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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2020年02月19日 05:55:01
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Russian President Vladimir Putin has been named worlds most powerful person by Forbes magazine.俄罗斯总统普京被《福布斯》(Forbes)杂志评为全球最有权力的人物;Putin continues to prove hes one of the few men in the world powerful enough to do what he wants and get away with it,; the magazine said of the Russian leader, who has topped the list three years in a row.杂志道,普京继续明了他是世界上仅有的几位权力强大到可以为所欲为并且不会受罚的人物。他已连续三年蝉连榜首。Germany Chancellor Angela Merkel took over the second spot from U.S. President Barack Obama, who dropped to third.德国总理默克尔取代美国总统奥巴马登上权力排行榜第二位,而奥巴马滑落到第三位。It marks the first time a U.S. president has not been in the top two in the seven-year history of the rankings, according to the 73-person list named by Forbes.这是七年间,美国总统第一次在《福布斯》提名的73位最有权人物中没有进入前两名。Pope Francis was named fourth most powerful, the same as last year, and China President Xi Jinping came in at fifth, dropping two spots.教宗方济各被评为第四位最有权力的人物,与去年的排行相同。而中国国家主席习近平位列第五,比去年下降了两位。Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe was the biggest mover on the list, rising 22 places to 49th.日本首相安倍晋三的排行榜上升幅度最大,上升2个位次,名列49位。Presidential hopefuls Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump were both on the list, ranking 58th and 72nd, respectively.美国总统参选人希拉釷克林顿和唐纳德·川普均榜上有名,分别位列58位和72位。The highest-ranking newcomer to the list is Saudi King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, who ranked 14th.在今年新上榜的人物中,排名最高的是位4位的沙特国王萨勒曼·阿卜杜勒。Forbes said several factors were taken into account to select the most powerful people, including ;the amount of money they control, the number of people they impact, their total spheres of influence, and how actively they wield their power.;《福布斯》表示,挑选最有权力的人物需要考虑很多因素。包括“他们控制的金钱数量,他们影响的人口数量,他们在全球的影响范围以及他们如何积极地动用自己的权力。”来 /201511/408147

  

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  Indias western state of Maharashtra hasintroduced a ban on beef so strict that even possession could land you in jailfor five years, media reports and the chief minister said Tuesday.印度西部的马哈拉斯特拉邦禁止牛肉,即使是拥有牛肉者也将被判处五年,媒体和该邦首席部长周二说。The countrys Hindu majority considers cowssacred, and several states aly ban their slaughter. But the latest measures in Maharashtra --home to Indias commercial centre Mumbai -- go even further, making the sale orpossession of beef an offence punishable by a five-year jail term or a 10,000rupee (0) fine.印度主要人口印度教徒认为牛是神圣的,已经有几个邦禁止屠杀牛。但是该邦——印度商业中心孟买的所在地——的这项最新措施更加严厉,销售或者拥有牛肉者将被判年刑期或万卢比(160美元)罚金。The Indian Express newspaper said themeasures became law after President Pranab Mukherjee gave his assent to a legalamendment -- which was passed by the state parliament two decades ago, but wasnever sent to a president for approval.印度媒体报道,在总统慕克吉同意一项法律修正案后,这个措施才成为了法律。该修正案在20年前就被该邦议会通过了,但是从来没有交给总统批准。The measures include a ban on the slaughterof bulls and bullocks, hitherto legal with a vets certificate, although itwill still be legal to slaughter buffalo.这项措施禁止屠杀公牛和小牛,除非拥有兽医书。屠杀水牛依然是合法的。来 /201503/362561

