2020年02月26日 11:28:23|来源:国际在线|编辑:华龙爱问
From toothpaste to ice cream to disposable nappies, modern Chinese life has been transformed by imports. But many of those erstwhile alien products now bear Chinese brand names.从牙膏到冰淇淋、再到纸尿裤,进口产品已令中国现代生活面貌一新。但如今,曾经的舶来品中出现了许多中国品牌。More and more mainlanders are brushing their teeth with Yunnan Baiyao toothpaste, eating Yili ice cream or putting nappies made by Hengan on their babies. Multinationals still have a strong, sometimes dominant, presence in these markets, but mainland brands are exploiting local knowhow and speed to market.现在,越来越多的中国内地人用云南白药(Yunnan Baiyao)牙膏刷牙,吃伊利(Yili)冰淇淋,或者给婴儿使用恒安(Hengan)纸尿裤。跨国公司在这些市场仍拥有强大、有时是配性的地位,但中国国产品牌开始利用本地知识快速开拓市场。Disposable nappies are a case in point: many Chinese grannies did not use them to raise the current generation, but today’s urban mainland mums rely on them.纸尿裤是很能说明问题的一个例子:许多中国奶奶(外婆)带大当前一代时没有使用过它,但如今内地城市里的妈妈们却已离不开它。The market in China is highly concentrated, with 10 brands capturing 85 per cent of sales. Only one local brand has significant share: Hengan with 9 per cent, compared with 10 per cent for Kimberly-Clark of the US and nearly 29 per cent for Procter amp; Gamble.中国纸尿裤市场高度集中,十大品牌占据85%的销售额。唯有恒安一家国产品牌拥有可观的市场份额,为9%,而美国金佰利(Kimberly-Clark)份额为10%,宝洁(Pamp;G)份额接近29%。But the rapid rise in urbanisation and incomes in China is boosting demand for products such as nappies. Euromonitor, the data group, predicts that the world’s largest nappy market will nearly triple between 2010 and 2017, from Rmb20bn (.3bn) to Rmb57bn.但是,中国城市化程度的飞速提高和收入的迅速增加,提高了对纸尿裤等产品的需求。数据集团欧睿(Euromonitor)预计,2010年至2017年间,中国这个全球最大纸尿裤市场的规模将增加近两倍,由200亿元人民币(合33亿美元)增至570亿元人民币。Such growth is attracting new entrants, many of them local brands. “It is estimated there will be more than 100 foreign and domestic brands that will enter China in 2014 alone,” says Liu Yang, chief executive of Xiaolu Dingding Diapers, a mainland brand.如此增幅吸引来了新进入者,其中多是国产品牌。中国内地一家纸尿裤品牌小鹿叮叮(Xiaolu Dingding Diapers)的首席执行官刘阳表示,“据估计,仅仅2014年进入中国市场的国内外品牌就将超过100家。”Rising costs of materials and labour, changing consumer tastes and increasingly demanding consumers have made market conditions increasingly tough, retail analysts say.零售业分析师表示,原材料与劳动力成本的上升、消费者的喜好变化以及日益挑剔,导致市场状况愈加严峻。Hengan warned in its most recent results that “the short-term outlook remains challenging as a lot of players have entered into this market”.恒安在其最近发布的业绩报告中警告称,“由于有大量的生产商投入市场”,公司短期前景仍很有挑战性。Hengan says the quality of its nappies equals that of the foreign brands – Pamp;G, Kimberly-Clark and Japanese brand Unicharm together have more than half the market – but many mainland consumers disagree.恒安表示,其纸尿裤的质量可以媲美外国品牌——宝洁、金佰利和日本品牌尤妮佳(Unicharm)总共占据了一半以上的市场份额——但许多内地消费者并不认同这一点。Hengan, which expects to sell Rmb2.8bn-Rmb3bn of its Anerle nappies this year, says: “A majority of Chinese mothers believe foreign products are better than domestic ones; therefore, it is necessary to educate consumers to change their minds.”恒安表示:“大多数中国妈妈认为外国产品比国内产品好;所以,很有必要教育消费者改变观念。”该集团预计,今年安儿乐(Anerle)纸尿裤销售额将达28亿至30亿元人民币。