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Books and Arts; Book Review;Vincent van Gogh;Paint a palette blue and grey文艺;书评;文森特·威廉·梵高; 调色板上那一抹晦暗;Van Gogh: The Life. By Steven Naifeh and Gregory White Smith.《梵高:生命》;史蒂芬奈菲与格里高利怀特联合著;Vincent Van Gogh seemed made for a bittersweet Hollywood biopic. The dazzling colours and dashing brushstrokes of his sunflowers, cornfields and cypress trees are among the most familiar and loved works in the history of art, fetching record-breaking sums in auction rooms. The inevitable biopic was called “Lust for Life”. But as an enormous and engrossing new biography shows, van Goghs lust for conflict was strongest of all.梵高仿佛就是为一部五味杂陈的好莱坞传记影片而生。他画笔下的向日葵,麦田和柏树名垂艺术史,以其绚烂的色和有力的笔触被人们熟知与欣赏,并在拍卖会上连创拍卖纪录。显然,这部传记名字本应为“生活的渴望”,但随着一本关于梵高生命的引人入胜,鸿篇巨制自传的上市,原来梵高对矛盾的渴望才是最强烈的。The book describes a lonely, bad- tempered alcoholic, a syphilitic who liked to bite the hands that fed him. It in no way devalues the quality of the painting, of course, but this portrait by Steven Naifeh and Gregory White Smith, two prolific authors who seem to like writing about drunken artists (Jackson Pollock was an earlier subject) demolishes any romance that still attaches to the artists life.这本自传描述了一位寂寞,坏脾气的酗酒者,和一位喜欢啃咬那对养活自己双手的梅毒病患。如此的描述绝对没有使梵高的画作贬值,但是史蒂芬奈菲与格里高利怀特---这两位比较喜欢酗酒艺术家题材(他们曾以杰克逊·波洛克作为题材)的多产作家,已经将笼罩在梵高身上的艺术浪漫气息驱散殆尽。The book is composed, like a pointillist painting, of thousands of factual details. Nothing is sacrificed to curtail its length; the only concession is to remove the footnotes from the text. (There are enough of these to fill 5,000 typewritten pages and they are all to be found on the books website.) But the story has a momentum that justifies the time it takes to tell it, and the authors conclude by making a plausible case for van Goghs accidental death rather than his suicide. No gun was found; the fatal bullet entered the body at the wrong angle and seemed to have been fired from too far away for the wound to have been self-inflicted. Strong circumstantial evidence suggests that van Gogh was the victim of schoolboy bullies.这本自传包含了数以千计零零散散的事实,并没有为了削减长度而牺牲任何的细节,其唯一的让步就是将稿件中的附注删除(事实上,这些附注足以填满5000张打印纸,并且它们都在这本书的官网上面)。就算是这样,书中的故事也值得让我们有动力花时间细细品味,加之本书的两位作者合理地解释了梵高的离世---死于一场意外而非自杀,首先事故现场没有找到;并且那颗致命子弹以错误的角度进入了梵高的身体,因为从伤口来看,子弹是从非常远的地方所发射而不是以自杀的方式发射的。有力的间接据显示梵高的死竟归咎于一群小混混。Van Goghs earliest job with an art dealer took him to The Hague, and then Paris and London, but his youthful passion was to be heard as a preacher. His first sermon was delivered, in heavily-accented English, by the River Thames in Petersham, but congregations did not respond to him. Only when he accepted that he would not become a minister, as his father had been, did he turn to art. Since he earned no money van Gogh simply assumed that he was entitled to a share of his brother Theos salary, demanding 150 francs a month from him at a time when the wage of a French schoolteacher was 75 francs a month.梵高在古皮尔艺术公司的第一份工作使他来到了海牙,并随后几经辗转,到过巴黎,伦敦工作。但他年轻时的主要用在了布道上面,当他第一次在泰晤士河旁的佩特香以带有浓重口音的英语向众人传道时,信众们纷纷不予理睬。当他决定不追随父亲的脚步成为一位牧师后,他才走上了艺术之路。因为没有稳定的收入,梵高竟认为自己有权分享弟弟提奥的工资,不加思考地要求他每月给自己150法郎,要知道他作为普通学校教师的弟弟月工资只有75法郎。