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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年08月23日 01:34:04
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But in 1893, it wasnt the river or the geology that was to be protected, rather the local antelope herds.但在1893年,它可不是河流或地貌特征,而是是被保护,当地有成群的羚羊。Policing methods proved adequate though, hunting remain widesp and the antelope population remains a fraction of what it once was.虽然明投入了足够多的治安管理力度,但狩猎仍然屡见不鲜,而且羚羊的数目仍是曾经的少数。Today, the entire park is named after its central feature, the massive and thundering waterfall, which the indigenous people had named Angrabies.今天,整个公园因为其特点而命名,大规模,雷鸣声般的瀑布,土著居民将其命名为安格拉贝斯。Angrabies might mean a place of great noise, but this spot is deliciously quiet.安格拉贝斯可能意思着一个很大噪音的地方,但我现在所处的这个地方却是很安静。Some 12 kilometers from the Falls, birdsong and a gentle breeze are all that accompanied me along this days river walk.距离瀑布12公里处, 鸟鸣声,阵阵微风都陪伴着我这一天沿河行走的旅程。After wandering through swine grasses, bleached white by the sun.稍作徘徊后,这里被太阳染成了白色。201311/263040Politics this week本周政治要闻Sunni jihadists of the Islamic State of Iraq and Greater Syria (ISIS), who have taken Mosul, Iraqs second city, swept on southwards, but their advance stalled once they reached the Shia heartland and mixed provinces close to Baghdad. The government urged Iraqis to unite and fight the insurgents. The American administration pondered whether and how much to help Nuri al-Malikis beleaguered Iraqi government—and whether to co-operate with Iran, his closest regional ally.伊拉克和叙利亚的伊斯兰国家(ISIS)的逊尼派圣战者已经占领了伊拉克的第二大城市苏尔,并向南方席卷而来,但是他们的脚步却停滞在什叶派腹地和接近巴格达的省境交界处。政府敦促伊拉克人团结起来,打击叛乱分子。而美国政府正在考虑是否应该以及在何种程度上帮助马利基饱受争议的伊拉克政府,并且是否与他最亲密的地区盟友伊朗合作。Three young Israeli settlers, two of them 16-year-olds, were kidnapped near the West Bank city of Hebron. Israels prime minister, Binyamin Netanyahu, blamed Hamas, an Islamist movement which, to the chagrin of Israels government, has recently endorsed a new Palestinian unity government. Hamas denied the charge. But hundreds of its supporters were rounded up by Israeli security forces.三个年轻的以色列居民在希伯仑西岸城市附近被绑架,其中包括两个16岁的孩子。以色列总理本雅明?内塔尼亚胡谴责哈马斯这一让政府头疼的伊斯兰运动,他们最近还成立了新的巴勒斯坦联合政府。哈马斯否认了这一指控。但其数百名持者被以色列安全部队逮捕了。Egypts prime minister, Ibrahim Mahlab, who was reappointed earlier this month by the countrys newly elected president, Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, kept most ministers in their posts. But he put a veteran banker, Ashraf Salman, in charge of foreign investment.易卜拉欣·马哈拉布在本月早些时候被新当选总统塞西再次钦定为埃及总理,他保持多数部长的职位不变,但把一位资深家阿什拉夫·萨尔曼,调去负责外国投资。Islamist terrorists belonging to the Shabab, a Somali group, killed at least 65 non-Muslims in villages on the mainland opposite the Kenyan island ofLamu. Many of the victims were members of the Kikuyu tribe to whichKenyas president, Uhuru Kenyatta, belongs. He blamed opposition politicians inKenya, rather than the Shabab, for fomenting the attacks. Tourism inKenya is likely to plummet.伊斯兰恐怖分子属于索马里反政府武装派别;青年党;,他们杀死了肯尼亚拉姆岛对面的村子里至少65名的非穆斯林人士。很多的受害者都是基库尤部落(肯尼亚总统乌呼鲁?肯雅塔所属的部落)的成员。他将这次的煽动性攻击归责于肯尼亚的反对派政客,而不是激进的伊斯兰组织青年党。肯尼亚旅游业可能会一蹶不振。Brought to justice公评断In a midnight operation on the outskirts of Benghazi American special forces captured Ahmed Abu Khattala, the man suspected of organising the attack in the Libyan city in 2012 that killed the American ambassador. The commandos took Mr Abu Khattala to an American navy ship to prepare him for travel to theed States, where he will appear in court.美国特种部队在班加西市郊执勤时抓获了卡达阿拉,他被怀疑2012年在利比亚市组织袭击并杀害了美国大使。突击队把他带往美国海军舰艇,准备将其引渡美国,现身法庭(接受司法审判)。After the shock defeat of Eric Cantor by the Tea Party in a primary election, the Republicans in the House of Representatives moved quickly to choose a new Majority Leader. Kevin McCarthy, a congressman from centralCalifornia, emerged as the strong favourite, distinguished by good looks, excellent fundraising skills and a troubled relationship with the English language.继艾瑞克·康托尔在茶党初选中失败后,众议院中的共和党人迅速行动起来要选举一个新的多数党领袖。来自加州中部的国会议员凯文·麦卡锡成为大热门,他有着杰出的外表,卓越的募集资金能力和稍显蹩脚的英文。Election spoilers选举中的捣蛋分子Afghanistan held a run-off presidential election to decide who will replace Hamid Karzai. Abdullah Abdullah, who is expected to win, demanded a halt to the count over allegations of widesp fraud. He said that ballot boxes had been stuffed and that the system was working to the benefit of his rival, Ashraf Ghani. The result is expected next month.阿富汗举行第二轮总统选举,来决定谁将取代哈米德·卡尔扎伊。胜算较大的阿卜杜拉指控存在欺诈要求停止计数。