  In the past 18 months, China has been enthusiastically dredging sand from the bottom of the South China Sea and building artificial islands in disputed waters. During that period, according to Ashton Carter, US secretary of defence, Beijing has reclaimed more land than all the other claimants put together over the history of the dispute. True, Vietnam, the Philippines, Malaysia and Taiwan have all built islands to bolster their territorial claims. Yet Beijing’s actions dwarf those efforts in both speed and scale.过去18个月,中国一直在南中国海争议水域热火朝天地抽沙建造人工岛。根据美国国防部长阿什#8226;卡特(Ashton Carter)的说法,这一时期中国填海造地的面积,超过了其他所有声索国自有争端以来造岛面积的总和。越南、菲律宾、马来西亚和台湾确实都曾人工造岛,以持它们的领土主张。然而,与中国政府的行为相比,它们的举动不论在速度上还是规模上都相形见绌。The exercise is being carried out in a state of secrecy. No one knows quite what China is up to nor what it hopes to achieve. The lack of transparency is unnerving given China’s territorial ambitions. With little or no basis in international law, it lays claim to virtually all of the South China Sea, asserting ownership of everything within a nine-dash line hugging the coast of the Philippines, Malaysia and Vietnam. One theory is that Beijing wants to build a runway in order to enforce an air defence identification zone over the entire sea. Beijing should desist from such an unnecessary provocation.中国政府的这一举动,是在一种秘密状态下进行的。没有人确切知道中国计划做什么,希望达成什么目的。考虑到中国的领土野心,这种缺乏透明度的状况令人紧张。中国声称对紧贴菲律宾、马来西亚和越南海岸线的所谓“九段线”内的所有水域拥有主权,这块水域实质上涵盖了几乎整个南中国海。这一声明基本上没有或者说完全没有国际法依据。有一种看法认为,中国政府想要修建一座简易机场,以便在整个南中国海上空划设一个防空识别区。中国政府应该停止这种没有必要的挑衅行为。In the run-up to this weekend’s Shangri-La Dialogue, a regional security summit held in Singapore, Washington has begun to push back. This month, it flew a P-8 Poseidon aircraft with a CNN television crew on board over one of China’s new islands, eliciting a sharp warning from the Chinese navy. The US says it has detected artillery pieces and has reserved the right to sail warships within 12 miles of the newly created islands. This weekend, Mr Carter made it clear the US would “fly, sail and operate wherever international law allowsand said China’s act of “turning an underwater rock into an airfieldin no way conferred sovereign rights. Chinese Admiral Sun Jianguo responded that Beijing’s actions were “justified, legitimate and reasonableand were intended to provide “international public services His words will bring little comfort to the Asian nations that feel threatened by China’s behaviour.周末在新加坡举行地区防务峰会“香格里拉对话Shangri-La Dialogue)之前,美国政府就已经对中国这一行为施加了压力。本月美国曾派出一架P-8A海神反潜P-8 Poseidon),载着美国有线新闻CNN)的一个电视节目摄制组,飞越中国一个新造岛屿的上空,结果到中国海军严厉警告。美国表示,已经侦测到大炮等军事设施,并保留派遣军舰航行至新造岛2海里以内的权利。周末,卡特更明确地表示,美国将“在国际法许可的范围内飞行、航行及执行任务”,并表示中国“将水下礁石变成机场”的行为根本不能使其获得主权。中国海军上将孙建国则回应称,中国政府的举措“合理、合法、合情”,目的是提供“国际公益务”。对于那些因中国所为而感觉受到威胁的亚洲国家来说,孙建国的说法不会起到什么安慰作用。In the short term, both China and the US need to ratchet down tensions. All nations, including China, should give thought to Mr Carter’s call for a moratorium on new island construction. The atmosphere would then be more conducive to conclude a code of conduct that could prevent accidents and unnecessary provocations in future. China should also spell out exactly what its nine-dash claim means and explain what it hopes to achieve through island construction. It should reiterate its commitment to freedom of navigation. For its part, the US should stop grandstanding via the television cameras and should think hard before it sails warships past Chinese-built islands. The danger is that Beijing will feel obliged to respond in kind.从短期来看,中美都需要做出缓和紧张局势的动作。各方应考虑卡特关于暂停建设新岛屿的呼吁,包括中国在内。届时气氛将更有利于缔结一项行为准则,以在未来防止突发事件和不必要的挑衅。中国也应阐明九段线声明的含义,并解释中方希望通过岛屿建设达成什么目的。中国还应重申对航行自由原则的承诺。美国则应停止在电视上哗众取宠,对于派军舰驶近中国新建岛屿的事情应三思。美方这类举动可能招致危险,因为北京方面将感到有必要作出回应。In the longer run, there is a more fundamental issue at stake. China’s actions are nothing less than the beginning of a challenge to US dominance in the Pacific. Given its economic might, that is hardly surprising, nor need it be threatening. Most countries in the region want to strike a balance between the ambitions of a rising China and the comfort of US presence. At the moment, the two countries are on a slow, but unmistakable collision course. The trick will be to bind both China and the US into a wider, regional security framework that establishes rules of the road and of the sea and the air. Such rules will have to have widesp support, including from the two most powerful Pacific powers themselves. The status quo is probably unsustainable. Yet it will not be in the region’s interests simply to replace the Pax Americana with a Pax Sinica.