Persuading Chinese mothers to use disposable nappies has been a slow process, says Xu Ruyi, head of China research at Mintel. “Nappies were introduced to China by Pamp;G during the 1990s and it has taken a long time for consumers to adopt the products.”英敏特(Mintel)中国研究总监徐如一表示,说中国妈妈们使用纸尿裤是一个很慢的过程。“纸尿裤是宝洁在20世纪90年代引入中国的,让中国消费者使用这一产品花了相当长的时间。”One breakthrough came with Pamp;G’s Pampers “golden sleep” campaign in 2007, focused on convincing mothers that using nappies can help babies sleep better, “which means they can grow faster and get more brain development”, says Ms Xu.徐如一表示,2007年宝洁的帮宝适(Pampers)“金质睡眠”推广活动带来了一次突破,活动的核心是让妈妈们相信,使用纸尿裤会帮婴儿们睡得更好,“这意味着他们能成长得更快、大脑发育得更好”。However, China is not a captive market for multinationals. “Competition is intense: even for big players if you don’t keep up with the competition you’ll still lose share to others,” says Ms Xu. “Consumers today are offered a much wider range of product choices compared with five or 10 years ago.”然而,跨国企业无法垄断中国市场。“竞争很激烈:即便对于大厂家而言,如果你跟不上竞争形势,你的市场份额也会被其他厂家夺走,”徐如一说,“如今的消费者面临着比5年或10年前多得多的产品选择。”Pull-up-type nappies, nappies for boys versus girls and adult nappies are all relatively new entrants to the market – the latter category is expected to grow strongly in China, the world’s largest senior market.上拉式纸尿裤、区分男婴和女婴的纸尿裤以及成人纸尿裤,都是市场上相对较新的产品——在中国这个全球最大老年人用品市场上,成人纸尿裤的销量增长预计将十分强劲。Domestic brands are “focusing more on Ramp;D and updating their production equipment because the newer the production line, the better quality the nappies will be”, says Yan Fei of Beijing’s Qinbei Research Centre.北京亲贝研究中心(Qinbei Research Centre)的Yan Fei表示,国产品牌正在“集中力量搞研发,升级他们的生产设备,因为产品线越新,纸尿裤的质量就越好。”“Intelligent” nappies, which gauge the health of a baby from its urine, and mosquito repellent nappies are under development by Chinese companies.中国企业正在研制能通过尿液判断婴儿健康状况的“智能”纸尿裤,以及驱蚊纸尿裤。Research from Mintel shows that famous brand names may actually wield less power in China than elsewhere. In the UK, says Mintel, “45 per cent of parents would go for a product they’ve used before and a low price is among the top three influencing factors”.英敏特的研究表明,实际上知名品牌在中国发挥的影响力可能小于其他地区。在英国,英敏特表示,“45%的父母会选择他们曾经用过的产品,价格低只是最重要的三个影响因素之一”。But in China, quality is king: freedom from harmful substances, quality, suitability for sensitive skin and absorbency are most important for Chinese consumers, says Ms Xu.徐如一表示,但在中国,质量为王:中国消费者最看重的因素是不含有害物质、质量过硬、适应敏感皮肤,以及吸水性强。China’s birth rate may be low, but spending on only babies is a favourite pastime and Chinese mothers sometimes use up to 20 nappies per day to avoid nappy rash, says Mr Yan.中国的出生率可能很低,但为独生子女花钱是一项最喜欢的消遣,中国妈妈们有时每天使用至多20块纸尿裤,以防止婴儿出现尿布疹。Big-city mothers have more and more money to spend on nappies and small city mums are just beginning to think of using them.大城市的妈妈们用来购买纸尿裤上的钱越来越多,而小城市的妈妈们才开始考虑使用纸尿裤。Like toothpaste and ice cream, nappies are becoming a domestic necessity in China, and everyone from local to multinational brands is eager to get a piece of the action.在中国,纸尿裤正像牙膏和冰淇淋一样变成一种家用必需品,无论国产还是跨国品牌,都急切地要从中分一杯羹。 /201409/331788