他说投票箱都被投满了,系统也正在统计他的对手阿什拉夫·贾尼的选票结果。结果预计下个月将揭晓。Cambodia blamed Thailands new military rulers for causing an exodus of Cambodian migrant workers from the country. Around 200,000 Cambodians are thought to have fled across the border amid rumours thatThailands government was about to crack down on illegal workers. The government said the rumours were unwarranted.柬埔寨指责泰国的新军事统治者造成大批柬埔寨农民工离去。由于坊间传言称,泰国政府将严厉打击非法工人,大约有20万名柬埔寨人已经逃离边境。政府称谣言是毫无根据的。Japan banned the possession of child sex-abuse images, one of the last developed countries to do so. Its new law states that anyone found with such images can be jailed for up to a year, or fined up to ,000. The ban does not apply to comics known as manga.日本是最后一个禁止持有性虐待儿童图像的发达国家之一。它的新法律规定任何被发现持有上述图像的人可以被判入狱一年,或高达10000美元的罚款。这一禁令并不不适用于漫画。A senior Chinese diplomat visited Vietnam for talks aimed at calming relations between the two neighbours, but the two sides ended up exchanging sharp views over their dispute in theSouth China Sea.中国高级外交官赴越为缓和两方关系参加会谈。但关于中国南海争端双方给出不可调和的意见,不欢而散。China handed down lengthy jail sentences to three anti-corruption activists. Their crime was asking officials to disclose their wealth.中国给3名激进分子漫长的监禁处罚。其犯罪原因是要求其公开财产。Barack Obama proposed using his executive powers to protect a vast area of the central Pacific Ocean from fishing and other industrial activities. The plan is to expand protected seas around islands and atolls controlled byAmerica.贝拉克·奥巴马利用其行政权为保护太平洋中间广阔区域,禁止和其它工业活动。该计划旨在扩展美国保护下的岛屿和珊瑚礁周围海域。Up in the air悬而未决The ed States Supreme Court refused to hear an appeal by Argentina against a lower-court ruling obliging it to pay a small group of creditors who have been chasing payment following its 2001 debt default. The Argentine government must now decide whether to pay these “holdout” creditors, sidestep the reach of the American courts or risk another default.美国最高法院驳回了阿根廷上诉。阿根廷对于下级法院判决其必须付自2001年阿根廷债务违约后一直追债的一小群债权人不满。现在阿根廷政府必须决定是否付这些“持之以恒”讨债者,绕开与美国法院接触或者面临再次债务违约的风险。The Jamaican government announced that it plans to decriminalise possession of small amounts of marijuana. Parliament is expected to approve the changes by the autumn.牙买加政府宣布计划持有少量的大麻合法化。议会有望于秋天之前通过该此计划。The Canadian government approved the Northern Gateway pipeline project to bring tar-sands oil fromAlberta to the Pacific coast ofBritish Columbia. But objections from the First Nations mean that it remains uncertain whether the pipeline will go ahead.加拿大政府通过了北方门户管道计划,该计划将亚伯达的油砂运往加拿大不列颠哥伦比亚省的太平洋港口。但是来自第一民族人民的反对意味着管道计划能否进行是个未知数。Juan Manuel Santos won a second term as Colombias president, taking 51% of the vote in a run-off against óscar Iván Zuluaga. Mr Santoss victory means peace talks with the countrys leftist guerrillas will continue.哥伦比亚总统胡安·曼努埃尔·桑托斯赢得连任机会,在最终选举以51%的选票打败了奥斯卡·伊凡·祖拉戈。桑托斯的胜利意味着与国家右翼游击队和平会谈将继续举行。Deadly force致命的力量Petro Poroshenko, Ukraines new president, announced a unilateral ceasefire in the fighting with pro-Russian rebels in easternUkraine. This came after the separatists shot down a military transport jet killing 49 people, the deadliest incident so far in the fighting.Russia meanwhile cut off gas supplies toUkraine in a dispute over payments, and a big gas pipeline in the country was bombed.乌克兰新总统彼得·波罗申科单方面宣布与乌克兰东部亲俄叛乱者停火。此前分裂者击落了一架军用运输喷气式飞机,导致49人死亡,这是这场冲突死伤人数最多的一次。同时,俄罗斯由于在天然气价格上达不成统一意见,已切断对乌克兰天然气的供应。而乌克兰一条大型天然气管道也被轰炸。Marek Belka, the governor of Polands central bank, kept his job, despite calls for his and the entire governments resignation. In an obscenity-laced recording leaked by Wprost, a news weekly, Mr Belka appears to be striking a deal last July to support the government of Donald Tusk by propping up the economy, in return for the sacking of the then finance minister, Jacek Rostowski.马雷克·贝尔卡,波兰中央行长克了各种让他和整个政府辞职的呼声,保住了他的职位。波兰一家新闻周刊杂志Wprost公布了一段夹杂下流言语的录音,其中贝尔卡在去年七月签订了一项协议表明通过持经济方式来帮助唐纳德·图斯克政府,条件是解雇时任财政大臣罗斯托斯基。A rail strike in France prompted outrage when it disrupted the first day of the all-important baccalauréat, the school-leaving test. Rail workers walked off the job as French teenagers struggled with exam questions about epistemology and what it means to be human.法国铁路罢工引发众怒。而此时正值非常重要的毕业考试第一天,当时法国青年们正在参与讨论认识论以及认识论对人类价值的考试斗争,而铁路工人却擅自离开工作岗位。 201407/308864

