速发展,我们将把战略目标放到手机人人网上。为了做到这点,我们也将会利用我们最大的开放平台。Ok, all right, Mr. Chen, but does your main competition come to you, do you think, from the Facebooks of this world, and other companies that may eventually get access, may eventually, get access or is it more home-grown competition within China do you think?好的,行,陈先生。但是你觉得你们的主要竞争对手出现了吗?比如说国外的社交网站Facebook,还有其他的国外公司已经进入中国市场了吗?或者你觉得来自国内的竞争更激烈一些?Well, I think, I think, inevitably, you know, because China market is so big, right?好的,我认为,这是不可避免的,你也知道,中国的市场很大,对不?I think inevitably, all the large global Internet companies will be going to China and thats, thats a part of reality because a lot of international companies has come into China.我觉得全球所有大的网络公司都会进军中国,这是不可避免的,这也是现实,因为很多国际大公司都已经进入了中国市场。But the landscape in China is very different from other part of the world where the local competition is very strong because the size of the large market allow it, allow local competitors to grow to a very large size, such as you known Baidu and Tencent.但是中国的形式和其他国家区别很大,本土竞争十分激烈,这是庞大的市场造成的。庞大的市场反过来也给了本土的竞争者扩张的条件,就像你知道的百度和腾讯公司。All feature to billion market cap with a large user base, very strong financial resources.这两家公司资金雄厚,都市值400至500亿美元,而且拥有庞大的用户群。So in our case, we being in this business for six years now, and weve been growing very rapidly and we think that the, the scalability of a platform as well as the critical mass of user base will allow us to continue to compete very efficiently in the progress of this market.我们的情况是公司已经成立六年了,也发展得很快。我认为以人人网的可扩性及其高素质的用户群会让我们在这个市场上保持高效的竞争力。201205/180727成都市中医药大学附属二院网上预约电话成都省第七人民医院电话号码

四川十院好不好成都市妇保医院挂号几点上班Everyday in Beijing, 31-year-old Robin Chan walks through the doors of a multi-million-dollar company he built from the ground up. Hes an American who moved to China with one simple idea.在北京的每一天,31岁的罗宾·陈都要穿过他创建的市值数百万美元的公司的大门。他是位美国人,搬到中国只是源自于一个简单的想法。The idea was straightforward--be the first to build a social game company in China.这个想法很直接--建立中国第一家社交游戏公司。Chan and his staff at XPD Media design social games, games you play with friends on networking sites like Facebook and MySpace.陈和XPD传媒的员工设计社交游戏,一些能和朋友一起在网上(比如说脸谱和聚友网)对打的游戏。It was a courageous bet, but it was a bet worth making.这是一次有胆量的打赌,但绝对值得一试。Forget about living the American dream, this is the Chinese dream. His company is backed by the founder of MTV.不要再惦记美国梦了,这是中国梦。他的公司备受MTV创始人持。There isnt a lot of cool opportunities in China unless you create your own, and thats part of the excitement of China.除非你给自己创造机会,否则在中国没有多少好机会回找上门,这也是中国令人兴奋的地方。Many young people come to China, thinking this is the land of opportunity, the promised land, the wild, wild east that if you strike big, you could make it really big. But is that the reality?许多年轻人来到中国,认为这是一片充满着机遇的应许之地,是狂野的东部地区,在这里你的赌注越大收获就越多。但真是这样的吗?Not necessarily! Morgan McGilvray just finished his MBA.不一定!根·麦吉尔夫雷刚完成他的MBA学位。I thought, well, since therere no jobs at home anyway, Ill be adventurous and come, er, finish my time out in China. Are they throwing jobs at me? No.我认为,反正在家里也没找到工作,干脆冒一次险来中国,在这里度过生命的时光。也纷至沓来的职位邀请吗?没有。So hes focused on learning Mandarin and becoming a more attractive candidate.所以他集中精力学习普通话,成为一名更优秀的职场候选人。Usually the first thing is to check email and then I go to China Development Brief for nonprofit jobs.通常每天的第一件事就是收查邮件,然后去中国发展简报做一份非盈利性质的工作。Annie Ly has been looking in the nonprofit field for nine months while volunteering and working to make ends meet. But she plans to stick it out in China, in part because she can afford more with less.安妮·李9个月以来一直在研究非盈利领域,又做志愿者又当员工,以保持收平衡。但是她计划在中国坚持到底,部分是因为她能花少量的钱付更多开销。Back home Id probably live with my parents with what I make here. But here I have a great, you know, one-bedroom apartment for myself...回美国的话,我可能还跟父母住在一起,但是在这里,我一个人就拥有这么棒的只有一张床的公寓。But realizing her Chinese dream may be difficult in a job market thats becoming more competitive.但是在劳动市场上实现中国梦有点难,因为这里竞争越来越强。We have a lot of very worldly, very intelligent and talented Chinese that are studying in the ed States and theyre coming back to China. These folks are the ones that most multinationals and Chinese firms are trying to hire.在美国有很多老练,睿智,天赋过人的中国留美学生,他们回到了祖国。这群人就是大多数跨国公司和中国公司想要招纳的人才。But for those who do make it, the payoff can be huge.只有成功应聘的留学生的薪酬才很丰厚。If I started out in New York, I mean, its completely feasible to think that I will be their receptionist.如果我在纽约找工作,也是完全可行的,我也能成为他们的接待人员。Instead, at 25 years old, Henri Benaim is directing a gallery in Chinas contemporary art district, showcasing the likes of the famous photographer Wang Jinsong. This is our artist that I have seen in museum shows in New York and seen in catalogues and now in my job. Now we represent him.相反25岁时,亨利在中国当代艺术区指导画廊,当代艺术区展示像著名摄影师王劲松这类艺术家的作品。这就是我们的艺术家,我在纽约的展览秀上见过他,如今我在工作中也能见到他。现在我们代表他。Still with all this responsibility, comes a lot of pressure: for Henri, pressure to make sales, for Robin, pressure to innovate, and for Annie and Morgan, the dream is yet to be fulfilled, though none can resist the lure of opportunity in the worlds most dynamic economy.担负责任,也要应付随之而来的巨大压力:对于亨利来说,压力就是卖出作品;对于罗宾来说,压力就是创新;对于安妮和根来说,压力就是实现自己的梦想。尽管这样,也没有人能禁得住世界上最有活力的经济带来的机遇的诱惑。Emily Chang, CNN, Beijing.艾米丽·张,CNN,北京。201206/185347青羊区第一人民医院割包皮手术价格蒲江县妇科整形哪家医院最好的

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