Should schools give children medicine without parental permission?未经家长允许,学校能给孩子吃药吗?That#39;s the question that has been reverberating in parental circles across China after news emerged that a string of kindergartens were allegedly dispensing antiviral drugs without parents#39; consent.这个问题最近在中国的家长圈子里激起层层涟漪,导火索是中国多所幼儿园被指在未获得家长允许的情况下向儿童分发抗病毒药物。China#39;s official Xinhua News Agency reported that four kindergarten programs--two in Xian in western Shaanxi province, one in central Hubei and another in northeastern Jilin--have been shut due to the problem, with some parents saying their children were suffering from leg pains, nosebleeds and genital inflammation after taking the medicine.据中国官方媒体新华社报道,四所幼儿园因相关问题被关闭,其中两所位于中国西部 西省西安市、一所位于华中的湖北省,还有一所在东北的吉林省,一些家长说,他们的孩子在药后出现腿痛、流鼻血、生殖器肿胀等症状。Authorities are investigating the matter, and three people in Jilin have been detained in connection with the allegations, Xinhua said. Five others from schools in Xian have also been detained, Xinhua said.新华社说,有关当局正在调查此事,吉林已有三人被拘捕。新华社说,西安幼儿园也有五人被拘捕。The issue came to light Friday, after one parent in Xian found her daughter had brought home a prescription flu pill. Other cases came to light as the news sp.这起事件在上周五曝光,当时西安一名家长发现女儿将一片处方感冒药带回了家。随着消息扩散,其他事例也被曝光。Xinhua says that money appears to be a motivating factor. Some parents believe the schools were trying to ward off sickness to ensure students didn#39;t take sick days, it said. Many private kindergartens and preschools in China charge by the number of days students attend school, so fewer sick days equals more money for the teachers.新华社报道说,驱使幼儿园这样做的原因似乎是金钱。报道称,一些家长认为,幼儿园的目的是防止孩子生病缺勤。中国许多幼儿园都是按孩子入园的天数收费,因此减少病假缺勤天数就意味着教师能有更多收入。Others have cited the fact that there is no law prohibiting the practice as a contributing factor.还有人认为,没有法律明文禁止这种行为也是造成这一结果的因素之一。#39;Although their actions were wrong, there is no ban based on law. In other words, it#39;s not illegal for an immoral kindergarten to give children unauthorized medications,#39; Li Jing, the deputy head of Beijing#39;s private Sunny High Scope Kindergarten told the China Daily.北京私立的阳光高瞻国际幼儿园教师李静对《中国日报》说,虽然他们的行为不对,但法律没有明文禁止;换句话说,不道德的幼儿园就给孩子吃药并不违法。The drugs given to students are cheap, just a few cents per pill, said Justin Wang, a partner and director in the Shanghai office of consultancy L.E.K. Consulting LLC, and economic incentives were likely high enough to convince teachers to take the risk.咨询公司L.E.K. Consulting LLC上海办事处合伙人兼主管王景烨(Justin Wang)说,幼儿园给孩子吃的药很便宜,一片才几分钱,而经济刺激可能足够高,让老师愿意冒这个险。Parents of school-age children say schools in China typically require parental consent before administering medication. However, health practices in China#39;s education system vary drastically from the U.S. Some Chinese schools get parental consent to conduct health checks that involve procedures like blood and urine tests; school health checks in the U.S. are often limited to screenings for eyesight, lice and scoliosis.学龄儿童的家长说,学校在组织用药前通常会征求家长同意。但中国教育系统的卫生保健做法与美国迥异。一些中国学校会在征得家长同意后进行涉及血液和尿液检测的体检,而美国的学校体检通常仅限于视力、虱子和脊柱侧弯的筛查。Many parents in China say schools frequently inform them when their children are sick and before performing health checks. Still, schools usually provide only scant information, said Elaine Wang, a mother of two children in local Beijing schools.很多中国家长说,在孩子生病时和接受体检前,学校经常会通知他们。有两个孩子在北京当地上学的Elaine Wang说,但学校通常只提供有限的信息。#39;They inform you that there will be a health screening, but they don#39;t say what happens during those screenings,#39; Ms. Wang said.Wang说,他们会通知你孩子需要体检,但不会告诉你体检过程中具体会发生什么。 /201403/280477