Science and technology科学技术The science of justice司法的学问I think its time we broke for lunch…该吃午餐了Court rulings depend partly on when the judge last had a snack法庭判决结果一定程度上取决于法官上一次吃点心的时间AROUND the world, courthouses are adorned with a statue of a blindfolded woman holding a set of scales and a sword:世界各地的法院都装饰有一尊女子的雕像,这个女人被蒙住双眼,手持一架天平和一把剑。Justice personified.她是正义的化身。Her sword stands for the power of the court, her scales for the competing claims of the petitioners.剑代表着法庭的权力,而天平代表着上诉人的竞争性权利主张。The blindfold represents the principle that justice should be blind.眼罩代表着司法的盲目性原则。The law should be applied without fear or favour, with only cold reason and the facts of the case determining what happens to the accused.也就是说应用法律应该毫无畏惧和偏袒之心,只有冷静的推理和案件事实才能决定如何处理被告。Lawyers, though, have long suspected that such lofty ideals are not always achieved in practice, even in well run judicial systems free from political meddling.然而,律师们一直以来都怀疑在实践中这种崇高的理想是否总能实现,就连在那些不受政治干涉、运转良好的司法体系里都是如此。Justice, say the cynics, is what the judge had for breakfast. Now they have proof.犬儒主义者说:司法就是法官的早餐。而且现在他们有了据。A paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences describes how Shai Danziger of Ben-Gurion University of the Negev and his colleagues followed eight Israeli judges for ten months as they ruled on over 1,000 applications made by prisoners to parole boards.美国国家科学院学报一篇文章描述了内盖夫本-古里安大学的舍夷?丹齐格和他的几个同事追踪8位以色列法官10个月的事情,在这10个月里法官们裁判了囚犯向假释裁决委员会提出的1000多分申请。The plaintiffs were asking either to be allowed out on parole or to have the conditions of their incarceration changed.申请人要么请求准许假释要么请求改善狱中居住条件。The team found that, at the start of the day, the judges granted around two-thirds of the applications before them.调查小队发现,早晨法官所阅申请的约2/3得到了批准。As the hours passed, that number fell sharply, eventually reaching zero.而随着中午的临近,批准的数量急剧减少,最终接近于0。But clemency returned after each of two daily breaks, during which the judges retired for food.但是在每天的两餐休息时间过后,仁慈又重新降临。The approval rate shot back up to near its original value, before falling again as the day wore on.批准率回到了接近于早晨的水平,并随着时间的消逝再次下跌。To be sure, mealtimes were not the only thing that predicted the outcome of the rulings.当然,用餐时间并非预测判决结果的唯一因素。Offenders who appeared prone to recidivism were more likely to be turned down, as were those who were not in a rehabilitation programme.那些看起来容易再犯的犯人更可能被拒,那些没有参与罪犯改過自新项目的也是一样。Happily, neither the sex nor the ethnicity of the prisoners seemed to matter to the judges.而令人高兴的是,据一个司法专家组成的独立小组评定,Nor did the length of time the offenders had aly spent in prison, nor even the severity of their crimes.法官似乎不考虑罪犯的性别、种族、入狱时间长短甚至是他们罪行的严重程度。But after controlling for recidivism and rehabilitation programmes, the meal-related pattern remained.剔除了累犯和改过自新计划这些因素之后,与就餐相关的模式依然存在。The researchers offer two hypotheses for this rise in grumpiness.研究人员就这种暴躁情绪的产生给出了两种假设。One is that blood-sugar level is the crucial variable.其一是血糖浓度是关键的变量,This, though, predicts that the precise amount of time since the judge last ate will be what matters.可是这样就有人会猜测距法官上一次用餐的准确时间是重要的因素。In fact, it is the number of cases he has heard since his last break, not the number of hours he has been sitting, which best matches the data.而事实上,与调查数据最匹配的不是法官坐在那儿工作的时间长短,而是他上一次休息用餐后所审理的案件数量。That is consistent with a second theory, familiar from other studies, that decision making is mentally taxing and that,这就和第二种假设一致起来,即决策是一项耗费心神的劳动,if forced to keep deciding things, people get tired and start looking for easy answers.如果人们被迫一直做决定,那他们会变得疲惫而开始寻找简单的解决办法,这是其他研究也得出的结论。In this case, the easy answer is to maintain the status quo by denying the prisoners request.既然如此,那简单的解决办法就是拒绝犯人的申请,维持现状。Two further findings buttress the idea that it is the psychological load of decision making which matters.还有另外两个发现可以持这种精神负担作用的观点。First, the average unfavourable decision took less time to arrive at than the average favourable one.首先,通常作不利的决定比作有利的决定花费的时间短,前者约为5.2分钟,后者约为7.4分钟。Second, it also took more time to explain.其次,后者所花费的解释时间也更长。Written verdicts in favourable rulings averaged 90 words, compared with just 47 for unfavourable ones.有利决定的书面判决通常有90个单词,而不利判决书只有47个单词。In truth, these results, though disturbing, are unsurprising.事实上,尽管这些调查结果令人不安,却是意料之中的事。Judges may be trained to confine themselves to the legally relevant facts before them.法官接受的训练是将自己限制在面前的法律事实范围内。But they are also human,但他们也是凡人,and thus subject to all sorts of cognitive biases which can muddy their judgment.因而也会让各种认知偏见模糊了他们的判断力。Other fields are familiar with human imperfectibility, and take steps to ameliorate it.人性的弱点在其他领域也很常见,人们会采取措施改进这一点。Pilots, for instance, are given checklists to follow, partly in order to combat the effects of fatigue.例如飞行员需要遵循一些清单,其部分原因是为了抵抗疲劳。Lorry drivers in the European Union are not allowed to drive for more than four and a half hours without taking a break.欧盟也不允许卡车司机连续驾驶4.5小时以上。Dr Danzigers co-author, Jonathan Levav of Columbia University in New York, wonders whether the law should consider similar arrangements.丹齐格教授的合著者哥伦比亚大学的乔奈森·勒瓦夫设想司法界是否也能考虑作类似的安排。Some, of course, aly do.当然,有些地方已经这样做了。English judges, legendary for their prandial proclivities, are way ahead of him.英国的法官早就想到了这点,所以他们因爱好吃饭而闻名。 /201308/250744