从长远来看,这件事关系到一个更根本的问题。中国的行动仅仅是挑战美国在太平洋主导地位的开端。鉴于中国的经济实力,这点不足为奇,也不需要认为是个威胁。该地区的大多数国家都希望,在崛起的中国的雄心与美国存在的安慰感之间能够达到一种平衡。中美两国目前正处于缓慢的、但明显会冲突的路线上。解决之道是将中美两国捆绑到一个更广泛的地区安全架构中,制定海陆空的国际交通规则。这些规则必须得到广泛持,包括两个最强大的太平洋大国本身。现状可能是无法持续的。然而以“中国治下的和平Pax Sinica)简单地取代“美国治下的和平Pax Americana)并不符合地区利益。来 /201506/378301The estranged wife of Indian Prime MinisterNarendra Modi sought details about her security cover Monday, voicing concernsabout her safety as her family demanded that she be treated as the countrys;first lady;.被疏远的印度总理夫人周一要求获悉有关自己安全保障的细节,她对自己的安全表达了关注,而她的家人则认为她应该获得“第一夫人”应该有的待遇。The premier, who swept to power in May ashead of the right-wing Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party, and Jashodabenwere wed in an arranged marriage as teenagers莫迪月份当选印度总理,在他们还是青少年的时候,他就和贾秀达本通过家庭包办婚姻结了婚。But his family says it was only a;formal ritual; as Modi left her soon after. They were neverdivorced.但不久后莫迪就离开她了,莫迪的家人说那仅仅是一种“正式的仪式”。他们从来没有离过婚;I am the wife of the honourable primeminister of India,; stated the retired school teacher in a Right ToInformation (RTI) application filed in western Gujarat state, where she liveswith her brother.“我是尊贵的印度总理的夫人,”这名已退休教师在古吉拉特邦西部提交知情权申请时如是说道,她目前在古吉拉特邦西部与自己的兄弟住在一起;I would like to know under whatprovisions of the law and the constitution of India am I being providedprotection? As wife of the prime minister what are the other benefits I amentitled to?;“我想知道根据印度宪法和法律我将受到什么样的保护?作为印度总理的妻子,我还可以获得什么样的福利?”Indias RTI Act, similar to the Freedom ofInformation law in the ed States, gives citizens the right to accessinformation held by public bodies.印度的知情权法相当于美国的信息自由法律,赋予公民获悉公共团体所持信息的权利。Modis wife has long kept a low profile andrarely been photographed or interviewed. Modi guards his privacy zealously.莫迪的妻子一直以来都很低调,鲜少接受拍照和采访。莫迪非常小心的保护着自己的隐私。Her brother, Ashok Modi, said thegovernment should provide her a car and women commandos because she is notcomfortable with male guards.她的兄弟阿肖克莫迪说政府应该给她提供一辆车和女性保镖,因为她不习惯男性保镖在身边;She is the first lady and isentitled to get all the facilities,; he was ed as saying by theHindustan Times newspaper, adding, ;She deserves to be with (Modi) inDelhi.;“他是‘第一夫人,有权获得所有的保障,”《印度斯坦时报》援引他的话说。“她应该和莫迪一起住在德里。”Jashodaben stated in her application that;she travels by public transport while her body guards travel by officialvehicle;, the paper reported.贾秀达本在她的申请中陈述道“她出行都是靠公共交通,而她的保镖都坐公务车”。Modis wife said she was worried about hersafety, noting former prime minister Indira Gandhi was shot dead by her ownsecurity guards in 1984.莫迪的妻子说她对自己的安全感到担忧,她说印度前总理英迪拉甘地就是在1984年的时候被自己的警卫开杀死的;Gandhi was attacked and killed by herpersonal bodyguards, because of which I am very afraid. Kindly provide me withdetails of the guards,; she wrote in her application.她在申请书中写到:“她就是被自己的私人保镖杀死的,因此我非常害怕。希望你们可以给我提供我个人安保的细节内容。”The grey-haired woman demanded a reply in48 hours, calling it a ;matter of life and death;, signing theapplication using the name ;Jashodaben Narendrakumar Modi;.这名灰色头发的妇女要求政府在48小时内回复她,称这是“生死攸关的事情”,并在申请书上签下了“贾秀达本莫迪”的名字。In a rare interview before Modi becameprime minister, Jashodaben, who gets a monthly government teachers pension,said she everything about him ;I can get my hands on; but added,;I dont think he will ever call me;.在莫迪成为总理前,每个月从政府获得教室退休金的她曾稀有的接受了一次采访,她说有关于他的事情她都会去了解,但是她又说“我认为他永远都不会打电话给我”。