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成都市第四人民医院包皮手术怎么样新都区治疗子宫肌瘤多少钱Science and technology科学技术Navigation航海Crystal gazing水晶球观海术A mineral found in a shipwreck was an ancient form of compass在沉船里发现的矿石是古代的一种指南针THIS may look like a nondescript lump of rock, but it is, in fact, a sunstone.很难形容这块石头的外观,其实它是一块日长石,至少法国法国雷恩大学的Guy Ropars和他的同事是这么看的。That, at least, is the opinion of Guy Ropars of Rennes University, in France, and his colleagues.磁罗盘出现之前,维京水手使用这种被视为神物的石头。Sunstones are legendary items supposed to have been used by Viking sailors in the days before magnetic compasses.据说即使阴天或者那个炽热的星球还没有高出地平线的时候,Looking at the sky through one, it is said, would reveal the suns direction even on a cloudy day or when that fiery orb was below the horizon.透过日长石观看天空,就能显示太阳的方向。Dr Ropars thinks sunstones were real, and were actually crystals of Iceland spar, a form of calcite that polarises light.士Ropars认为日长石真的有这种作用,它实际上是冰洲石的晶体,是可以将光极化的一种方解石。Light from the sky is polarised and, as he discovered in 2011, looking through a piece of Iceland spar reveals the direction of polarisation, and thus the direction of the sun, to within 5.来自天空的光线被极化,他在2011年发现,透过冰洲石能观察到偏振方向,太阳方向和这个方向的夹角小于5度。Dr Ropars also believes the use of sunstones persisted until at least the 16th century.Ropars士还相信直到16世纪,人们还在使用日长石。Their existence is mentioned in church records, and they would have been useful because although magnetic compasses were known by then, they were unreliable for reasons not then understood, such as proximity to the large amounts of iron in ships cannons.教会档案中有使用日长石的记录,尽管磁罗盘已经出现,但有些原因当时的人们还不了解,比如接近船上铁铸加农炮,罗盘会失灵,所以大家认为它靠不住,就继续使用日长石。He thinks this block of mineral is such a stone.他认为这块矿石就有这些用途。It was found in a wreck believed to be that of an unnamed English warship which an admirals report from November 29th 1592 says was lost off the coast of Alderney, in the English Channel.1592年11月29日,一位海军上将报告说有一艘未命名的英国战舰在英吉利海峡里靠近奥尔德尼岛海岸的地方沉没,这块石头就是在失事船只里面发现的。Four centuries underwater have rendered it opaque, but it is the right shape and density to be Iceland spar, and it was discovered within a metre of a pair of navigational dividers of the sort used to measure distances on charts.四百年的水下岁月磨灭了它的透光性,但是它的形状和密度和冰洲石不差分毫。在冰洲石一米之内还发现了一副两脚规,用它可以在海图上测量距离。Dr Roparss latest research, just published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society, used spectroscopy to confirm the stones composition as calcite.Ropars士的最新研究成果刚刚发表于《英国皇家学会学报》,他使用光谱学分析了这块石头的成分,确认这是一块方解石。He also did further experiments with a recently mined Iceland-spar crystal of the same size.他还用最近开采的冰洲石晶体做进一步的试验,试验用的石头和原来那块大小一样。He and his colleagues found they could locate the direction of the sun even more accurately than before: to within 1°.他和同事们发现用这块石头更能准确定位太阳的方向,偏差不到1°。The Alderney crystal, as it is known, is thus almost certainly a sunstone.几乎可以确定这块所谓的奥尔德尼水晶是日长石。It didnt save the ship, though.尽管它没能挽救这艘船的命运。 /201312/268333四川成都妇幼保健预约电话是多少 蒲江县生宝宝哪家医院最好的