Higher education更烧钱的教育Why textbooks cost so much课本这么贵为啥哩Its Economics 101经济学主要章节STUDENTS can learn a lot about economics when they buy Greg Mankiws “Principles of Economics”—even if they dont it. Like many popular textbooks, it is horribly expensive: 292.17 on Amazon. Indeed, the nominal price of textbooks has risen more than fifteenfold since 1970, three times the rate of inflation.当学生们购买Greg Mankiw写的《经济学原理》,他们可以学习很多经济学知识—即使他们只买不读。如同众多流行教材,它贵的离谱:在亚马逊上要花费292.17美元。确实,课本的虚价从1970年开始疯涨了15倍,是通货膨胀率的三倍。Like doctors prescribing drugs, professors assigning textbooks do not pay for the products themselves, so they have little incentive to pick cheap ones. Some assign books they have written themselves. The 20m post-secondary students inAmericaoften have little choice in the matter. Small wonder textbooks generate megabucks.正像医生们开的药物那样,教授们布置的这些教材并不用他们自己付钱,因此他们对于挑选廉价教材没有太多动力。一些人吩咐学生买他们自己写的书籍。美国两千万的高年级学生经常在这件事上没多少选择。课本产生巨大效益也就不足为奇。But hope is not lost for poor scholars. Foreign editions are easy to find online and often cheaper—sometimes by over 90%. Publishers can be litigious about this, but in 2013 the Supreme Court ruled that Americans have the right to buy and resell copyrighted material obtained legally. Many university bookstores now let students rent books and return them. Publishers have begun to offer digital textbooks, which are cheaper but cant be resold. And if all else fails, there is always the library.但是贫穷的学者们不会丧失希望。网上很容易找到国外版本,而且往往更便宜,有时候价格能低到将近一折。出版商们对此怨念不已,但是2013年最高法院裁决美国人有权购买或重卖合法占有的合法出版物。许多大学书店现在准许学生租借书籍并到时返还。出版商们开始提供电子版教科书,这种更便宜但是不可出售。而且如果所有方法都失败了,图书馆永远对你开放。 /201408/321640

  Science and technology科学技术Low-cost radar低成本雷达A programme worth watching值得一看的节目How air-traffic control can use television signals to plot aircraft空中交通管制局如何利用电视信号找出飞行器位置?A NOVEL radar will soon be helping to keep an eye on aircraft flying over London.很快,一种新式雷达将帮忙监视伦敦上空的飞机。Conventional radar uses a rotating antenna to sweep the sky, sending out radio pulses and detecting those which are reflected back from aircraft.传统雷达使用旋转天线扫视上空,不断发出射电脉冲并探测被飞行器反射回来的部分。The experimental system that will begin operation in June does not send out any signals of its own,而将于6月份启动的实验系统并不会自己发出任何信号,but instead relies on a network of receivers to pick up television programmes.而是依靠一个接受电视信号的接收器网络。It is hard to imagine British TV staples like Cash in the Attic, Downton Abbey and endless repeats of Top Gear being used to detect aircraft.很难想象像《家中藏宝》、《唐顿庄园》、《疯狂汽车秀》等这类英国的主打电视节目被用来侦查飞行器。But that, in effect, is what will be happening.但事实就将会如此。By measuring the slight differences between the original broadcast signal and the signals reflected from aircraft flying in the vicinity, it is possible to plot the position of aircraft on a screen, just as is done with conventional radar.通过测量原广播信号和附近飞行器反射信号间的细微差别,有可能在屏幕上标绘出飞行器的位置,这和传统雷达的工作原理一样。The difference is that a system that relies on signals aly in the air can be simpler, cheaper and use a lot less power.两者的区别是,利用空中已有信号的操作系统可以更简便、更便宜,还能省不少电。The London trial is being run by Thales UK, an engineering group, Roke Manor Research, an RD consultancy, and NATS, which manages Britains air-traffic control.伦敦实验系统的运行由工程组泰利斯英国公司、研发咨询公司曼乐研究公司和英国国家空运局负责,It is backed by the British governments Technology Strategy Board.并得到了英国政府技术战略委员会的持。The group call their system multi-static primary surveillance radar.工程组把自己的系统称为多基站主监视雷达,It is a form of passive radar, which goes back a long time.属于存在已久的被动雷达中的一种。Although it had been known since the late 19th century that radio waves can be reflected by objects, it was not until the years leading up to the second world war that a number of countries began secretly developing ways to detect aircraft.虽然19末世纪时人们就已经知道物体能够反射无线电波,但直到二战前几年才有一些国家开始秘密研究侦查飞机的方法。Many of the early tests relied on ordinary broadcasts to provide the signals.这些早期的测试当中有很多都靠普通的无线电波来提供信号。In an experiment in 1935 a Handley Page Heyford bomber flew between a receiving station and a B transmission tower to see how well it could be detected.