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2019年11月22日 01:21:55 | 作者:城市信息 | 来源:新华社
Science and Technology Mimicry The first sparrowhawk of spring科技 模仿 春天第一只雀鹰To obtain better access to warbler nests, cuckoos mimic raptors为了更好地抢占莺的巢穴,杜鹃通常会模仿成猛禽的样子THE resemblance between cuckoos and sparrowhawks has been a cause of comment since ancient times.杜鹃和雀鹰之间的相似性自古以来就是引发的原因。As the photographs above show, the two birds (cuckoo on the left, sparrowhawk on the right) are similar in size, shape and plumage, and both have a conspicuous pattern of bars on their breasts—a pattern found on many species of hawk, but not on the cuckoos relatives.正如上面的照片显示的两只鸟(左侧的是杜鹃,右侧的是雀鹰),它们在大小,形状和羽毛上都很相似,二者的胸前都有突出的条纹——许多鹰类都有这种类型的条纹,但杜鹃的亲戚中却没有。Until now, though, no one has thought to take that observation any further, and test whether the one is truly mimicking the other.虽然现在还没有人对此进行更深入的观察,并实杜鹃是否真的在模仿对方。Cuckoos would have good reason to do so, since the warblers and other small birds in whose nests they lay their eggs are understandably frightened of hawks, and give them a wide berth.杜鹃有很好的理由去模仿鹰,由于莺和其它的小型鸟类在它们的巢中产卵,自然这些小型鸟类就很害怕鹰,并且对鹰敬而远之。Such leeway would make it easier for a female cuckoo to lay where she chose.这样的空当就给了雌杜鹃自由选择巢穴产卵的机会。Nick Davies and Justin Welbergen, a pair of ornithologists at Cambridge University, have now corrected that omission.尼克?戴维斯(Nick Davies)贾斯汀?韦伯尔根(Justin Welbergen)是剑桥大学的鸟类学专家,它们现在补充了这种遗漏。They have tested the idea that cuckoos mimic hawks—or, at least, that warblers think cuckoos look hawklike.它们已经实了杜鹃会模仿鹰——或者说,至少在莺看来,杜鹃非常像鹰。As they report in the latest edition of Behavioral Ecology, they have found that it is true, but only up to a point.就像它们在最新一期的Behavioral Ecology上报道的那样,它们已经发现这是正确的,但至少在某种程度上可以这么讲。To carry out their test, Dr Davies and Dr Welbergen put stuffed birds near reed-warbler nests, to observe the nestholders reactions.为了进行它们的测试,戴维斯士和韦伯尔根士将几种鸟类标本放到了莺的芦苇巢附近,用来观察这些巢主人的反应。They used three species: sparrowhawks (which are a direct threat to a warblers life), cuckoos (which do not harm adult warblers, but do stop them reproducing successfully) and doves (included as a control, since they pose no threat at all).他们用了三种鸟类:雀鹰(直接威胁莺生命的猛禽),杜鹃(不会威胁成年莺类,但是会顺利地影响莺类的繁殖),还有鸽子(只是作为一个对照,它们不会对莺类造成任何威胁)。The breast of each stuffed bird was adorned with a piece of white silk.每种鸟类的胸前都用一块白色的丝绸装饰。Some pieces of silk were left plain. Others had bars drawn on them with a felt-tip pen.一些丝绸偏左放置。其它条纹则用记号笔画制而成。Once the stuffed birds were in place, the two researchers recorded the reactions of the nestholders.一旦将这些鸟类标本放置好,这两位研究人员就记录巢主人的反应。In particular, they measured how closely the nestholders were willing to approach the stuffed intruder, and also how noisily the intruder was mobbed, in an attempt to drive it away.他们会专门评估这些巢主人对于不速之客的接近程度,以及围攻入侵者并试图将其赶走的激烈场景。The barring, they found, was crucial.他们发现了一个非常关键的例外。Though the warblers could clearly tell the difference between the species (they mobbed the cuckoos most and stayed farthest away from the sparrowhawks),虽然莺类可以很清楚地分辨出这些鸟类的不同(它们主要围攻杜鹃,最大限度地远离雀鹰),in the cases of all three types of stuffed bird those decorated with stripes were approached more cautiously and mobbed less than those without stripes.