Van Gogh first concentrated on dark charcoal drawings of Dutch peasants. “When I draw I see clearly,” he said. Theo saw clearly that they did not sell, and suggested colourful landscapes instead. Van Gogh was eventually converted to the idea of colour by Rembrandt, and he started to paint bright orange and brown sunflowers in Paris in 1886, hoping they might impress a particularly voluptuous Italian model. His conversion to colour and landscape was not complete, however, until he went south to Arles in 1888.梵高首先想到的是利用荷兰农民常用的黑木炭作画,“画画时我能看得更透彻”他曾这么说。提奥清楚地知道这些画是没有销路的,所以建议梵高画一些充满色的风景画。最终,在伦勃朗的影响下,梵高开始了在图画中使用色和变换创作主体(画风景)的转变,并在1886年于巴黎开始绘制亮橘和亮棕色的向日葵,希望这些画作能引起一些沉溺于酒色的意大利模特们的兴趣。这种绘画风格上的转变直到1888年梵高南下来到法国阿勒斯时才趋向成熟。When he persuaded Paul Gauguin to join him in Arles, van Gogh believed that they would inspire each others work. It was a tragic delusion. Gauguin, the more forceful personality, wanted to draw in the studio, van Gogh to paint in the open air. Van Gogh was quick, Gauguin was languid. Gauguin worked from the imagination and memory, van Gogh surrendered himself to nature. The Arlesiennes adored Gauguin and ignored van Gogh. The two painters quarrelled bitterly. When Gauguin announced he was leaving for Paris on December 23rd 1889, van Gogh reacted by slashing his own left ear, slicing through to the jaw. Confined to asylums as a psychotic, he did not stop painting, but he was dead of a bullet wound only 18 months later, not long after he sold his first painting. He was 37. Decades passed before it was widely appreciated he was a genius. It has taken even longer to fully understand that his life was a disaster.在阿勒斯时,梵高劝说保罗·高更加入他的创作队伍,他相信他们俩能激发彼此的灵感,有所裨益。但这却是个悲剧的幻想,高更,拥有更强势的性格,想在工作室作画,而梵高却倾向在室外工作;高更工作经常无精打采,拖拖拉拉。而梵高工作却雷厉风行;高更将灵感寄托于想象和回忆;而梵高将思想臣于大自然。但阿勒斯人显然更中意高更而把梵高忽略了,随后两人大吵一架,当高更在1889年12月23日宣称自己将前往巴黎时,梵高将自己的左耳割下,伤口长至下颚,他像一个精神病患者一般将自己困在心灵的枷锁中,却没有停止作画。18个月之后,当梵高卖出了自己的第一幅画后不久,他就死于伤。当众人终于认识到他是一个天才时,几十年已经过去了,如果我们想完全看清他生命中悲剧的一面,或许还需要更长的时间。 /201307/247316

Gallaghers ghostsGallagher之魂Art inspired by myth and stories源于神话的艺术ELLEN GALLHER was born in 1965 in Rhode Island, the daughter of an African-American father with ties to Cape Verde in West Africa and an American-Irish mother. Now she divides her time between New York and Rotterdam. Ms Gallagher mines sci-fi, marine biology and black history for her art, variously making use of cut-up paper, pencil, plasticine, printed matter, rubber, gold leaf and photogravure. It is out of this rich interbreeding of method and materials that her astonishing work arises.ELLEN GALLHER,1965年出生于罗德岛,父亲是非洲裔美国人,曾居于西非佛得角,母亲则是爱尔兰裔美国人。如今她多往来于纽约和鹿特丹港市。Gallagher的艺术灵感多源于科幻、海洋生物学以及黑人历史。利用剪纸、铅笔、粘土、印刷品、橡胶、金箔、凹版印刷等各式各样的材料工具,她独创出了令人叹为观止的作品。This summer two new Gallagher exhibitions will open, one on each side of the Atlantic. A substantial survey at Tate Modern in London will be followed by a 20-year retrospective at the New Museum in New York.今夏在大西洋两岸将各举办一场Gallagher的新作展览会。伦敦泰特现代美术馆所做的大量探索研究将继续由纽约当代艺术馆以20年回顾展的名义进行。The first room at the Tate Modern show has been covered with ruled writing paper, a reminder of the importance that the line and the grid play in Ms Gallaghers work and of the inspiration of minimalist artists such as Agnes Martin and Sol LeWitt. This humble papering provides a formal background for her work and helps steer it away from pomposity. But there is much more to Ms Gallaghers work than linear scaffolding—much to be into it and much to be resisted, especially easy clichés about race or gender.