Modi allegedly kept the wedding secretbecause it meant he would not be able to climb the ladder of a hardline Hindugroup to which he belonged that frowned on key workers marrying, according to aModi biography by author Nilanjan Mukhopadhyay.根据一名为莫迪写传记的作家的说法,莫迪故意隐瞒自己结婚的事实,因为之前莫迪所属的强硬的印度教团体中并不喜欢自己的关键成员是已婚男人,所以如果被知道的话,他就无法受到该组织的重用。Modi, earlier chief minister of Gujarat forover a dozen years, acknowledged his marriage for the first time when filinghis general election nomination papers.莫迪之前在古吉拉特邦担任0多年的首席部长,在提交竞选总理文件时首次承认了自己的婚姻。来 /201411/344671The Philippines is among the countries being secretly monitored by a telecommunications spying program of the US National Security Agency (NSA), as revealed by whistleblower and fugitive Edward Snowden.据《菲律宾星报0日报道,美国“棱镜门”揭秘者爱德华#8226;斯诺登披露的文件显示,称菲律宾也在美国安局秘密监控的国家之列。Online publication The Intercept, a platform releasing Snowdens leaks, alleged in a post on Tuesday (Manila time) that NSAs cutting-edge surveillance program MYSTIC collects ;metadata; and content from mobile networks in the Caribbean, Mexico, Kenya, the Philippines and another unnamed country.刊登斯诺登泄密文件的在线网站The Intercept于马尼拉时间20日发文称,NSA代号为“神秘”(MYSTIC)的监控项目搜集加勒比地区、墨西哥、肯尼亚、菲律宾和另一个国家移动网络的“元数据”;All told, the NSA is using MYSTIC to gather personal data on mobile calls placed in countries with a combined population of more than 250 million people,; The Intercept writers Ryan Devereaux, Glenn Greenwald and Laura Poitras said in the report.文章称,NSA用“神秘”项目搜集的个人移动电话数据涉及不同国家.5亿多人。该文作者之一格伦#8226;格林沃尔德曾依据斯诺登提供的材料发表多篇文章揭露美国监视项目。Metadata are information revealing message or calls time stamp, source and destination--information collected by MYSTIC that may be authorized by the host country and even by the telecommunications firms. The program also offers ;near real-time, complete access to the additional target countrys GSM networks,; according to the document leaked by Snowden.所谓元数据,是指电话或者短信的时间、来源和接收者等信息。美国情报界曾在2013年的预算方案提出出资成立“神秘”项目,称该项目有能力获取上述国家的全面元数据信息,还可近乎实时监控一些国家的全球移动通信系统(GSM)网络。Another classified document, provided by Snowden, provides a NSA Special Source Operations description of MYSTIC as a ;program for embedded collection systems overtly installed on target networks predominantly for collection and processing of wireless/mobile communications networks.;斯诺登提供的另一份文件称,“神秘”项目可公开在目标网络安装嵌入式采集系统,搜集和处理无线电话/手机通讯网络的信息,公开的说法是为电信公司提供合法商业务。There is no indication whether MYSTIC also intercepts phone calls and voice data in the Philippines, but it does pull text messaging data.尚不知晓“神秘”项目是否还拦截了菲律宾人的电话和语音数据,但一份文件显示,搜集短信数据是确凿的。The Intercept said it asked NSA to comment, but it only said it does not collect foreign intelligence in an arbitrary and unconstrained way as it follows protocols to protect peoples privacy. Philippine laws prohibit wire tapping and related violations not authorized by all parties concerned.对于The Intercept的采访,美国国家安全局只表示,该机构没有以任意和无约束的方式搜集国外情报,并恪守保护个人隐私。巴哈马,墨西哥、肯尼亚和菲律宾方面均未回应。菲律宾法律禁止在未经当事各方授权的情况下执行窃听行为。来 /201405/302128

  

  

  The recent disappearance of Kim Jong Un, North Korea’s young leader, from public view for more than 40 days has stirred enormous speculation and concern. His mysterious absence was further amplified by the country’s most senior military leader’s unexpected appearance in South Korea along with a high-level team to discuss the terms for renewed North-South diplomacy. These unusual comings and goings were the subject of feverish conjecture and rumour-mongering, with supposed experts suggesting that the “Young Geniuswas either deposed in a coup and replaced by his sister, recovering from ankle surgery after an unfortunate fall in teetering high heels or recuperating in hiding after a disfiguring injury. Much of the more outlandish speculation seemed to be resolved by his reappearance in public on Tuesday last week, when he showed up in North Korean state media with a noticeable limp and black cane perfect accessories to the aly Bondish quality of his villainous reputation. Official television in Pyongyang offered helpfully that he had been experiencing “discomfort朝鲜年轻的领导人金正Kim Jong Un)最近从公众视线中消失了40余天,引发了大量猜想和担忧。