对于那些装饰了条纹的三种鸟类标本,它们更谨慎地接触,并且围攻那些没有条纹的鸟类。Hawk-like stripes do, then, provoke what is, from a cuckoos point of view, the desired reaction:从杜鹃的角度来看,鹰状条纹所起的主要作用就是它所希望看到的:less of the sort of behaviour that is likely to interfere with her egg-laying mission.如果缺乏这种行为会则会影响到杜鹃的产卵任务。Not perfect mimicry, but good enough to be useful.虽然这种模仿不甚高明,但已经足够用了。Probably, Dr Davies and Dr Welbergen have caught cuckoo and warbler in the middle of an evolutionary arms race.也许戴维斯士和韦伯尔根士已经注意到了杜鹃和莺正处于一个进化的军备竞赛中。Come back in 10,000 years and cuckoos and sparrowhawks may be indistinguishable.回到10000年前,杜鹃和雀鹰或许就难以分辨了。 /201212/216885Obituary;Robert Byrd讣告;罗伯特·伯德Robert C. Byrd, doyen of the ed States Senate, died on June 28th, aged 92罗伯特·C·伯德,资深美国参议院议员,逝世于6月28日,享年92岁WHENEVER Robert Byrd walked the corridors and chambers of the Senate, he went in a crowd of people. Some were his constituents, in camouflage caps and T-shirts, gape-mouthed among the gilt and marble, come to talk to him about the problems of Marsh Fork Elementary School or their uncles black lung. But he also saw Henry Foote of Mississippi wielding his pistol, Sam Houston of Texas whittling wooden hearts for the ladies, and little John Randolph of Virginia strutting past with his hunting dogs; and Cicero in the shadows, and just behind him Cato the younger, whispering “I would not be beholden to a tyrant.”无论什么时候罗伯特·伯德行走在参议院的走廊和房间里,总有一群人相伴而行。一些是他的选民,戴着迷帽,穿着T恤,瞠目于参议员的金碧辉煌,他们是来找他谈马什福克小学或者他们叔叔的黑肺之类的问题。但他也见过密西西比的亨利·富特挥舞手,萨姆·休斯顿为女士们制作木心,还见过矮小的约翰·伦道夫昂首阔步走过参议院;还有阴影中的西塞罗,和他身后的小卡图,喃喃:“我不沾暴君的光。”The Roman Senate fascinated Mr Byrd almost as much as the American. When it declined, the Republic fell. And why had it declined? Because it had become passive, failed to raise its voice; and especially because it had handed meekly to Caesar and Sulla the power of the pursestrings. Mr Byrd therefore spent his career—the longest Senate service in American history, incorporating six years as majority whip, 12 years as majority or minority leader and 20 years as chairman or ranking minority member of the Appropriations Committee—learning, describing and expertly applying the rules that kept the Senate a force in government. He was constantly alert both to executive overreach and to weakness in his own beloved chamber, “the anchor of the Republic, the morning and evening star in the American constitutional constellation”.伯德对罗马元老院的着迷不亚于美国参议院。随着元老院的衰退,罗马共和国也灭亡了。它为什么会衰退?因为它变得消极,不再高声疾呼;特别是因为对于凯撒与苏拉,它将财政拱手相让。因此,伯德终其一生——美国历史上任期最长的参议员,包括6年的多数党党鞭,12年多数党或少数党领袖以及20年拨款委员会主席或高级少数党成员——学习,描述,而且巧妙地应用这些规则,使得参议院仍旧是政府的一股力量。他时刻警惕滥用职权和自己受爱戴的内阁的弱点,“共和国之栋梁,美国宪法星座中的启明星和长庚星。”