新都区妇幼保健医院门诊官网Water水资源All dried up全面干涸Northern China is running out of water, but the government’s remedies are potentially disastrous中国北方水资源渐耗尽,政府举措存风险Oct 12th 2013 | BEIJING |From the print editionCHINA endures choking smog, mass destruction of habitats and food poisoned with heavy metals. But ask an environmentalist what is the country’s biggest problem, and the answer is always the same. “Water is the worst,” says Wang Tao, of the Carnegie-Tsinghua Centre in Beijing, “because of its scarcity, and because of its pollution.” “Water,” agrees Pan Jiahua, of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. “People can’t survive in a desert.” Wang Shucheng, a former water minister, once said: “To fight for every drop of water or die: that is the challenge facing China.”中国正遭受着持续雾霾、栖息地大规模破坏以及食品重金属中毒等问题。然而,当问起环境专家“什么是中国最大的问题”时,得到的通常如出一辙。北京清华-卡耐基中心的王涛答道:“水资源问题最为严重,一方面由于水资源缺乏,另一方面由于它的污染状况。” “水资源,”中国社科院潘家华表示认同,“人们不能在沙漠中生存。”前水利部部长汪恕诚曾说:“中国面临的挑战就是要珍惜每一滴水,否则就是灭亡。”He was not exaggerating. A stock image of China is a fisherman and his cormorant on a placid lake. The reality is different. The country uses 600 billion cubic metres (21,200 billion cubic feet) of water a year, or about 400 cubic metres a person—one-quarter of what the average American uses and less than half the international definition of water stress.他并非夸大其词。人们脑海中的中国印象是平静湖面上的渔民和他的鸬鹚。现实却大相径庭。中国水资源的年消耗量达6000亿立方米(212,000亿立方英尺),即约每人400立方米——为美国人平均使用量的四分之一,不到国际公认的用水紧张线的一半。The national average hides an even more alarming regional disparity. Four-fifths of China’s water is in the south, notably the Yangzi river basin. Half the people and two-thirds of the farmland are in the north, including the Yellow River basin. Beijing has the sort of water scarcity usually associated with Saudi Arabia: just 100 cubic metres per person a year. The water table under the capital has dropped by 300 metres (nearly 1,000 feet) since the 1970s.全国平均用水量背后的地区差异更为令人担忧。中国五分之四的水资源位于南方,尤其是长江流域。一半人口以及三分之二的耕地则位于北方,其中包括黄河流域。北京的水荒常被与沙特阿拉伯的相比较:人均年用水量仅为100立方米。自从20世纪70年代以来,首都的地下水位已下降约300米(1,000英尺左右)。China is using up water at an unsustainable rate. Thanks to overuse, rivers simply disappear. The number of rivers with significant catchment areas has fallen from more than 50,000 in the 1950s to 23,000 now. As if that were not bad enough, China is polluting what little water it has left. The Yellow River is often called the cradle of Chinese civilisation. In 2007 the Yellow River Conservancy Commission, a government agency, surveyed 13,000 kilometres (8,000 miles) of the river and its tributaries and concluded that a third of the water is unfit even for agriculture. Four thousand petrochemical plants are built on its banks.中国正以一种难以长期持续的速度消耗水资源。过度使用使河流几近干涸。重要集水区的河流数量已从50年代的50,000条减至如今的23,000条。仿佛事态还不够严重,中国仅存的河流也正遭受污染。黄河常被称为中华文明的摇篮。2007年,政府组织黄河保护委员会调查了13,000公里(8,000英里)的黄河及其流,结论是三分之一的水域不甚健康,甚至无法用于农业生产。4000家石油化工厂矗立黄河两岸。The water available for use is thus atrocious. Song Lanhe, chief engineer for urban water-quality monitoring at the housing ministry, says only half the water sources in cities are safe to drink. More than half the groundwater in the north China plain, according to the land ministry, cannot be used for industry, while seven-tenths is unfit for human contact, ie, even for washing. In late 2012 the Chinese media claimed that 300 corpses were found floating in the Yellow River near Lanzhou, the latest of roughly 10,000 victims—most of them (according to the local police) suicides—whose bodies have been washing downstream since the 1960s.