令事态更加戏剧化的是,在他神秘失踪期间,朝鲜军方最高人物带领一高级别团队出人意料地出现在韩国,重启南北外交。这些不同寻常的动向点燃了人们的猜测热情,导致流言四起。一些所谓的专家提出无奇不有的种种猜想:朝鲜发生了政变,“年轻的天才”已被废黜,被他的接替;穿高跟皮鞋的他不幸摔跤,接受踝骨手术后正在康复;因伤毁容后躲起来恢复。上周二金正恩公开露面之后,大部分猜想都不攻自破了。那天,金正恩明显一瘸一拐地出现在朝鲜官方媒体上,拄着黑色拐杖,跟他本来就具备07反面人物形象十分相称。平壤官方电视台隔靴搔痒般地解释称,金正恩此前“身体不适”。What are we to make of all this? The basic questions about the durability of Mr Kim’s leadership and his relationship with his closest colleagues, family and the military, together with the seemingly contradictory overtures with South Korea including calls to renew dialogue interspersed with exchanges of gunfire across the Demilitarised Zone underscore the many uncertainties that are intrinsic to the North Korean drama. Northeast Asia is increasingly integral to the global economy and its economic development is critical to sustaining even lumbering global growth. However, North Korea’s continuing nuclear ambitions and occasional provocations pose significant worries to the fragile region which is beset by internal rivalries, historical disagreements and mutual distrust. It is no secret that relations between China and North Korea have frayed recently and there are ample concerns in Beijing that Pyongyang’s nefarious activities undermine China’s larger strategic interests. Still, fraternal Communist ties means the countries remain intertwined, although deeply distrustful of each other.我们该如何看待这一系列事件?关于金正恩领导地位的持久性、他与他最亲密的同僚、家人和军方的关系,以及朝鲜对韩国貌似自相矛盾的态度(包括一方面呼吁重启对话,一方面又在非军事区开火),都存在一些根本的疑问,凸显出朝鲜问题内在固有的不确定性。东北亚地区对全球经济越来越不可或缺,这一地区的经济发展对于撑哪怕是低速的全球增长至关重要。然而,朝鲜不放弃核野心,时不时进行挑衅,令人们对这个受困于内部角力、历史分歧和互不信任的脆弱地区产生严重担忧。中国和朝鲜近来关系紧张,这已经不是秘密。北京方面很担心平壤方面的邪恶行为损害中国的整体战略利益。不过,共产党之间兄弟般的纽带意味着中朝两国仍然紧密联系在一起,尽管相互之间存在极深的不信任。Park Gyeun-hye, South Korea’s president, has recently articulated an ambitious vision of a Korea reunited and a peaceful end to division on the peninsula. While most of her plan focuses on the hopes and benefits associated with such a reunion, there is still much worry about the North Korean dissolution or instability that would precede such a conjoining. Most Korea watchers believe that the process of reunification would likely be deeply unsettling and expensive, with the potential for nuclear leakage, mass refugee flows and misunderstandings between the larger surrounding states.韩国总统朴槿Park Geun-hye)最近详细描述了实现韩朝统一、和平结束朝鲜半岛分裂的远大愿景。尽管她的计划大多着眼于韩朝统一的希望和好处,但人们仍然非常担心朝鲜崩溃,担心统一之前的不稳定。大多数朝鲜问题观察人士相信,韩朝统一进程很可能带来极大动荡和极高代价,还可能导致核泄漏、大规模难民潮和周围几个大邻国之间的误解。Indeed North Korea is determined not to go down quietly and wishes to have a say in the determination of its own future. Most of the time, it creates news through its provocative activities shelling islands, sinking ships and staging nuclear tests. The point to all of this is often to create leverage to extract material concessions from the rest of the world. However, as the world has grown less patient with North Korean antics and inured to its attempts at escalating tensions, Pyongyang is left to contemplate new strategies to attract attention to itself.的确,朝鲜下定决心不悄悄退出历史舞台,希望在决定其未来的过程中拥有一份话语权。大多数时候,朝鲜通过挑衅行为制造新闻——炮轰岛屿、击沉军舰、进行核试验。这一切举动的目的往往是为了制造筹码,迫使其他国家向它提供实质性的好处。然而,随着国际社会对朝鲜的花招越来越没有耐心,对其迫使紧张局势升级的企图也越来越无动于衷,平壤方面只好设计新的战略,来吸引人们对它的注意力。