Dignity was his byword: three-piece suits, velvet waistcoats and the rolling oratory of a man who had been a fine lay preacher before he left West Virginia. His courtesy was instinctive, his thank-you notes reliably there the next day. The point of all this, though, was to uphold the worth of the Senate. At meetings with the president he insisted on taking a staff person, because the president had one, and the branches were equal. He kept laptops out of the chamber, but voted for televised proceedings, so that the Senate would be visible to the people to whom it belonged. The constitution, as he reminded listeners, pulling it from his left breast pocket where he kept it over his heart, had made the American people sovereign and mentioned their Congress first. Now, like him, they had to revere and defend it.高雅是他的座右铭:3件套装西,天鹅绒马甲和圆熟的口才——他离开西弗吉尼亚前曾是一个优秀的非神职布道者。他的礼节毫不做作,他的感谢信从不迟到。然而,这一切的意义都在与维护参议院的形象。会见总统时,他坚持要带上一名工作人员,因为三权领导等级相同,而总统带了一个。他不允许在会议室里用笔记本电脑,但却持电视直播议程,好让该看见的人看见参议院的样子。宪法让美国成为一个主权国家,它把国会放在第一位,他在提醒听众时,从左胸口袋里拿出了他一直保存在心上的宪法。现在,像伯德一样,他们也要尊重和维护它。He grappled masterfully with 11 presidents, and liked them less as he got older. George Bush junior he detested, a reckless and arrogant man who, on Iraq, overrode the war-declaring powers of Congress while the Senate stood pitifully by. “In this terrible show of weakness”, Mr Byrd wrote, “the Senate left an indelible stain upon its own escutcheon.” Some Democrats pleased him little better. Though most of his 18,500 votes went with his party, he had an old southerners conservative streak, besides a West Virginians tenderness for coal-mining and steel-making; and party ran second to the Senate, in any case. Bill Clintons bid to seize the pursestrings from Congress in the 1990s with the line-item budget veto was opposed by Mr Byrd in 14 separate one-hour speeches, learned by heart, to slow up debate. He had filibustered before, the old-fashioned way: in 1964 for a straight 14 hours 13 minutes, to try to kill the Civil Rights Act.他巧妙地与11任总统周旋,并且随着年长,越来越不喜欢他们。他憎恶小布什,在伊拉克问题上,布什越过了国会的宣战权,而参议院还在可怜地等待。“在这次严重的示弱行为后,”伯德写道,“参议院在自己的盾上留下了不可磨灭的污点。”有些民主党人也讨不得他的欢喜。虽然他的18500票中,党内人士居多,但他有着老南方的保守性格,和西弗吉尼亚人对炼钢和煤矿的温柔;而且在任何情况下,参议院优先于党。九十年代,比尔·克林顿曾企图通过项目预算否决权,从国会那里接管财政,被伯德反对,并以分别的14个一小时演讲,全部脱稿,拖延了议程。他以前也曾以老式的方式阻挠议事:1964年,一次长达14小时13分钟的演讲,试图遏止人权法案。This he later regretted. He was sorry, too, that he found himself slipping into talk of “white niggers” and “race mongrels”, and that he was exposed as an active member of the Ku Klux Klan, charging 150 friends and colleagues membership and robe-and-hood hire to form a chapter in 1943 in Crab Orchard, West Virginia. He had briefly joined the Klan for its anticommunism, he explained, and for the platform it gave him, a mere butcher and fiddle-player, to organise people locally. This, with his spirited playing of “Rye Whiskey” and “Turkey in the Straw”, soon got him elected to the state House of Delegates in 1946, the US House of Representatives in 1952 and, by 1958, at 40, the Senate, which through almost nine terms he never left.之后他也对此感到后悔。他也对自己不知不觉开始大谈“白黑鬼”和“黑白杂种”,还有他被揭穿是3K党的活跃成员,1943年在西弗吉尼亚州的螃蟹果园。曾向150个朋友和同事收取10美元的会费以及会员必备的绳子和兜帽的3美元租金,表示抱歉。他解释说,他曾经短暂的加入3K党,因为他们的反共和他们提供给他召集本地群众的平台,即屠夫和小提琴手。随着他动人的曲目《黑麦威士忌》和《草丛中的火鸡》,这个平台很快让他在1946年被选入州参议院,1952年被选入美国众议员,而且到了1958年,他40岁的时候,到达了参议院,并且几乎任满9期从未离开。