泰特现代展览的第一间陈览室里挂满方格纸作品,可见Gallagher颇为青睐横格线条,并从Agnes Martin 、Sol LeWitt等极简抽象派艺术家那获得颇多的灵感。这种极简贴纸展现出匀称的布局,避免浮夸。但Gallagher的作品并不仅仅是组建线条,还有更多发人深省的隐藏讯息,类似于种族性别这种常谈之事。Early works from the 1990s, such as “Untitled, 1992”, for instance, play with the red lips and white-ringed eyes that recall black and white minstrels. An abstract pattern emerges, then disembodied “golliwog” smiles. “Negroes Ask for German Colonies”takes its title from a phrase in an article that was written in 1919 by a Harlem radical, Hubert Harrison, and which Ms Gallagher cuts into paper. Above the words is a grid of 20 female wig models with black, white and brown faces. The wigs, one named “Innocence” and another “Coquette”, are made from elaborately cut white paper. Pink plasticine curls emerge from the models eyes. It is exquisitely constructed and at the same time funny to behold, alluding to the rise of American black consciousness and poking at the covert racism of so much consumer advertising.Gallagher 在其90年代的早期作品“Untitled, 1992”中,利用红唇与白环状眼眸的搭配唤起人们对纯粹的游吟诗人的回忆。先是抽象图案,再是出人意料的灵肉分离式的怪诞微笑。2002年的作品“Negroes Ask for German Colonies”得名于一篇文章中的短语,该文由Harlem radical, Hubert Harrison于1919年撰写。Gallagher将其刻于纸上。那是一组20位黑、白、棕面色的假发女郎方格图。名为“天真无邪”和“卖弄风情”的假发均由白色剪纸精心拼贴而成。女郎的双眸浮现出粉色的泥卷发。该作构思精巧,新潮逗趣,并意指美国黑人思潮运动的兴起,剑戳众多消费广告中暗涌的种族歧视。The works Ms Gallagher calls the “Yellow paintings”—which include “Falls and Flips” from 2001 and “Double Natural” from the year after, as well as “Pomp-Bang”, which Ms Gallagher painted in 2003—take this theme further (detail pictured above). Each one is a monumental grid of 396 advertisements for wigs and other items, such as hair grease or skin-whitening cream, as well as illustrated articles from black magazines of the 1950s and 1960s, such as Ebony, Our World, or Black Stars. Each face wears an elaborate, fantastical yellow plasticine wig. What could be dry social history becomes exuberant art-making.Gallagher的“Yellow paintings”系列—包括2001年的“Falls and Flips”、2002年的“Double Natural”和2003年的“Pomp-Bang”—继续深入该种族的主题。每一格都是对396假发、发胶、美白面霜等产品广告的纪念,是对五六十年代Ebony,Our World,或Black Stars等黑人杂志中插图的致敬。每一张面孔都戴着梦幻而精致的金色泥假发。谁能想到枯燥的社会史也能成为生机勃勃的艺术作品呢。Ms Gallagher often folds historical characters into her work, including “Peg Leg” Bates, a one-legged tap dancer, and Eunice Rivers, a nurse who was implicated in the notorious Tuskegee syphilis experiment carried out on black Alabamans between 1932 and 1972. At the age of 20, sponsored by the Sea Education Association, Ms Gallagher spent some time aboard an oceanographic research vessel collecting, studying and drawing pteropods—microscopic wing-footed snails. This experience has combined with her interest in the myth of Drexciya, an underwater country peopled with the unborn babies of pregnant African slave women thrown overboard mid-Atlantic. It has generated an extraordinary body of work collectively entitled “Watery Ecstatic”. Detailed drawing, intricate paper cutting, and dreamy watery colour, together create a universe of strange sea creatures. They suggest an imagination gripped equally by precision and fluidity, by science and poetry, and a mind that feeds on the beauty of nature while being haunted at the same time by the many layers of human history.Gallagher常在其作品中融入一些历史人物,包括“Peg Leg” Bates,一位独腿踢踏舞者;1932年至1972年,以阿拉巴马州的黑人为对象进行了臭名昭著的塔斯基吉梅毒实验,名为Eunice Rivers的护士卷入其中。