在1935年的一场实验当中,一个名为亨得利·佩奇·海福德飞行员驾驶轰炸机从B发射塔和一个接收站之间飞过,从而找出飞机能在多大程度上被侦查出来。Well enough, it seems, because the Air Ministry immediately ordered a full demonstration system.看来当时的效果还不错,因为航空部马上下达命令要求进行全套演示。Blip, blip雷达界的新老交替In 1940 the US Navy coined the term radar to describe radio detection and ranging.1940年,美国海军创造出雷达一词,用以描述无线电探测和测距。Modern radar is highly sophisticated but it largely relies on emitting a signal.现代雷达极其复杂,但主要还是靠自己发出信号。By measuring the time taken for the reflected signal to return it is possible to work out the position of an aircraft.通过测量被反射信号返回雷达所需的时间,就有可能计算出飞行器的位置。A slight shift in the frequency, because of the Doppler effect, means its speed and direction can be measured too.由于多普勒效应,返回信号的频率有微小变化,这就意味着飞行器的速度和飞行方向也可以被测量出来。Passive radar can take similar measurements and is aly used in limited ways, mostly by the armed forces.被动雷达可以进行类似的测量,并且已经得到一些受限应用。Relying on background signals to detect objects has an advantage in stealth operations:在秘密行动中依靠背景信号来侦查物体有这样一个优势:no pulse is sent out to alert anyone to what you are doing, or attract an anti-radar missile.由于没有发出脉冲信号,没人会警觉你在什么,也不会引来反雷达导弹。The growth in radio and television broadcasts—especially with digital and high-definition TV—now provides an enormous amount of high-frequency radio waves which are ideally suitable for passive radar systems.现在无线电和电视广播的增长提供了海量的高频电波,这些非常适合用于被动雷达系统。Moreover, the availability of cheap and powerful computing makes it feasible to analyse the data required to build a system like MSPSR.此外,成本低廉和功能强大的计算机可以分析需要用于建立类似MSPSR系统的数据。Thales and its partners expect to be able to produce results as good as conventional radar.泰利斯工程组和合伙人们期待MSPSR的表现能和传统雷达一样好。The trials are designed to see how passive radar could support Britains air-traffic management.实验项目的目的在于找出被动雷达能够如何帮助管理英国的空中交通。It could help small airports that lack radar or fill gaps in areas where coverage is currently patchy.它有助于那些缺乏雷达的小型机场,或者弥补那些雷达覆盖不完整地区的缺陷,MSPSR might also reduce the interference caused in some places by wind turbines.MSPSR还能减少一些地方由涡轮机造成的干扰,And because it is a networked system it could be more reliable than the present set-up, which typically depends on using just one radar at each airport.它是一个呈网络覆盖的系统,比目前的系统更可靠。The aviation industry is cautious about adopting new technologies wholesale, so there is a long way to go before conventional radar is turned off in favour of passive systems.航空业在大规模采用新技术方面很是谨慎,因此传统雷达完全让位于被动雷达还尚有时日。But governments may be tempted to think about doing so, for reasons that go beyond passive radars lower operating costs.但政府或许会对此动心,原因不只是被动雷达的成本更加低廉:With growing demand for wireless devices, passive radar would allow the radio spectrum currently used by conventional radar to be freed up and auctioned off to mobile operators.随着无线设备的需求不断增加,被动雷达能够将目前用于传统雷达的无线电频谱解放出来,然后再拍卖给移动运营商。One difficulty is that passive radar relies on a third party for its signals.被动雷达的一个难题在于它要依靠第三方提供的信号。The continued availability of transmissions is considered to be part of Britains critical national infrastructure, says John Smith, the project leader for Thales.泰利斯工程组的项目带头人约翰?史密斯说,广播电视业被认为是英国关键的国家基础设施。Nevertheless, he adds, the study will look at how agreements can be made with broadcasters to ensure reliability and performance, and how to deal with routine maintenance when TV transmission towers are turned off.不过他补充道,研究将着眼于如何跟广播公司达成协议,以及如何在电视信号发射中断时进行例行维护。Air-traffic controllers and pilots would not take kindly to being confronted with the equivalent of a TV test card.空中交通管制员和飞行员可不会乐意接受电视测试卡的等价物。 /201309/257858

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  Business商业报道Veolias boardroom battle威立雅集团的董事会斗争Plumbing the depths政界涉商之深What a row over a water company says about French capitalism.从一家水务公司总经理的连续更替来看法国的资本主义。EVEN by the standards of French business, from which politics is rarely absent, it was an outrageous plan.即便是按照法国商业的惯例,即鲜有政不涉商的标准来看,威立雅集团的打算也是极其过分的。This week news emerged of a plot to oust Antoine Frerot, chief executive of Veolia, a private water and waste group, and replace him with Jean-Louis Borloo, a politician and former energy minister.本周,风言威立雅水务集团密谋用前能源部长,政客让路易·洛取代现任总经理安东尼 弗雷罗的消息四起。Civil servants regularly take the top job at blue-chip French firms.在法国,公务人员担任蓝筹股公司高管也算常事。But Mr Borloo, who has no experience running a business, seemed singularly unqualified to run an unprofitable company which needs deep restructuring.但是由丝毫没有商业经验的洛似乎绝不可以胜任掌管一家需要深度重组的亏损公司。