Yet his heart was in West Virginia, a poor and backward state of mountains and coal mines, where foster-parents had brought him up without power or running water and he had finished college, in a decade of night classes, five years after he joined the Senate. His years on Appropriations were spent not just juggling favours and nitpicking on procedure, but also proudly channelling money to the hills and hollows: making gravel tracks into Robert C. Byrd Freeways, turning fetid lock-ups into Robert C. Byrd Correctional Institutions, setting up the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope to look at the stars. This, too, was what the Senate was for.然而他的心仍在西弗吉尼亚,一个多山,多煤矿的,贫穷落后的州,在那里,他的养父母在没有电和自来水的情况下把他养大,而在他进入参议院5年后,他为期10年的夜校课程,才算读完了。他在拨款委员会的几年,不只是尽力帮人的忙和挑剔手续,他还把资金送到了丘陵和洼地:让石子路变成了罗伯特·C·伯德高速公路,把恶臭的拘留所变成了罗伯特·C·伯德惩教所,设立罗伯特·C·伯德绿堤望远镜用来观星。这些,也都是参议员存在的意义。On the mountain top在山巅上In one of his weekly online columns he mused on the beauty of mountains, where God had revealed himself to Moses and Elijah had challenged the false prophets of Baal. A blogger or two pointed out that the lopped-off, naked mountains in the south of his state owed much to Mr Byrds votes for uninhibited mining. He was unrepentant. Mining brought jobs, and burning coal kept America going. The people powered America; the Senate was the peoples house; and the man who preserved the Senate, in all its glory and prodigality and arcane complexity, was Robert C. Byrd, King of Pork and senator senatorum.有一次,在他的每周线上论坛上,他赞叹山的壮丽,上帝就是在山上向西展示真身,而以利亚也是在山上挑战巴力神的假先知的。几位客作家指出,他们南方家乡的斑驳光秃的山都归咎于伯德对无限制采矿的持。他却并不后悔。采矿带来工作,而燃煤保障美国的前进。人民赋予美国力量;参议院是人民的议院;而保护参议院所有的荣光,奢侈和深不可测的那个人,正是猪肉王,参议员中的参议员,罗伯特·C·伯德。 201207/192861Its Wednesday, February 16, Im Natali Morris. And its time to get loaded.今天是2月16日,周三。我是Natali Morris。是时候接收最新科技资讯了。Secretary of State Hillary Clinton did speak about internet freedom on Tuesday, but we didnt get many concrete plans as to what the government plans to do to insure this internationally. The State Department does have to walk a fine line ensuring security from cyber criminals and terrorists, but also they want to ensure equal unfettered access though no word on how theyre gonna do that yet.美国国务卿希拉里·克林顿周二提到了互联网自由问题,但我们并没得知政府对这一国际问题的任何具体工作计划。国务院必须要确保网络安全,避免网络黑客和恐怖分子的袭击,但同时也要确保网络公平自由,虽然目前政府还没有任何表示。In related news, we do know that the Obama Administration plans to increase the budget for cyber security at home. Mondays budget proposal included more money for security research and development to reduce the risk of insider threats and make sure the programs that run our national utilities are not threatened. This is just a proposal, but itll kick into effect in 2012.相关新闻称,奥巴马政府计划增加国内网络安全方面的预算。周一的预算草案显示国家预算不仅包括了网络安全的研究与开发经费,还包括减小内部网络威胁和维护国家公用事业安全运行的经费。虽然这还只是提议,但这项计划将于2012年生效。Leapfrog announced a tablet for children. Its the LeapPad Explorer. It looks like a kid-friendly version of a tablet. It has games and activities to help children learn to , count, practice vocabulary and more. It also has a camera, a recorder, a microphone and a five-inch color touchscreen. Itll cost 99 dollars when it comes out this summer.Leapfrog公司宣布将为孩子们推出一款平板电脑。