通过海教协会的赞助,Gallagher 20岁时得以在海外学习海洋学,集舰,研究绘制翼足目动物—微小的翼足蜗牛。这一经历更是和她感兴趣的水城Drexciya,一群被推下甲板的怀有身的非洲奴隶居住在大西洋中央的传说,水乳交融。由此诞生了一组名为“Watery Ecstatic”的非凡佳作。细致入微的刻画,错综复杂的拼剪,梦幻的水色,共同造就了海洋生物的奇幻世界。精细性与流动性、科学性与诗意同时抓住人们的想象力,思绪浸食自然之美的同时又被人类历史的复杂多样困扰着。“Bird in Hand”, the great 2006 work on paper that is owned by the Tate, also draws on these preoccupations, generating out of myth and marine biology the startling figure of a one-legged pirate standing at the bottom of the ocean. His hair floats upwards in the water in a baroque confection of seaweed made from card and paper, all painstakingly cut by hand. His stump has sprouted seaweed. His black face is occluded by a white mask. This is a work that indulges in patterned beauty even as it freezes the spirit.2006年的“Bird in Hand”,一幅所有权归泰特美术馆的杰作,同样利用这些勾魂摄魄的元素刻画出传奇的海洋生物、出人意料的人物形象,一个站在海底的独腿海盗。他的头发,以一团精细的巴洛克式纸片海藻的姿态漂浮在水面。这全是Gallagher煞费苦心的手工拼贴。他的假肢也萌生出一撮撮水藻。白色面具紧紧咬合他黑色的面孔。即使寒从心起这也是一幅令人沉溺于精美纹路的作品。Many of the works exhibited, including the films she has made with her longtime collaborator, Edgar Cleijne, and the double-sided paintings called “Morphia”, reveal a determination to express complexity through an elaborate process of making. Canvasses are built up in collaged layers. Mysterious, balletic animations are projected alongside archival film that has been doctored to produce strange new narratives. The paper Ms Gallagher uses is meticulously drawn on, painted, cut, stuck, pierced, both on the front and the back, and then hung in glass boxes. Her works are dense with thought, but thought transformed by intensive creative workmanship into something rich and strange.被展出的众多作品中,还有她与长期合作伙伴Edgar Cleijne共同拍摄的影片,及双面画作“Morphia”,这幅作品力图通过精巧错综的创作过程揭露其复杂性。多层抽象拼贴的效果极具说力。神秘莫测的芭蕾舞式动画制作与剪辑过的档案电影共同创造出了新异的故事。Gallagher所选纸张的正反面均经过精心绘制、裁剪、拼接,最后才挂上玻璃画框。她的作品寓意繁多,通过别出心裁的手工将那些思想付诸于天马行空的画作。“Ellen Gallagher: AxME” is at Tate Modern in London until September 1st. It will travel to the Sara Hildén Art Museum in Tampere, Finland, in the autumn and to the Haus der Kunst in Munich, Germany, in 2014. “Dont Axe Me” will be at the New Museum in New York from June 19th until September 15th.“Ellen Gallaghe:AxME正于伦敦泰特现代美术馆展出,9月1日截止。秋季展将在芬兰坦佩雷的Sara Hildén 美术馆举办。2014年在德国慕尼黑的Haus der Kunst展出。“Dont Axe Me”将于六月19日至9月15日在纽约New Museum展出。 /201405/295257

Business this week一周商业要闻Jul 13th 2013 |From the print editionThe European Commission unveiled its proposed “single resolution mechanism” that would give it the authority to wind down failing banks in the euro zone with the support of a new cross-border fund. Germany is opposed, arguing that such an expansion of the commission’s powers would require a treaty change. France, Italy and Spain are fairly happy with the idea.欧洲委员会公布此前提议的“单一解决机制”计划的细节,根据该计划,欧盟可以获得一跨境资金,用以安抚行情低迷的欧元区。德国持有不同观点,认为实施这种扩大委员会权利的做法,有可能需要欧盟条约。法国,意大利跟西班牙则乐此不疲。American regulators outlined plans to increase the amount of capital that eight systemically important banks must hold. The banks will be required to increase their leverage ratios to 5% of their total assets, which is above the 3% agreed to by international regulators in the Basel 3 accord. Although the banks would have until 2018 to comply, they might in practice need to meet these thresholds earlier. 为了增加八所具有系统重要性的应有资产数额,美国监管部门对此草拟出一份方案。要求在其总资产中将杠杆比率增加到5%,高出于巴塞尔协议Ⅲ中国际监管机构所商定的3%。尽管各只需在2018开始实施这项方案,实际上,他们也许该尽早地达到这项指标。