可用水如此匮乏。建设部城市水质监测中心总工程师宋兰合说,城市水资源中仅有一半能供人安全饮用。据土地称,超过半数中国北部平原的地下水不能用于工业,同时,七成的水不适于与人体接触,也就是说,这些水甚至无法用于洗涤。2012年下半年,中国媒体曝出在黄河兰州段附近发现300具浮尸。自60年代以来约10,000名新受害者(据当地警方称,其中多为自杀)的尸体顺流而下。In the World Bank put the overall cost of China’s water crisis at 2.3% of GDP, mostly reflecting damage to health. Water shortages also imperil plans to expand energy production, threatening economic growth. China is hoping to follow America into a shale-gas revolution. But each shale-gas well needs 15,000 tonnes of water a year to run. China is also planning to build around 450 new coal-fired power stations, burning 1.2 billion tonnes of coal a year. The stations have to be cooled by water and the coal has to be washed. The grand total is 9 billion tonnes of water. China does not have that much available. According to the World Resources Institute, a think-tank in Washington, DC, half the new coal-fired plants are to be built in areas of high or extremely high water stress.年,世界认为中国在水危机上的总出占GDP的2.3%,这在很大程度上反映出水资源状况对健康之危害。水资源短缺同样危及扩大能源生产,对经济增长造成威胁。中国希望能跟随美国进入天然气时代。然而,一个天然气井需一年15,000吨水来运转。中国也正在计划建造约450座新的燃煤发电站,一年燃烧12亿吨煤炭。发电站需要用水冷却,而煤炭需要用水清洗。总需水量达90亿吨。供不应求。据位于华盛顿的智囊组织世界资源协会称,一半的新燃煤发电站建造于水资源紧缺或极度紧缺的地区。Every drop is precious滴滴珍贵The best answer would be to improve the efficiency with which water is used. Only about 40% of water used in industry is recycled, half as much as in Europe. The rest is dumped in rivers and lakes. Wang Zhansheng of Tsinghua University argues that China is neglecting its urban water infrastructure (sewerage, pipes and water-treatment plants), leading to more waste. Water prices in most cities are only about a tenth of the level in big European cities, yet the government is reluctant to raise them, for fear of a popular backlash.最好的办法是提升水的利用效率。只有约4成工业用水循环使用,该比例仅为欧洲的一半。而余下的则被弃于江河之中。清华大学王占生认为中国忽视城市水利基建(污水、管道和污水净化厂)导致更多浪费。大部分城市的水费仅为欧洲大城市的十分之一,而政府由于担心民众反对,则不愿涨价。The result is that China’s “water productivity” is low. For each cubic metre of water used, China gets -worth of output. The average for European countries is per cubic metre. Of course, these countries are richer—but they are not seven times richer.造成的结果是中国的“水分生产率”低下。每立方米水产出值为8美元。而欧洲国家平均产出值为58美元。当然,这些国家更为富有——但不至于富裕七倍。Rather than making sensible and eminently doable reforms in pricing and water conservation, China is focusing on increasing supplies. For decades the country has been ruled by engineers, many of them hydraulic engineers (including the previous president, Hu Jintao). Partly as a result, Communist leaders have reacted to water problems by building engineering projects on a mind-boggling scale.相比合理使用、价格显著调整以及水资源保护,中国采取的主要方法则是增加供应量。几十年来,中国的领导人多为工程师,他们中有不少是水利工程师(包括前国家主席胡锦涛)。部分由于上述原因,共产党领导对水资源问题的反应乃是在令人难以置信的范围内建立工程项目。