那就是LeapPad Explorer。它看上去就是一款儿童友好型的平板电脑。它拥有玩游戏以及帮助儿童阅读,数数,学习词汇等功能。它还配备有摄像头,录像机,麦克风和一个5英寸的色触摸屏。这款电脑售价99美元,并将于今年夏天上市。Apple has enabled subscriptions in the App store for things like magazines, newspapers and s. This means that publishers of content will be able to set the price and timeframe of your subscriptions. These are subscriptions for the Mac app store and the ITunes app store. Apple will process the payments through your ITunes account and take 30% of the revenue. This is the same subscription service that news corps The Daily uses.苹果公司的用户可以在应用商城中获取杂志,报纸和视频。这意味着出版商可以为苹果用户设定图书价格和图书出版时间表了。目前,这一功能对Mac应用商城和Itunes应用商城的用户可用。苹果公司将通过用户的iTunes账户收取交易额30%的务费用。新闻集团的The Daily报也是同样的商业模式。And if you feel like your cellphone bill is always higher than you anticipated, its probably because of taxes. A new report from KSE partner shows that customers in Nebraska, Washington, and New York are paying the highest percentage of tax on wireless bills. The rate is over 20% of the total amount in these states. The national average is not much better at 16%. Unfortunately this is not very well regulated, and municipalities can make changes to these taxes as they see fit, so the customers get shafted.如果你的手机的费用总是超出你的预计,那么这有可能是税收造成的。卡拉奇券交易所的最新报告显示,内布拉斯加州,华盛顿和纽约消费者们的手机税率是最高的。在这些州税率是20%。全国平均税率不超过16%。不幸的是税率的多少并不规律,市民可以进行适当的调整,这样消费者就能受到一定保护了。Logitech will upgrade its streaming service to stream to IPhone, IPad and IPod touch. Logitech lifesize center is a product for businesses to stream to employees for the purpose of training or meeting. Its not a two-way communication tool, it only sends out to approve people who can now watch it on IOS devices.罗技科技公司将更新其视频务,以使iPhone,iPad和iPod touch用户也可使用其务。罗技科技的Lifesize视频中心是一款向职工发放培训和会议视频的商业产品。这并不是一款用于双向交流的工具,它允许用户向指定用户发送视频,接收的用户将可以在IOS系统的电子设备上观看所接收的视频。And finally, a German man received the honorable mention in this years World Press Photo Contest for taking photos of Google street view images. He put his camera in front of his computer and photographed images of unfortunate events that were on Google Street View, like this one, and this one, and this one. He called his photos as a series of unfortunate events, if you want to page through this, find at link at cnet.com/loaded.最后一条消息,一名德国人使用谷歌街景技术截取图片并获得世界新闻摄影比赛荣誉奖。他用照相机对准电脑屏幕拍摄下利用谷歌街景技术找到的不幸事件图片,这张就是,这张也是,这张也是。他称这些图片为《一系列的不幸事件》,如果你想查看相关的详细信息,请登录cnet.com。Thats your news of the day. I will see you tomorrow, Im Natali Morris for cnet, and youve just been loaded.以上就是今天的科技新闻。我们明天见,我是CNET的Ntali Morris,感谢您的收看。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201210/206293

Come back six months later and its like a different world.六个月后回来,它就像一个不同的世界。The sun is shining.阳光闪耀。Its wet. Its warm.很湿,很温暖。Things are alive and skirring around.东西都是活的,而且在周围打转。So we may be being misled, seeing its frozen, cold side.所以我们可能被误导,看到其冻结,非常冰冷的一面。And in fact, we are just there at the wrong season.事实上,我们只是在错误的季节而已。We know that on earth, some bacteria can survive being frozen for millions of years.我们知道,在地球上,一些细菌被冻结了数百万年后仍可以存活。