A committee set up by the British Treasury to choose a new administrator for LIBOR gave the job to NYSE Euronext, which operates the New York Stock Exchange. It is paying a token 1 pound (1.50 dollars) for the honour and expects to start managing the international benchmark interest rate early next year. The British Bankers’ Association has overseen LIBOR since the 1980s, but the scandal surrounding the manipulation of the rate by traders dented its reputation.英国财政部设立一组委员会,来决定由谁管理伦敦同行业拆借率。最终将这项工作交给纽约泛欧交易所集团,这个集团经营着纽约券交易所。明年年初,在象征性地付一英镑(1.5美元),换取这项荣誉后,此集团将带着众人的期望开始管理国际准基利率。自1980年以来,英国家协会便一直关注伦敦间拆放款利率,但是一些包含交易者操纵利率内容的丑闻流出,使之名声受损从而失去选票。The global asset-management industry grew to a record 62.4 trillion dollars last year, according to the Boston Consulting Group, passing the previous high set in 2007, before the financial crisis. Most of the gain is explained by roaring equity markets, which increased the value of assets under management.据波士顿咨询集团报道,金融危机之前,全球资产管理行业总值在去年达到62.4万亿美元,超过之前2007年的高峰值。之所以能够达到这么高的总值,原因在于产权投资市场的快速增长,增加了受制资产的价值。China’s Ministry of Public Security accused GlaxoSmithKline, a British drugs company, of bribing doctors in three cities to prescribe its medicines to patients and of receiving kickbacks through conference fees. China has been an important growth market for GSK over the past decade.中国公安部指控英国药物公司葛兰索史克的不法营业手段,此公司贿赂三个城市的医生给患者开自家生产的药品,并且从会议费中扣取回扣。在过去十年中,中国已经变成葛兰索史克公司首要成长型市场。Faring slightly worse进展稍显不顺The IMF shaved its forecast of growth for the world economy from a previous estimate in April. It lowered its projections for this year in America, the euro zone, China, Brazil, Russia and India, though Britain, Canada and Japan all had their GDP growth figures revised up. The IMF’s list of looming risks includes a sharper slowdown in emerging markets and the possible tapering of quantitative easing in America, which, it said, could lead to “sustained capital-flow reversals”. Meanwhile, the cooling of China’s economy was underlined by official figures showing that its exports unexpectedly fell by 3.1% in June compared with the same month last year. Imports were down by 0.7%.较之前四月份显示的总值,国际货币基金组织预测世界经济增长将减弱。尽管英国,加拿大和日本的国内生产总值上调,IMF还是降低了对美国,欧元区,中国,巴西和印度的预测值,IMF列出的潜在危机包括新兴市场的剧烈减缓,以及美国量化宽松政策消退的可能,后者据说可以导致“持续的资本流动逆转”。与此同时,官方数据明确显示中国经济正在冷却。数据表明中国出口总值较去年同月,出人意料的下降了3.1%,进口值则下降了0.7%。Royal Dutch Shell appointed Ben van Beurden as its new chief executive. Mr Van Beurden, who has spent a large part of his 30 years at the energy company working at its liquefied-natural-gas division, had not been regarded as a front-runner.荷兰皇家壳牌公司任命范伯登为其新一任的首席执行官。范伯登曾为该公司液化天然气精炼部门任职,30年来一直默默无闻。Spoiling the books plot打击书市阴谋A judge in America ruled that Apple had conspired with five big publishers to push up the price of e-books and break Amazon’s grip on the market. The judge found that the “evidence is overwhelming that Apple knew of the unlawful aims of the conspiracy” hatched with the publishers, which have all reached separate settlements with the Department of Justice. Apple is to appeal against the decision.美国联邦法官近日作出判决,认定苹果公司与5家图书出版商串通,提高电子书价格以打破当下亚马逊垄断图书市场的现状。法官查明,据的确实:苹果公司清楚自己与出版商共同策划的阴谋意图是非法的。出版商已分别与司法部达成协定,苹果公司则将提出上诉。