The best known such project is the Three Gorges dam on the Yangzi. But this year an even vaster project is due to start. Called the South-North Water Diversion Project, it will link the Yangzi with the Yellow River, taking water from the humid south to the parched north. When finished, 3,000km of tunnels and canals will have been drilled through mountains, across plains and under rivers. Its hydrologic and environmental consequences could be enormously harmful.此类工程中最著名的就是位于长江的三峡大坝。但今年一个更大的项目即将启动。南水北调工程将长江与黄河接通,将水从湿润的南方调运至干旱的北方。项目完成后,将有3,000公里的隧道与运河贯通山脉,穿越平原与地下河。它将在水文与环境上造成严重后果。The project links China’s two great rivers through three new channels. The eastern, or downstream one is due to open by the end of this year (see map). It would pump 14.8 billion cubic metres along 1,160km of canals, using in part a 1,500-year-old waterway, the Grand Canal. The water pumped so far has been so polluted that a third of the cost has gone on water treatment. A midstream link, with 1,300km of new canals, is supposed to open by October 2014. That is also when work on the most ambitious and controversial link, the upstream one across the fragile Himalayan plateau, is due to begin. Eventually the South-North project is intended to deliver 45 billion cubic metres of water a year and to cost a total of 486 billion yuan (.4 billion). It would be cheaper to desalinate the equivalent amount of seawater.该项目通过三条新水道接通中国两大河流。东部,即下游调水线将于年底贯通(见地图)。它将沿1,160公里的运河(部分利用拥有1500年历史的水道——大运河)输水148亿立方米。迄今输送的水已被污染,以至于三分之一的开被用于水污染治理。长达1,300千米的中游调水线预计于2014年十月贯通。而最为雄心勃勃和最具争议的上游调水线也预备动工,它贯穿了脆弱的喜马拉雅高原。最终,南水北调工程计划每年调水450亿立方米,总花费4,860亿元人民币(794亿美元)。这比除去等量海水中的盐分的成本来得更低。The environmental damage could be immense. The Yangzi river is aly seriously polluted. Chen Jiyu of the Chinese Academy of Engineering told South Weekly, a magazine, in 2012 that the project so far has reduced the quantity of plankton in the Yangzi by over two-thirds and the number of benthic organisms (those living on the river bottom) by half. And that was before it even opened. Ma Jun, China’s best known environmental activist, says the government’s predilection for giant engineering projects only makes matters worse, “causing us to hit the limits of our water resources”.这可能造成巨大的环境破坏。长江已被严重污染。2012年,中国工程院院士陈吉余告诉南方周末记者,项目迄今造成长江浮游生物数量减少超过三分之二,底栖生物(生活在水底的生物)减少一半。这还是没有贯通之前所发生的。中国著名环保斗士马军说,政府对大型工程项目的偏好只会让事情变得更糟,“导致我们冲击水资源的使用极限”。But the biggest damage could be political. Proposed dams on the upper reaches of the Brahmaputra, Mekong and other rivers are bound to have an impact on downstream countries, including India, Bangladesh and Vietnam. The Chinese say they would take only 1% of the run-off from the giant Brahmaputra. But if all these projects were operational—and the engineering challenges of one or two of them are so daunting that even the Chinese might balk at them—they would affect the flow of rivers on which a billion people depend. Hence the worries for regional stability. And all this would increase China’s water supplies by a mere 7%. The water crisis is driving China to desperate but ultimately unhelpful measures.不过,最大的危害可能是政治上的。计划在雅鲁藏布江、湄公河以及其他河流上游建造的大坝必定会对下游国家产生影响,包括印度、孟加拉国和越南。中国方面说他们仅从广阔的雅鲁藏布江中调取1%的水量。但是如果所有的项目都开始运转——其中一两个工程上的挑战就会令人沮丧,届时中国可能予以回避——这将影响傍河而生的10亿人口。