They can also eat perchlorate,它们还可以吃高氯酸盐,the highly reactive chemical Pheonix found in the Martian soil.土壤中发现的高活性化学物质。Presumably if theres life at the Pheonix site,大概在凤凰城这个地方有生命存在,it had learned the same trick.它学到了相同的诀窍。So there might be organisms that are literally eating the rocks and reacting with perchlorate,所以可能有生物吃岩石并和高氯酸盐发生反应,below the surface, shielded from the ultraviolet light,在表面下,屏蔽紫外线,just having a great old time five million years ago.仅仅拥有一个伟大的五百万年前的旧时光。The party is over because everybody is frozen,聚会结束了,因为大家都被冷冻了起来,but another five million years,但另一个五百万年后,the party will start up again as the Martian summer comes to the north polar regions and the ice turns to water.火星的夏天来到北极地区,冰变成水后聚会再次开始。The party might not be over everwhere.聚会也许并不会结束。The gas methane has been found both by spacecraft in orbit and by telescopes from earth.天然气甲烷都被在轨道中的宇宙飞船和地球上的望远镜所发现。注:听力文本来源于普特201205/182552

Science and Technolgy科技Astronomy天文学Throwing money into space斥资太空A shiny new telescope is crowding out NASAs other science missions一个引人瞩目的望远镜把其他科研项目挤出NASA的预算THE Hubble space telescope, an orbiting observatory launched in 1990 by NASA, Americas space agency, has been one of that agencys most successful missions since the Apollo moon shots in the 1960s and 1970s. It has produced a string of scientific achievements: confirming that most galaxies have a black hole in the middle; providing a front-row seat for the collision, in 1994, of a comet with the planet Jupiter; and helping to uncover the strange fact that the expansion of the universe seems to be accelerating. But beyond the science, it has also been a public-relations hit. Its beautiful images have introduced a generation to the wonders of astronomy.哈勃望远镜是于1990年由美国航空航天局(NASA)发射的一个轨道运行天文台。它已成为美国航空局自20世纪6、70年代阿波罗号发射后最重大的成就之一。它也产生了一系列科学成果:实了大多数星系中间都有一个黑洞;为1994年彗星和木星碰撞的观测提供最清晰的视角;有助于发现宇宙趋于加速膨胀的奇特现象。在科学领域之外,它也同样是一个公众讨论的热点。哈勃望远镜所提供的美妙图片已经将一代又一代人引入天文学奇观中去。So in 2002, when the agency considered plans for a successor that would study the universe in infra-red, rather than visible light, would be y to fly in 2010 and would cost just .5 billion, saying ;yes; was easy. Nine years later, NASA is regretting that decision. The James Webb space telescope (JWST), as the new machine is called, is still in the workshop, and its launch date has been set back repeatedly (2018 is the latest official estimate). Its cost has gone up to .8 billion, a figure that, if history is any guide, could rise still further. Which would be embarrassing at the best of times, but with public-spending cuts looming and NASAs budget flat for the foreseeable future, it is causing real strains.所以在2002年,代理机构考虑一个将用红外线代替可见光研究宇宙的继任者的计划。这个继任者计划在2010年起飞,而且只花25亿美元,因此当时很容易就通过了。但是9年以后,NASA真的很后悔当初的决定。这台名为JWST的新机器仍然还在工作间,并且它的发射日期一再被推演(2018年是最新的官方估计),按照以往的经验推测,这笔预算还会继续增加。在这最佳时期将会是尴尬的。但是随着公共花费削减正隐隐约约呈现并且对NASA未来的预期并不景气,它正造成真的担忧。In July, irritated by the JWSTs rising costs, the House of Representatives tried to cut .9 billion from NASAs budget for next year, in an attempt to have the project cancelled. On November 1st, after lobbying from the telescopes defenders (particularly the American Astronomical Society), the Senate passed a bill that restored the telescopes funding.7月,受到JWST不断上升的花费的影响,美国众议院试图从NASA下半年的预算中减少19亿美元,让这个项目取消。