It is not an accident that the international media has paid much attention over the past few weeks to North Korea. Much of the informed commentary counsels that it is necessary to have some lines of communication into Pyongyang given the many uncertainties at play. As a consequence, Tokyo, Seoul and Washington are now establishing back channel schemes for careful and calibrated engagement with North Korea.过去几周来,国际媒体对朝鲜给予了许多关注,这并非偶然。许多有识之士建议,鉴于眼下存在的诸多不确定因素,有必要与平壤建立某种联系方式。于是,东京、首尔和华盛顿方面眼下都在建立秘密联络渠道,以求谨慎、精确地同朝方接触。Thus through his temporary disappearance, Mr Kim enticed neighbouring nations to try harder to engage with him. Ultimately, talking to antagonists is often a wise approach. However, North Korea has never been satisfied with simply talk. Its objective has always been to elicit external support to buttress the failing regime.因此,通过暂时的“失踪”,金正恩诱使邻国纷纷更努力地尝试与他打交道。与敌人对话最终往往是明智之举。然而,朝鲜从未仅满足于对话,它的目标一直是获取外部持,维系这个江河日下的政权。So we await the next move from the interlocutors. Can they lure North Korea to consider peaceful reunification or to renounce its nuclear ambitions? Or, more likely, will this simply be another chapter in Pyongyang’s larger designs to coerce more support from the outside world to remain relevant and live to see another tension-filled day?那么,我们就拭目以待,看看有关各方接下来会走出什么棋吧。他们能不能诱使朝鲜考虑与韩国和平统一?或是放弃核武野心?抑或,可能性更大的情况是,这只不过是平壤方面使出的又一个招数,目的是从外部世界争取更多持,以保持自身的相关性,撑到剑拔弩张的下一幕。The writer is chairman and chief executive of The Asia Group and on the board of the Center for a New American Security. From -13 he served as the assistant US secretary of state for east Asian and Pacific affairs本文作者是亚洲集团(The Asia Group)主席兼首席执行官、新美国安全中心(Center for a New American Security)董事009年至2013年担任美国东亚及太平洋事务助理国务卿 /201410/337355。

  

  

  In a thinly veiled admonishment, the White House recently accused the UK our closest ally of “a policy of constant accommodationtowards China. The parallel drawn to the historical appeasement of Germany by an apprehensive Europe was lost on no one, nor indeed the overwrought nature of the underlying concern.最近,白宫(White House)向其最亲密的盟友英国发出了一个几乎不加掩饰的告诫,指责其对中国奉行“不断迁就的政策”。这显然是想让人联想起历史上惶惶不安的欧洲对德国采取的绥靖政策,与此同时,所有人也都明白,美国这块“心病”其实是由过度紧张造成的。The proximate cause of this spleen-venting was the surprise breaking of ranks by the UK to join as a founding shareholder the nascent China-led Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB.) This initial bn fund has as itsagenda the financing of overdue infrastructure in Asia.美国如此大发脾气,直接原因是英国与美国分道扬镳、决定以创始股东身份加入由中国主导的新生的亚洲基础设施投资(AIIB,简称:亚投行),这让美国颇感意外。亚投行初始资本00亿美元,目标是为亚洲早该建设的基础设施提供融资。It is of a piece too with the recent proposal by China to form a Brics bank focused on itspartners in Brazil India, Russia and South Africa. There is also then the ambitious “New Silk Roadproject, which aims to generate greater connectivity between Asia and beyond by land and by sea. All of this stands against the backdrop of a US-led effort to hammer out a Trans Pacific Partnership with the very same partners in Asia, conspicuously excluding China.这与中国近期提出的建立“金砖Brics bank)的计划非常相像。金砖的注意力将主要放在中国的合作伙伴巴西、印度、俄罗斯和南非身上。另外还有雄心勃勃的“新丝绸之路New Silk Road)计划,目标是通过陆路和海路加强中国与亚洲乃至更遥远地区的连通性。这些都与美国目前牵头展开的一项努力针锋相对:美国正努力与中国上述计划所涉及的那些亚洲合作伙伴敲定《跨太平洋伙伴关系TPP)协定,引人注目的一点是,该协定将中国排除在外。The UK has since been followed by very nearly the rest of our allies save Japan in signing up with the more than 30 countries that have aly chosen to join. We are increasingly alone in our worry that a China dominated enterprise may not follow international standards of creditworthiness, transparency, and environmental sensitivity that the World Bank, International Monetary Fund and Asian Development Bank adhere to.