Mr Borloo is a friend of Henri Proglio, who was Veolias chief executive from 2003 until .洛是亨利 布格洛的好友,后者2003至09年曾任威立雅集团的总经理一职。Mr Proglio then handed the job to Mr Frerot, his chosen successor, and became chief executive of Electricite de France, a utility.之后接替布格洛的是其亲自挑选的继任人弗雷罗,而布格洛到公用事业公司法国电力担任总经理。For a year after becoming boss of EDF, Mr Proglio stayed on as Veolias chairman, collecting two big pay packages.在布格洛掌管法国电力一年之后,他仍保有威立雅集团的董事长头衔,同时拿着两大公司的薪酬。After a corporate-governance storm, he stepped down as chairman of Veolia in 2010 but kept a seat on its board.在企业治理风暴之后布格洛才辞掉威立雅集团董事长一职但仍拥有董事席位。The origin of this weeks row is Mr Frerots plan to restructure Veolia, one of Frances largest private-sector employers.本周传言的起因是,威立雅集团,这家法国头号私营公司的主管弗雷罗计划对公司进行重组而引发的。The firms shares have fallen by 60% in the past 12 months, as it has struggled with tumbling profits and high debt.威立雅集团由于利益下滑和重债缠身,去年一年股价下跌了60%。Instead of following the path set out by his former boss, Mr Frerot announced last December that he would take an axe to Mr Proglios empire,弗雷罗去年十二月宣称将放弃前任的既定方案,which spanned 77 countries and 250 varieties of business, and turn Veolia into something resembling a modern, focused company.对这家涉及77个国家,250种商业活动的公司进行大刀阔斧的改革,使之成为一家现代化的、有主要项目的公司。He announced a sale of assets worth 5 billion and a retreat to 40 markets, as well as an overhaul of the companys culture.弗雷罗还宣布将出售价值50亿欧元的资产,退出40个市场,并重建企业文化。It was entirely clear that something radical needed to be done to focus the business, says Per Lekander, an analyst with UBS, an investment bank, in Paris.非常明显,发展重点项目肯定需要做一些出格的事情,位于巴黎的投行瑞银集团的分析师佩尔·莱坎德如是所说。But Mr Frerots rebellion has infuriated Mr Proglio, who has reportedly been briefing fellow board members of Veolia that they need to replace him.不过弗雷罗的离经叛道激怒了布格洛,据报道布格洛已与董事会的其他成员碰头商讨要替换弗雷罗。Mr Borloo has denied that he wants to become Veolias chief executive, but has admitted meeting board members.布格洛否认他想担任总经理一职,但承认了与董事们会面。Nicolas Sarkozy, Frances president, was obliged to deny any involvement in the plan to replace Mr Frerot.法国总统萨科奇被迫否认参与了密谋替换弗雷罗一事。Francois Hollande, the Socialist candidate in the presidential election this spring, denounced the plot.参加今年春季总统大选的社会党候选人弗朗索瓦·奥朗德谴责了这个阴谋。Mr Frerot should keep his job, at least for now; Mr Sarkozy cannot risk more controversy so soon before the election.他认为至少当前应该让弗雷罗继续工作。大选临近,萨科奇也不敢再惹争议。Nonetheless, the affair should worry shareholders in big French companies.事尽如此,此事还是让持有法国大公司股票的股东们人心惶惶。The practice of parachuting political figures to the top of important firms is thriving, despite hopes that it was on the way out.尽管只是希望有条出路,但往大公司的高管职位上空降政治人物的活动还是很流行的。Most recently, Alexandre de Juniac, a chief of staff to Christine Lagarde when she was finance minister, took charge at Air France in spite of having no operating experience of the airline business.最近,曾在拉杰德任财长时担任其幕僚长的亚历山大·德 朱尼亚克,在毫无航空业管理经验的情况下掌管起了法航。France Inc continues to be influenced by a small network of politically connected power brokers. Mr Proglios continuing sway over Veolia is merely an extreme example.法国公司继续被一小撮有着政治纽带的权力经纪人所影响着。而布格洛对威立雅集团持续不断的影响仅仅只是个特例。 /201305/241923Science and technology科学技术The history of AIDS艾滋病的历史Heroes and villains英雄与熊The story of AIDS involves many larger-than-life characters, good and bad艾滋病的故事涉及一些富有英雄色的人物,有好,也有坏。ANNIVERSARIES are times for reflection, and this one should be no exception, for the 30-year history of AIDS is a mirror in which humanity can examine itself.人们往往在纪念日反思,这次也会不例外:艾滋病30年的历史是一面能使人类自我审视的镜子。From questionable scientists to philanthropic billionaires, peoples actions against AIDS, and reactions to it, have shown up the best and worst that humans have to offer.从被人质疑的科学家到仁慈的亿万富翁,人们与艾滋病抗争行动,以及对它的反应,已揭露出了人类所表现出来的善与恶。Such dualism was there from the beginning, in the question of who discovered the AIDS-causing virus.这种二重性从一开始便存在,就在谁发现了艾滋病致病病毒问题上。There were two claimants.有两个自认有功者:One, Robert Gallo, is American. The other,Luc Montagnier, is French.一位是美国的罗伯特盖洛;另外一位是法国的吕克?蒙塔尼。Dr Gallo called his discovery HTLV-3.盖洛士称他发现HTLV-3病毒。Dr Montagnier called his LAV.蒙塔尼士称他发现LAV病毒。They were in fact the same thing.HTLV-3病毒和LAV病毒实际上是相同的东西。It turned out, however, that Dr Gallos virus had come from Dr Montagniers laboratory.然而,结果明,盖洛士的病毒是源于蒙塔尼士士的实验室。It was never conclusively proved how, though a contaminated sample may have been to blame.但是从来没有确凿地据明病毒怎样从蒙塔尼士士的实验室传播开来,虽然可能追究于受污染的实验样本。And Dr Gallo was exonerated of any wrongdoing by an official investigation and is universally recognised to have done important work on AIDS.