从而导致地区稳定上的隐忧。而所有这些工程仅增加中国供水量的7%。水资源危机迫使中国孤注一掷,而终究未必治本。201310/261348蒲江县中心医院妇科专家大夫 The South China Sea南海Not the usual drill非一般钻井Tensions mount dangerously in contested waters争议水域局势紧张BARACK OBAMAS tour of four countries in Asia late last month was supposed to reassure Americas friends of its commitment to the region, and to deter China from provocations in its many territorial disputes. In the South China Sea, at least, the tactic has not worked. Chinas quarrel with Vietnam, which had been dormant in recent months, flared up dangerously this week. And a new front opened in Chinas continuing tussle with the Philippines over different parts of the sea.奥巴马上月末访问亚洲四国,本应令盟友对其“重返亚洲”的承诺安心,并阻止中国挑起其诸多领土争端。但至少在南海,这个战略不起作用。中国与越南的纠纷缓和数月后,本周再度剑拔弩张。此外,中国与菲律宾又因持续不断的主权争议另一海域发生新冲突。Vietnam first. China sent its new billion rig, the Haiyang Shiyou 981, to drill for oil in waters that Vietnam regards as inside the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) it is entitled to under the international law of the sea. Vietnam demanded that the rig be withdrawn and sent nearly 30 coastguard vessels to try to stop it starting work. A protective Chinese flotilla repulsed them, ramming one and firing water cannon at others. China has declared a three-mile exclusion zone around the rig, larger than is normal.越南首当其冲。中国运送新的钻井平台“海洋石油981”进行海上石油钻探,平台价值10亿美元。越南认为中方作业区域位于其依国际海事法拥有的专属经济区内,要求中方撤离钻井平台,并派出近30艘海警船试图制止中方再度作业。中国护卫舰队驱逐了越方海警船,撞击一艘并向其余船只发射水炮。此前中方宣布“海洋石油981”钻井平台半径3海里范围为禁航区,这大于正常值。It insists the rig is operating in its own waters. It appears to claim that the area is within the EEZ attached to an island chain it controls, which China calls Xisha and the Vietnamese Hoang Sa. The islands, the Paracels in English, have been occupied by China since 1974, when it drove out the former South Vietnamese regime. Vietnam still regards them as part of its territory.中方坚持钻井平台的作业区完全位于本国海域,声称这片区域在其专属经济区内,连接着由中方控制的岛链(中国称之为西沙群岛,越南则称黄沙群岛)。这片岛链英语名称为Paracel,中国于1974年赶走岛上的越南政权后便占领了这里。但是越南仍视之为自己的领土。As always, Chinas claim is hazy. It produces maps with a vast U-shaped area covering almost the entire South China Sea, enclosed in a “nine-dash line”, which it says gives it historic rights to the land inside. This uncertainty has created tension in various parts of the sea, where the Philippines, Malaysia, Brunei and Taiwan also have claims. The dispute with the Philippines is the most active. That, too, intensified this week when the Philippines arrested 15 Chinese fishermen for poaching hundreds of endangered turtles in what it sees as its own waters.中国的主张一如既往的含糊。它制作地图时划出一片巨大的U型地带,用九段虚线将几乎整个南海划在国土范围内,并称自古以来对里面的土地拥有主权。这个不明确性在各海域形成紧张气氛,包括菲律宾、马来西亚、文莱与台湾等国家和地区。其中与菲律宾的冲突最频繁。本周菲律宾扣留了15名中国渔民,理由是这些渔民在菲律宾视之为领海的地方偷捕濒危海龟,紧张局势再度升级。Mr Obamas trip was marked by a beefing-up of Americas security ties with the Philippines, but not by an explicit American commitment to back it in the South China Sea. Vietnam is not an American ally, although relations have warmed in recent years, partly because of Vietnams fear of China. America has condemned Chinas “provocative” drilling plans but may prove powerless to thwart them. That could undo whatever progress Mr Obama made on the reassurance front.奥巴马此行被认为加强了美国与菲律宾的安全关系,而非美国重返南海的明确承诺。尽管近年美越关系好转,但越南并不是美国的盟友。部分原因是越南对中国的担心。美国谴责了中国的“挑衅性”钻探计划,但或许无法阻止该计划实行。那可能使得奥巴马在安抚盟友方面取得的进展功亏一篑。 内容来自:201406/306097四川省成都市一院妇科咨询