美国的所有盟友(日本除外)后来几乎都在效仿英国的做法,与30多个已决定加入亚投行的国家签署入行协议。美国担心,一个由中国主导的组织或许不会像世界(World Bank)、国际货币基金组IMF)和亚洲开发银ADB)那样遵守有关信誉、透明度和环保敏感性的国际标准,但持同样担心的国家现在越来越少。While US officials are not directly discouraging other nations from joining the bank, the opposition is consistent with the impression in Asia that our efforts are aimed at bolstering our martial superiority with a soft economic superiority that seeks to displace China from the aly pivotal role it has in the furthering of Asian economies.尽管美国官员没有直接劝说其他国家不要加入亚投行,但是这种抵制的态度符合美国给亚洲留下的印象:美国想以软性的经济优势来巩固自身的军事优势,而这种经济优势意味着不让中国在促进亚洲经济发展方面继续扮演其已在扮演的关键角色。It does not help the White House that Congress has stalled proposed reforms to the IMF, which would double the fund’s resources and give more voting power to the BRICS, most notably China. In short, whether it is White House or Congressional policy or both, US impediments to IMF reforms have accelerated China’s opportunity to lead in the region.美国国会阻挠拟议中的IMF改革,也就是将IMF的资本增加一倍并给予金砖国家、尤其是中国更多投票权。这种做法对白宫并无助益。简而言之,不管这是白宫的政策,还是美国国会的政策,还是二者共同的政策,美国阻挠IMF改革的做法都加大了中国在亚洲担当领导者的机会。We are unable also to bolster a viable regional alternative to the AIIB. The most likely candidate, the Asian Development Bank (ADB), is chronically underfunded and unable to serve as the lead organizing force for a much overdue Asian investment resurgence. The US has not met its funding commitments to either the IMF or ADB, in spite of the ADB’s own estimates that Asia needs at least tn in infrastructure investment.美国也无法找到一个能在该地区有效替代亚投行的实体并予以持。最有可能的候选者是亚开行,但长期资金不足的亚开行无法担当主要的组织者、促成早该出现的亚洲投资复兴。无论是对亚开行还是对IMF,美国都没有兑现其出资承诺,尽管亚开行自身的估计数字显示亚洲至少需万亿美元基础设施投资。Significant projects such as Asian rail links, hydroelectric power and logistical links all require deep pocketed and patient sponsors that the West’s riven political structures simply cannot provide the consensus for anymore. The equivalent of the New Deal for Asia mirroring the commitment and policy cohesion under which the US stitched together a continent with roads, while raising a generation out of poverty is simply not imaginable today with the backing of the World Bank, IMF or the ADB. It is inevitable then that as resurgent Asian economies welcome abundant and flexible Chinese investment, the US appears weaker by being unable to mobilise the West to offer a compelling alternative.亚洲的铁路网、水力发电和物流网等重大项目,都需要财力雄厚又有耐心的投资者,而西方四分五裂的政治结构根本无法再为此达成共识。今天,要想在亚洲复制当年美国的“新政New Deal),即像美国那样靠承诺和政策凝聚力把整块大陆用道路连通起来、同时让一代人脱离贫困,靠世行、IMF或亚开行的持是根本不可想象的。因此,随着复兴中的亚洲经济体对充裕而灵活的中国投资表示欢迎、而美国又无法动员西方提供一个令人难以抗拒的替代选择,美国显现出颓势就是不可避免的。Far away from the teeming capitals of Asia, many in the US are unaware also of how radically different the world view is of the western dominated global development bodies. The tough love austerity recipes that the IMF and World Bank routinely impose on Asian countries in exchange for aid or sponsorship are increasingly seen as severe and slavishly theoretical. We run the risk of appearing hypocritical when we in the West bail out our own banks and major industries in carefully and centrally planned moves, while insisting upon letting transparent and unfettered market forces determine the fate of Asian institutions when they run aground.另外,由于与亚洲各国人口众多的首都相距甚远,美国的很多人不了解世界对西方主导的全球开发机构有着多么截然不同的看法。IMF和世行经常会向亚洲国家开出代表“严爱”的紧缩处方、以此作为向它们提供援助和资助的条件,人们越来越认为这种做法既苛刻又教条。当西方人一面以小心翼翼和中央计划的举措纾困自己的和主要产业、一面却坚决要求让透明和不受约束的市场力量决定陷入困境的亚洲机构的命运时,就会在别人眼中可能会成为“虚伪”的代名词。