经过正式调查,盖洛士摆脱了一切不道德行为的罪名,并被普遍认为他在艾滋病方面做出重大贡献。But only Dr Montagnier won the Nobel prize—eloquent testimony to some peoples opinion of the whole affair.但是,蒙塔尼士获得诺贝尔奖是对整件事某些看法的最有说力的据。Another source of conflict was whether HIV, as the virus eventually came to be known, was truly the cause of AIDS.另一个冲突的源头在于现在广为人知的HIV病毒是否是引起艾滋病真正成因。At the beginning of the epidemic, that might have been debatable.在艾滋病的刚刚开始盛行时,这可能性是富有争议的。Perhaps HIV was merely a passenger that took advantage of an immune system weakened by another cause?也许HIV病毒仅仅个过客,而造成免疫系统衰弱的真凶另有其人?One once-respected scientist, Peter Duesberg, who did early research on viral causes of cancer, would not drop the idea.曾备受尊重的从事滤过性毒菌引起的癌症的早期研究的科学家彼得?迪斯贝格没有终止这想法。He insisted—and still insists—that the weakening of the immune system characteristic of AIDS is caused by drug-taking, and that HIV is, indeed, a passenger.他坚持认为—现在仍然坚持—,认为艾滋病的特征免疫系统的衰弱是由吸毒引起的,因而HIV病毒确实只是个过客。This theory would not have mattered much except that Thabo Mbeki, a former president of South Africa, latched on to it.但南非前总统塔?姆贝基对这一观点感兴趣,就会引起重大影响。Since South Africa has the worlds largest number of AIDS cases, and one of its highest infection rates, this was bad news,由于南非拥有全世界最多的艾滋病患者而且是其最高感染率国家之一,这个前总统对这种理论一感了兴趣,可糟了。as was Mr Mbekis health minister, Manto Tshabalala-Msimang, who was appointed mainly because she agreed with him, and recommended beetroot and garlic as treatment for the disease.他居然还任命曼托查巴拉拉-姆西曼为卫生部长,只是因为这位认同这位前总统的观点,而且那部长还建议用建议用甜菜根和大蒜来治疗艾滋病。Only with the election of Jacob Zuma, who has himself been publicly tested for HIV, did South Africa return to sensible anti-AIDS policies.直到雅各布?祖玛当选,亲身公开对HIV病毒进行测试,南非在反艾滋病政策才重返理智。Among the heroes, Bill Gates looms large.在众多英雄好汉之中,比尔盖茨赫然耸现。The foundation into which he poured much of his Microsoft fortune took AIDS seriously from the beginning, forming a particularly fruitful partnership with the government of Botswana, one of the worst-affected countries.他用很大一部分微软的财富的捐资建立的基金会从源头治理艾滋病,特别从富有伙伴关系的受灾最严重国家之一的茨瓦纳政府开始。And Nelson Mandela, the heroeshero, also cleaved eventually to the path of righteousness, even while admitting he had not done enough to combat AIDS during his own presidency of South Africa.而纳尔逊?曼德拉也是英雄中的英雄,在正义的路径上披荆斩棘地前进,即使他承认在他当总统时在与艾滋病抗战上留有余力。Mr Gates and Mr Mandela are easy to admire.盖茨先生和曼德拉先生很值得欣赏。One hero that many AIDS activists have difficulty accepting, though, is George Bush junior.不过,许多艾滋病活动家难以接受,另个英雄,是小布什。Activists do not much like born-again Christians, who take a dim view of the sort of sex lives that help to sp HIV.活动家极不喜欢那些信仰重生的基督徒与其蔑视“性生活能传播艾滋病”的行为。But Mr Bush was responsible for setting up the Presidents Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief and for making sure it had plenty of money.但是布什先生负责建立艾滋病救济总统紧急计划,并确保提供充足的资金。PEPFAR is one of the two main organizations, along with the Global Fund, that dish out the cash that rich countries give poor ones to combat AIDS.PEPFAR是两个富裕国家给贫穷国家在与艾滋病抗争上提供现金救济的主要组织之一,与环球基金齐名。Last year, it spent almost billion on AIDS and the tuberculosis that often accompanies it, and it is responsible for helping half of the 6.6m people now on anti-retroviral drugs.去年,它在抗艾滋病和往往伴随出现的结核病上将近花费70亿美元,而且在逆转病毒药物上六千六百万患者中半数都能受惠。Many activists may be reluctant to give Mr Bush credit. But handsome is as handsome does.许多活动家可能不太愿意嘉许布什的功劳。但是,行为美才是真美。 /201304/235921

  Business商业报道GMs next bossGM的下任老板Detroits first lady底特律第一夫人The car giants new boss is not only a woman but a car guy这家汽车巨头的新老板虽是女性却还是个汽车人。IT MAY look like a firm stuck in one gear: General Motors market share in America, at around 18%, has not shifted in a while.看起来,这家公司是陷入了僵局:通用汽车在美国的市场占有率已经在很久都没有变化了。But on December 10th its announcement that in January Mary Barra will take the wheel to become one of the most powerful executives in the car industry, and indeed corporate America, signals a shift up through the cogs.但是在12月10日,该公司宣布在一月,Mary Barra将掌管公司。这使她成为了汽车业,也是全美国最有权势的执行人之一,标志着汽车行业的一次重要转变。Three years ago she became one of the highest-ranking women in the business when she was named head of global product development at GM.三年之前被任命为GM全球产品发展部主管的时候,她就已经成为了商业界排名榜首的几位女性之一。Almost as striking as the fact that she will now take the top job in what has traditionally been a male environment is that she is a genuine car guy.和她即将在传统上都是男性文化充盈的环境中掌权一样令人惊奇的事实是她是个正宗的汽车人。In some respects this is a step backwards for GM.从某些方面上说,这个举措对GM来说是一种让步。