四川省成都第四医院门诊部营业时间 Business商业报道Legal disclaimers合法的免责声明Spare us the e-mail yada-yada腾回我们的电邮空间Automatic e-mail footers are not just annoying.They are legally useless自动附加电子邮件页脚,真让人讨厌,法律上还没啥用呢IF THIS e-mail is received in error, notify the sender immediately.如果电邮被误收,请马上通知发件人。This e-mail does not create an attorney-client relationship.电邮没有建立代理-委托的关系。Any tax advice in this e-mail is not intended to be used for the purpose of avoiding penalties under the Internal Revenue Code.任何关于电邮的税务咨询不是以避免国内税法处罚为目的。Many firms—The Economist included—automatically append these sorts of disclaimers to every message sent from their e-mail servers, no matter how brief and trivial the message itself might be.无论电邮的信息是多么简短和琐碎,大部分企业都会自动在电邮务器中的所有邮件中附加各式各样的免责声明。E-mail disclaimers are one of the minor nuisances of modern office life, along with fire drills, annual appraisals and colleagues who keep sneezing loudly.电邮免责声明是现代办公室生活中的小骚扰之一,其它骚扰则是火警演戏、年度评比和同事大声连续打喷嚏。Just think of all the extra waste paper generated when messages containing such waffle are printed.试想想,信息中含有多余的话句,还被打印出来了,多浪费纸张啊。They are assumed to be a wise precaution.而且,免责声明还被认为是一种明智的预防措施。But they are mostly, legally speaking, pointless.然而,从法律上说,这些声明大多是没意义的。Lawyers and experts on internet policy say no court case has ever turned on the presence or absence of such an automatic e-mail footer in America, the most litigious of rich countries.互联网政策方面的律师和专家们表示,富裕国家中最爱诉讼的美国,也还没有哪个诉案是由这种自动的电邮页脚的存在与否引起的。Many disclaimers are, in effect, seeking to impose a contractual obligation unilaterally, and thus are probably unenforceable.实际上,大部分免责声明都在争取利用单方契约义务,最终可能导致条款无法执行。This is clear in Europe,在这方面,欧洲做得非常清晰。where a directive from the European Commission tells the courts to strike out any unreasonable contractual obligation on a consumer if he has not freely negotiated it.欧洲委员会向法院下指令,要求严打针对那些不给予消费者自由谈判权利的、不合理的契约义务。And a footer stating that nothing in the e-mail should be used to break the law would be of no protection to a lawyer or financial adviser sending a message that did suggest something illegal.这些页脚声称电子邮件中没有违法内容;另外,对于律师和财务顾问而言,它们也不会有保障性,也不会发信息告知人们什么是非法的。So why are the disclaimers there?那么,免责声明是干什么用的?Company lawyers often insist on them because they see others using them.企业的律师总会坚持使用免责声明,因为他们见其它公司也在使用。As with Latin vocabulary and judges’ robes, once something has become a legal habit it has a tendency to stick.与拉丁词汇和法官的长袍一样,一旦某行为成为一种法律习惯,该行为就会被继续坚持下去。Might they at least remind people to behave sensibly?至少,这些声明可以让人们理智行动吧?Michael Overly, a lawyer for Foley amp; Lardner in Los Angeles, thinks not:洛杉矶富理达律师事务所的律师迈克尔?殴弗利可不这么认为:the proliferation of predictable yada-yada at the bottom of messages means that people have long since stopped paying any attention to it.那些在邮件信息底部的唠叨条款的扩散,意味着人们早已停止对其关注了。 /201304/235728武侯区中医院门诊在哪里成都人民医院产妇做检查好吗



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