The chief executive of Barnes amp; Noble resigned, two weeks after its latest quarterly earnings report made for troubling ing. The book retailer’s Nook e-er doubled its losses as it struggled to compete with the Kindle and iPad, a blow to the company’s hopes that digital publishing would offset falling sales of books.在做出有关阅读便利方面的季度收益报告两周后,Barnes amp; Noble公司首席执行官提出辞职。这个书本零售商发行的NOOK电子书跟kindle和ipad拼力竞争,结果导致损失加倍。本以为靠数字出版能抵消书本销量下降带来的损失,结果确让公司深受打击。Tribune became the latest media company to announce it is splitting in two, with a plan to separate its newspaper arm from its television and internet division. The publisher of the Los Angeles Times and other dailies gets around two-thirds of its sales from newspapers and websites, but only a fifth of its operating profit. It recently bought 19 local TV stations in a 2.7 billion dollars deal.作为最新宣布将公司一分为二的媒体公司,论坛报计划将报纸从电视、网络部门中分裂出去。出版商销售洛杉矶时报以及其它日报的营业额里,报纸和网站大概占有三分之一,而营业收益只占五分之一。此公司最近以2.7亿美金收购19家地方台。Global personal-computer shipments continued to slump, falling by about 11% in the second quarter, according to Gartner and IDC, two tech-market research firms. Both also reported that China’s Lenovo overtook Hewlett-Packard as the world’s biggest seller of PCs.全球个人计算机发货量持续下跌,据技术市场调研公司高德纳和互联网数据中心报告,个人电脑的销量第二季度下降了11%,同时中国的联想笔记本销量超过惠普,成为世界最大笔记本销售商。Delivering on a promise履行承诺The British government set out its plan to privatise the Royal Mail. Valued at up to 3 billion poumds (4.5 billion dollars), it will be the biggest privatisation in Britain since the mass sale of state industries more than two decades ago. Postal workers will be handed 10% of the shares, though unions remain opposed. The privatisation does not include post offices英国政府开始实施私有化皇家邮政计划。皇家邮政价值高达3亿英镑(4.5亿美元),这将会是继20多年前大量国有工厂出售以来,规模最大的民营化。尽管公会仍然反对,私营后邮局职员有望分享10%的股份。私有化范围并不包括邮政局。201307/248914

They can grow more than two metres long and weigh as much as three men. But the giant tortoises of ice age North America were even larger. Florida does have tortoises today, but on a much smaller scale. This is the gopher tortoise. 他们能够长到3米长,重量可与3个成年人的体重相当。但是在冰河时代的北美洲,巨型陆龟体型甚至更加巨大。佛罗里达现在也有乌龟,但是他们的体型很小。这就是穴居沙龟。Tortoises are cold-blooded animals. They rely on external temperature to keep themselves warm. Although Florida is plenty warm enough for much of the year, during the winter months, it can get cold. So to survive the winter, gopher tortoises must burrow and hibernate underground. The colder it gets, the deeper into their burrow they go. 乌龟是冷血动物。他们依靠外部温度保持自身温暖。尽管佛罗里达一年中的大部分时节都温暖如春,但是在冬天的几个月里,气温还是十分寒冷。因此,为了撑过寒冬,穴居沙龟必须在地下挖掘洞穴来进行冬眠。天气越寒冷,他们挖掘的洞穴越深。Giant tortoises, however, cant burrow. And they sleep above ground. They need relatively warm temperatures all year round. The fact they were in Florida during the ice age means that paradoxically the climate must have been more stable and even milder than it is today. So we know something of the climate, but what about the vegetation and the landscape. How did that look 13,000 years ago? 然而,巨型陆龟却没有挖掘的技能。他们在地上冬眠。他们一年都需要相对温暖的气温。这看起来与现实相驳,而事实上,他们可以在冰河时代的佛罗里达生存正意味着那时的气温一定比今天更加稳定,更加温和。因此我们可以推测出当时佛罗里达的气候,但是13000年前的植被以及地貌又是什么样子呢?Today Florida is one of the wettest parts of the continent, especially the vast swampy area known as the Everglades. Flooded grasslands stretches as far as the eye can see.如今,佛罗里达是北美洲湿度最高的地区之一,尤其是像佛罗里达大沼泽这样的一篇巨大的沼泽地。人们的视线内遍布着在侵泡在水中的草地。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载.201308/254544


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