We fail also to properly evaluate how essential China’s investment is to our own domestic economy. In a still fragile housing market Chinese investment into US residential property amounts to nearly bn with most of it in stable hard cash, impervious to market jitters. Consider also the overall very welcome foreign direct investment from China which in California alone tallies up at an astonishing bn, far outpacing any other source and certainly eclipsing locally led investments. Further, Chinese investment into California alone has a potential to reach an astonishing bn by 2020 if the state and the private sector maximise the partnership.至于中国投资对美国国内经济有多么重要,美国也没能做出正确评估。在美国房地产市场依旧脆弱之际,中国对美住宅地产投资已逼近220亿美元,其中大多数投资是以不受市场波动影响的、可靠的现款来完成的。再考虑下整体上很受欢迎的来自中国的外商直接投资(FDI),仅在加利福尼亚一个州就达到令人吃惊的120亿美元,远远超过来自任何其他国家的投资,当然也让来自美国国内的投资黯然失色。此外,如果加州公共及私营部门能最大限度地发展利用这种合作关系,那么到2020年时,中国仅对加州一个州的投资就有望达到令人乍舌00亿美元。It is clear then that the economic fallout would be severe if Chinese investors pulled back from new investment in California, New York, Texas, Illinois, or Washington, to name just the most popular destinations of Chinese investment. As an American and the CEO of an Asian bank based in the US, it is clear to this observer that the repercussions would affect us greatly.因此,如果中国投资者撤回新近在加州、纽约州、德克萨斯州、伊利诺伊州或华盛顿州(这里仅举几个最热门的中国投资目的地)的投资,显然会造成严重的经济后果。我既是一名美国人又是一家亚洲美国区的首席执行官,在我这样的专业人士看来,这些后果无疑会严重影响到我们。As China approaches the status of the world’s largest economy, it has become an integral part of the global financial system. It is both bad policy and an ahistorical view that any strengthening of China regionally is necessarily damaging to US interests in Asia. The US would be better served if we did not continue to treat China as a junior partner in its own backyard, and form a diplomatic partnership instead that recognises China’s importance to the development of Asia and as an intermediary funneling domestic surpluses into high value investments around the globe.随着中国逐渐登上世界最大经济体的宝座,它已成为全球金融体系不可或缺的一部分。有人认为中国的地区影响力增强必然会损害美国在亚洲的利益,这是一种有悖历史潮流的观点,会催生糟糕的政策。假若美国不再把中国视为其所在地区内的次要合作伙伴,而是与其建立一种新型外交合作关系,承认其对亚洲发展的重要性、以及其作为把国内过剩资本导向世界各地高价值投资之中介的重要性,会更符合美国的利益。It is true that we started this century believing that we would enjoy center stage in a permanently uni-polar world, but that is just not the case anymore. China differs from previous rivals we have historically faced in one crucial way in that itsstrategic goals are driven largely by economics and a desire to maintain internal social and economic stability.没错,本世纪开始时我们曾认为自己会在这个永久的单极世界里出尽风头,但现在这种想法已不再成立。在一个至关重要的方面,中国与美国过去遭遇的对手并不相同:中国的战略目标主要受经济状况以及维持国内社会和经济稳定的愿望驱动。There is little apparent desire or motive to subjugate the globe as they are not in their current form driven by an ideological imperative of lethal opposition to the US or democratic nations in general, as we were used to from our old foe the Soviet Union. Hence, holding on to the narrative of the Cold War will lead only to wasted treasure and a stalemate neither we nor the rest of the world can afford.中国没有什么明显的欲望或动机去征世界,因为其目前所处的阶段并不受极力反对美国或整个民主世界(过去,我们的老冤家苏联曾这样对待我们)这种意识形态使命的驱动。因此,死抱着冷战思维不放,只会造成财富浪费以及无论美国还是世界其余国家都承受不起的对峙。With more than seven per cent of our national debt the most of any nation and the world’s largest stockpile of greenbacks outside of the US, China realises the almost umbilical stake they have in the continuous health of the US. While the US certainly does not treat China as gravely as we once did the Soviet Union, the rhetoric is heating up and has the potential to escalate if not handled with care.中国持有%的美国国债,是我们最大的债权国,同时也是世界上除美国外美元储备最多的国家。中国明白自己的利益与美国的长久健康息息相关。美国现在当然没有像过去对待苏联那样冷酷地对待中国,但冷战叙事正在升温,若不小心应对,这种叙事可能会升级。Noor Menai is President amp; CEO of CT Bank USA and former CEO of Charles Schwab Bank本文作者是中国信托商业美国(CT Bank USA)总裁兼首席执行官,曾任嘉信银Charles Schwab Bank)首席执行官来 /201504/367547

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