She is a company woman who has spent her entire career working for the carmaker.Mary Barra成长于公司内部,整个职业生涯都在这家汽车制造商中渡过。Dan Akerson, GMs current chairman and chief executive, who retires next year, came to Detroit from other industries, as did his counterparts at Ford and Chrysler.将在明年退休的GM现任主席及首席执行官Dan Akerson是从其他行业转投底特律的,福特、克莱斯勒的老板也是如此。That was a big change for a business distrustful of outsiders but in need of a new approach to leadership to oversee the turnaround of Americas carmakers after the ravages of a financial crisis and a crippling recession.对这个外界充满怀疑的行业来说,这绝对是一个大变化,同时这个行业也急需一种新的方式来带领美国汽车制造业扭转金融危机造成的破坏和走出目前的衰退情境。As Mr Akerson noted, the new GM that emerged from 11 bankruptcy protection in is run very differently from the way the giant carmaker was managed in the past.如Akerson先生所说,在年后根据联邦破产法第11章的破产保护而重组以来,新GM的运营方式同过去相比已经非常不同了。When asked how Ms Barra might fare in a company known for its old-boy mentality, Mr Akerson insisted that the perception is quite dated.当被问到Barra女士在这个以男性文化闻名的公司中会遇到什么问题时,Akerson坚持说这种观念已经非常过时了。During close to four years of leadership, Mr Akerson has concentrated on building teams rather than the top-down management of old.在将近4年的领导过程中,Arkerson专心于建设管理团队而不是同过去一样采用由上至下的管理模式。But as a former military man his brusque demeanour may have tempered his ability to resist ordering people around.但是作为一位前军队人员,Arkerman直率的举止Ms Barra is likely to take a more conciliatory approach.看起来Barra女士会采取一种更加中庸的做法。Mary is a coach, and thats the sort of management style this company needs, says David Cole of the Centre for Automotive Research.Mary就像教练一样,这正是这家公司需要的管理方式。汽车研发中心的David Cole说道。She was certainly groomed for the role.她当然为这个角色修饰打扮过。She is part of a generation of women targeted by GM to achieve great things.Barra是GM认定将会作出一番成就的一代女性中的一个。The firm, embarrassed by its macho culture, has made a big effort to bring on female talent.这家为男性文化的公司为招揽女性人才作出的很大努力。Indeed, the carmaker now has a fast-growing cadre of top managers who are women; there are five more on its executive committee as well as Ms Barra.实际上,这家汽车制造商中女性高层骨干也在快速增加;在它的执行委员会中还有5名同Barra一样的女士。A quarter of its factory managers are female.其工厂经理中1/4是女性。A woman runs the crucial electric-vehicle programme.至关重要的电动汽车项目也由一名女性领导。GM will also benefit from Ms Barras skills as a product person.GM还会因Barra女士从事产品工作的经历而受益。She is an engineer who knows cars inside out.她是一位对汽车了如指掌的工程师。Mr Akerson leaves on an upbeat note.Arkerson先生留下的一副乐观的景象。The carmakers recent profits have exceeded expectations, its share price has risen sharply in recent months and many of its latest models are widely praised for engineering, design and quality.这家汽车制造商的近期利润已经超过了预期,它的最近股价也是一路飙升,新推出的车型中多款都在工程、设计和质量上饱受赞誉。The new Chevrolet Impala was cited as the best saloon ever tested by Consumer Reports, an influential magazine.新型的雪佛兰英帕拉被很有影响的杂志《消费者报告》称为测试过的最好的轿车。Still, Mr Akerson warns that as far as weve come, weve got to go that far again.然而Arkeson先生警告说尽管我们已经有了一些成绩,我们需要尽力做到更好。There is plenty more room for improvement.发展的空间还很大。Other models in GMs range are in need of the makeover she has aly given to the Chevrolet Malibu and the companys range of pick-up trucks.GM的其他车型也需要Barra女士给雪佛兰迈锐宝以及皮卡车所带来的那种改变。Successive bosses have failed to fix Opel, GMs loss-making European arm.连续几任老板都没能改变其在欧洲不断亏损的分—欧宝。And the important Chinese market appears to be slowing.而且至关重要的中国市场进展缓慢。Ms Barra has to make sure that she keeps improving GMs line-up of vehicles if it is to take on Ford and Toyota.Barra女士需要继续提高GM旗下的各款车辆来对抗福特和丰田。 /201312/269630

  

  

  

  Tsering recons these caves could have stored food and supplies to last a year.这些洞穴在最后一年曾用于储存食物和物资。So in theory, Guge could have held out for a while.所以在理论上,古格可以坚持一段时间。Apparently, these secret passages also allowed the besieged people of Guge access to water.显然,这些秘密通道也让被围困的古格人有可获取的水源。Some passages led to an exit near the River.还有一些道路可以通向河边的一个出口。With food and water available, Tsaparang held out for close to a month before the Ladahkis stepped out the offensive.有了食物和水源,拉达哈尼斯的攻势来犯前特萨帕曾抵抗了一个月。By now, the invaders had taken over the unprotected lower sections of the citadel,现在,侵略者已经接管了城堡未受保护地势较低的部分and have gained a crucial bargaining chip in the process:并在这一过程中获得了一个至关重要用于讨价还价的筹码。thousands of Guge prisoners.那就是成千上万的古格囚犯。Halfway up the citadel stands a very peculiar stone partition,城堡的半山腰是一种非常奇特的石头区域,unlike anything else found in Tsaparang.不像在特萨帕中所发现的。201403/281288

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