New rules on public leaders关于事业单位领导的新规定Leaders of China#39;s public institutions should not stay at the same position for more than 10 consecutive years, according to a provisional regulation related to the leadership management of public institutions, which was released by the General Office of the Communist Party of China Central Committee on Tuesday.中共中央办公厅6月2日公布《事业单位领导人员管理暂行规定》,其中明确规定事业单位领导同一岗位连续任职不得超过10年。Public institutions could use more innovative ways, such as entrusting a ;relevant organization; to find a leader, said the regulation.选拔方式上,可以探索委托相关机构遴选等方式进行。Analysis says the ;relevant organization; may include headhunters.分析称,这里的;相关机构;包括猎头公司等。 /201506/378772

China’s labour force is shrinking and the “migrant miracle” that powered its industrial rise is mostly exhausted, removing the key drivers of the country’s meteoric growth, according to leading economists.一些著名经济学家表示,中国的劳动力队伍正在萎缩,驱动工业腾飞的“移民奇迹”几近枯竭,这使中国失去了推动经济飞速发展的关键驱动力。The transformation will lead to slower growth, reduced investment and a loss of competitiveness, increasing the urgency of reforms to fuel new sources of expansion, they warn.他们警告称,这一转变将导致增长放缓、投资减少和竞争力的损失,使实施改革以发掘新的增长源变得更为紧迫。Today the Financial Times begins a series on the end of the miracle — the three decades of rapid growth fuelled by unprecedented migration of labour from the unproductive farm sector to work in factories and construction.30年来,推动中国飞速发展的,是从生产力低下的农业部门转移到工厂和建设工地、规模前所未有的劳动力迁徙。FT中文网近期将发表一系列关于中国劳动力迁徙潮及其起伏兴衰之趋势的报道。Consensus has emerged that China has reached the point at which the once-inexhaustible pool of surplus rural labour dries up and wages rise rapidly.经济学家们形成的共识是,中国已经到达一个拐点,曾经取之不尽的农村富余劳动力正慢慢干涸,工资水平迅速上升。“Now we are at the so-called Lewis inflection point,” said Ha Jiming, chief investment strategist for private wealth management at Goldman Sachs in Hong Kong. “The working-age share of China’s population peaks this year at 72 per cent, then it will start to fall even more rapidly than what we saw in Japan in the 1990s.”“我们现在正处于所谓的刘易斯拐点,”高盛(Goldman Sachs)香港私人财富管理首席投资策略师哈继铭说,“今年中国工龄人口在总人口中的比例达到了72%的峰值,此后这一比例将加快下降,降速比上世纪90年代的日本还要快。”Cai Fang, director of the Institute of Population and Labour Economics, estimates China’s potential gross domestic product growth will fall to 6.1 per cent from 2016-20.人口与劳动经济研究所所长蔡昉估计,中国的潜在国内生产总值(GDP)增长率将在2016到2020年间跌至6.1%。Since Deng Xiaoping launched market reforms in 1978, 278m migrant workers from rural villages have moved to the cities. But the process is now mostly complete. Mr Cai said: “From 2005 to 2010, the growth rate of migrant workers was 4 per cent. Last year it was only 1.3 per cent. Maybe this year it will contract.”自1978年邓小平推出市场改革后,已有2.78亿农民工从农村迁移到城市。但这一进程现在已经几近完成。蔡昉说:“从2005年到2010年,农民工人数的增长率是4%。去年这一增长率仅为1.3%。今年这个数字可能出现缩减。” /201505/373425

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