在9月1日,在望远镜保护人(特别是NASA)的游说下,众议院通过了恢复望远镜基金的议案。But it is not just politicians that are restive. Astronomers have long worried that the ballooning costs of the telescope would affect NASAs other science projects. Officially, the space agency will say only that other missions will be delayed, but there are fears that some could be cut completely. One potential sacrifice is WFIRST, an infra-red space telescope intended for launch in 2020. This is designed to probe the nature of ;dark energy;, which is thought to be responsible for the quickening expansion of the universe that Hubble helped bring to the worlds attention. A string of other, smaller projects could suffer as well.但是焦躁不安的不仅仅是政治家,天文学家也一直担心不断增加德望远镜开会影响美国航空航天局其他科研项目。尽管航天局发布消息说其他项目将仅仅被推迟,但是仍然存在一些项目被完全终止的可怕结果。其中最有可能被牺牲的项目是计划在2020年推出的红外线太红望远镜。该望远镜为了探究宇宙;暗能量;的本质而设计,而;暗能量;被认为是加快宇宙膨胀的主要原因。哈勃望远镜在探究;暗能量;中的作用引起了世界的关注。接下来一系列的其他小项目也将遇到相同的困境。The telescopes advocates say junking it now would be a false economy. Most of the hardware has aly been built, so cancelling it, they argue, would mean throwing all that away. And they play on fears that America is in danger of losing its pre-eminence in high-budget ;big science;, following the closure earlier this year of the Illinois-based Tevatron, the second-most-powerful particle accelerator in the world.望远镜的拥护者认为现在放弃它也是假省钱。大多数的硬件已经开发完成,因此,他们认为取消他它将意味着前功尽弃。随着今年早些时候,世界上第二给力的粒子加速器,伊利诺斯州的一万亿电子伏加速器的关闭,他们担忧美国正面临着失去它在以高预算为撑的尖端科技领域领先地位的威胁。The JWST, if it does eventually fly, would surely do some spectacular science. The size of its mirror-25 square metres, as against Hubbles 4.5—and the location of its orbit far from the reflected light of Earth will allow it to study some of the earliest (and therefore faintest) events in the universe, including the formation of the first galaxies. It will also help with the search for extrasolar planets.如果JWST最后可以升空的话,将要成为科学界的壮举。它的反射镜有25平米——远远超过了哈勃4.5平米的面积——而且它的运行轨道离地球的反射光更远,可以让人们看清早期宇宙发生的事情,包括第一个星系的形成。它也能对寻找太阳系外的行星提供帮助。Hubble, of course, was also late-and around billion over budget. It was lampooned after its launch when a wonky mirror meant that its images were blurred almost to the point of uselessness, and a mission by the Space Shuttle to fix the problem cost hundreds of millions of dollars. Given its subsequent record, few now begrudge the cost. With all that in mind, NASA will press on with the JWST, at least for now. All that remains for Americas astronomers to do is pray that their favourite mission is not one of those delayed, or even cancelled, to keep the new telescope on track.当然,哈勃望远镜也是出现较晚的,并且超出预算达20亿美元。在它发射之后因为一个镜片晃动造成像模糊而被讽刺是毫无用处的,并且一个用航天飞机来完成这样一个修理任务要花费上亿美元,但是据它随后传回的数据来看,很少有人会吝啬这笔钱。鉴于这一切,就目前而言,美国航空航天局会对JWST的研发施压。对于美国航天员来说,他们所能做的就是祈祷他们热衷的任务没有被拖延或者取消将来让望远镜走上正轨。 /201210/202747

Books and Arts;Book Review;New fiction;Trouble in pairs文艺;书评;新书出炉;祸不单行Beautiful Lies. By Clare Clark.《美丽谎言》,克莱尔·克拉克著买。 CLARE CLARK found her new heroine when she unearthed an article in a literary journal about a British Liberal MPs wife who had led a double life in the 1890s. In “Beautiful Lies” Maribel is a Chilean bohemian married to a radical socialist, Edward Campbell Lowe. Her exotic accent, chain-smoking and talent for poetry and photography mark her as a scarlet sheep among the white flock of London society. Maribel also harbours a salacious secret history. If it were ever exposed, the couples peers “would smash their lives as carelessly as eggs”.克莱尔·克拉克偶然看见刊登在文学期刊上的一篇文章(描述19世纪90年代,一位英国自由党派人士兼国会议员的妻子,过着双重生活的故事)时,脑海中就浮现出了《美丽谎言》的女主角。 《美丽谎言》的女主角玛丽贝尔是智裔波西米亚人,嫁给了一位激进的社会主义分子爱德华·坎贝尔·劳伍。玛丽贝尔的外国口音、烟不离手的习惯、写诗天赋与摄影才华让她成为伦敦上流社会中格格不入的异类。玛丽贝尔也有一段不为人知的风流韵事。她的情史一旦曝光,夫妇俩的同僚一定会让他们身败名裂,像被无情砸碎的鸡蛋一样。 The book is set in 1887, which draws parallels with Britain today. Celebrations for Queen Victorias Jubilee are marred by economic crisis, prompting strikes, riots in Trafalgar Square and a corrupt press. Amid the turmoil Edwards passionate socialist views jeopardise his seat in Parliament and Maribels past begins to infiltrate her present. Meanwhile, a mercurial newspaperman appears to be a friend and a socialist sympathiser, but he soon changes tack, hinting that he knows too much. Fear of exposure lies at every turn.本书的故事背景虽是1887年,却与现今的英国颇为相似。当时,维多利亚女王五十周年大庆①的喜悦气氛被经济危机、突然爆发的罢工、特拉法加广场的暴动和堕落的新闻媒体等所破坏。在这样一片动荡中,爱德华激进的社会主义观使其国会议员的地位受到威胁,而且,玛丽贝尔的过往也开始影响她现在的生活。同时,一个狡猾多变的记者假装成一个社会主义崇拜者,开始与爱德华套交情。但不久,他就翻脸,并且暗示自己已经知道了很多秘密。担心秘密曝光,夫妻俩惶惶不可终日。 Ms Clark takes her time with this long, undulating novel. But fans of historical fiction will not be put off by this. She builds the story with discreet layering and surprises for the er about Maribels adventures. Descriptions of photographing “Buffalo Bills Wild West”, investigating a gold mine in Spain and liaising with a prostitute in an elaborate blackmailing plan all add colour.在这本情节跌宕起伏的长篇小说中,克拉克夫人的行文风格有点慢条斯理。不过,历史小说的爱好者一定不会因此丧失热情。作者用精巧细致的铺垫和层出不穷的惊喜描绘出玛丽贝尔的传奇经历。文中对拍摄“西大荒的水牛比尔”,调查西班牙的某个金矿,还有主角与一位联手合作完成了一次构思巧妙的勒索行动等描述,都为小说增添了色。这些奇思妙想都为小说增添了色。 The players are vividly drawn. Maribel and Edward are united by the secret of her past, but their bond is undermined by secrets they keep from each other. Maribel knows he visits a brothel, sensing that a wife who refuses her husband such things “was either a duchess or a damned fool”. When Edward asks Maribel about her photograph of the Spanish boy—“The one with the eyes. Who is he?”—she does not know if he has guessed its significance.所有的角色描写得栩栩如生。玛丽贝尔和爱德华因玛丽贝尔过去的秘密而结识并结合,但却由于双方互不信任,互藏秘密,导致彼此关系恶化。玛丽贝尔知道丈夫爱德华经常流连烟花之地,却敏感地认为,一个不允许丈夫逛妓院的妻子“不是公爵夫人,就是十足的傻瓜。”她有一张名为“那双眸子,那个人”的西班牙男孩的照片,当爱德华问她照片中的那个人是谁时,她不知道爱德华是不是已经猜到照片的意思。 The charm of “Beautiful Lies” is that Ms Clark breaks the usual Victorian moral code, exploring both the colourful world outside the drawing room and the depths of her characters minds. A stirring and seductive novel.《美丽谎言》的魅力在于克拉克夫人通过描写客厅外的五斑斓的世界和主人公内心的深处,打破了维多利亚时期的普遍道德标准。这是一部激动人心、引人入胜的小说。201207/189023

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