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2019年11月13日 02:01:03

绵阳看输卵管梗阻哪个医院好成都检查阳痿要多少钱Elections 美国的选举 Suprises often come in boxes. Birthday presents wrapped in colorful paper, brown paper packages mailed from a friend. No matter what kind of box it is, people like to open it up and see what's inside. In America, and in many other countries, one special kind of box contains the future. It's called a ballot box. What people put into the box on election day can change the course of history. 惊奇常常是在箱子里出现:包在色包装纸里面的生日礼物…朋友寄来牛皮纸包的包裹…不论是怎样的箱子,人们喜欢打开来看看里面是什么。在美国以及其它许多国家,有一个特殊的箱子关系着未来,称为投票箱。人们在选举日投在箱子里的东西可以改变历史的走向。 Elections are the lifeblood of a democracy. The word democracy literally means "the people rule," an important concept in America's history. In the mid-1700s, England began passing laws that made the American colonies angry. The colonists had to pay more and more taxes and enjoyed less and less freedom. They felt the government of England didn't represent their interests. On July 4, 1776, the colonies declared their independence from England. They wanted to establish a democracy where people could have a voice in government. 选举是民主的原动力。民主这个字照字面的意思是「人民自主」,是美国历史中一个重要的观念。十八世纪中期,英国开始通过一些使美国殖民地愤怒的法律。殖民地人民必须付愈来愈多的税,享有愈来愈少的自由。他们感到英国政府没有代表他们的权益。一七七六年七月四日,殖民地宣布脱离英国独立。他们想要建立民主制度,使人们在政府中有发言权。 An effective democracy holds regular elections. In America, elections are held every two years for members of Congress. In these elections, all seats in the House of Representatives and one-third of the Senate seats are up for grabs. In addition, every four years, voters go to the polls to elect the nation's president and vice-president. Voters also regularly cast their ballots for state and city government leaders and local school board members. Sometimes they also have to vote on a proposed law. 有效的民主制度定期举行选举。在美国,每两年选一次国会议员。在这些选举中,人们可以争取所有众议院的席位和三分之一的参议院席位。除此以外,选民每四年去投票所选出国家的总统和副总统。选民也定期投票选出州长、市长及当地学校的董事会成员。有时他们也必须投票决定提议的法律。 In the American electoral system, people don't really vote for presidential candidates. Instead, voters cast their ballots for "electors" who support each candidate. Each state has as many electors as the total number of its representatives in Congress. This equals two senators per state plus the number of its representatives in the House (which is based on the state's population). The candidate who has the most votes in a state wins all of the state's electors. To win the presidential election, a candidate must gain at least 270 of the 538 total electoral votes. 在美国的选举制度中,人们并不直接投票给总统候选人,而是由选民投票给持各个候选人的「选举人」。每一州的选举人人数和代表此州的国会议员人数相同,等于每一州有两位参议员,加上众议院的众议员人数(以各州的人口为基准)。在一个州里拥有最多票数的候选人就赢得了那一州所有选举人的票数。要赢得总统大选,候选人必须至少获得总共538个选举人中的270张票。 Over the years, the U.S. has made a number of election reforms. Some early reforms outlawed cheating, giving bribes and threatening voters. They also limited the amount of money candidates could receive from donors and spend on their campaigns. In 1870, black people gained the right to vote, and in 1920, that right was extended to women. In recent decades, laws against unfair rules for voting have been passed. No longer do people have to pay a special tax or pass a test in order to vote. In 1971, the voting age was lowered to 18. Other reforms made voting easier for the blind, the disabled and people who couldn't . In some areas, ballots had to be printed in languages besides English. 多年来,美国在选举方面做了一些改革。早期有些改革禁止作弊、收受贿赂或威胁选民。他们也限制候选人从捐赠者那儿获得的金额数目及花在竞选宣传上的费用。一八七○年,黑人获得选举权。一九二○年,权利延伸至妇女。近几十年来,通过了反对不公平选举规则的法律。人们不再需要付特殊的税或通过测验才能选举。一九七一年,投票的年龄降至十八岁。其它的改革减轻了盲人、残障者及文盲投票的困难。在某些地区,选票上面除了英文以外,还必须印上别的文字。 In November, Americans will again elect those who will represent them in government. Although some citizens aren't even registered to vote--and some registered voters don't bother to go to the polls--most Americans exercise their right to vote. They realize that their future is wrapped up in a special package--the ballot box. It's a package that must definitely be "handled with care." 十一月五日,美国人要再一次选出在政府中代表他们的人。虽然有些市民甚至不是法定投票人──有些法定投票人懒得去投票──但是大多数的美国人都会行使他们投票的权利。他们了解他们的未来包在一个特别的箱子里──投票箱。它实在是一个必须「小心处理」的箱子。 /200804/33375成都那家医院看不孕不育好

眉山市第二人民医院人流多少钱巴中市打掉孩子多少钱GPS satellite navigation was made for me. I used to be the world’s most lost person.GPS卫星导航仪是为我制造的。我曾经是世界上最容易迷路的人。I don’t know quite which non-quality I possess that causes this, but I still painfully recall the 1994 Birmingham, Alabama, fiasco — an hour for a two-mile drive. And the two hours in 1974 I spent trying to escape a French town with no signposts.我不是很确切地知道我缺乏哪种特质导致了这种情况,但我现在仍然痛苦地记得1994年在亚拉巴马州伯明翰市的惨痛经历——驱车一小时才走了两英里。我在1974年曾花两小时努力逃离一座没有任何路标的法国城镇。So when in 1996 I trialled one of the first satnav systems, fitted by Philips to a Range Rover — £12,000, wheel sensors included and if you knocked a wheel on the kerb, it all had to be recalibrated — I was more excited than by any other tech advance before or since.因此,当我在1996年试用刚刚问世的一套卫星导航系统的时候,之前或之后的其他技术进步都没有比这更令人兴奋的了。这套导航系统由飞利浦(Philips)安装在一辆路虎揽胜(Range Rover)上,包括车轮传感器在内价格达1.2万英镑,如果车轮磕上马路牙子,那就得重新校正。But navigation indoors, where satellites don’t work, is another question. For someone who even gets lost on the way to the bathroom, it would be the dream. I was not joking in a March column when I begged for someone to invent a way of locating my wife — or indeed any given product — in Sainsbury’s.但卫星不起作用的室内导航是另一个问题。对一些连去卫生间也迷路的人来说,这将是一个梦想。我在今年3月的一篇专栏里求人发明一种定位我妻子(或者任何指定产品)在Sainsbury’s超市的位置的方法,这不是开玩笑。There have been some interesting and successful pilots for indoor location by big tech companies. But I am thrilled to report that now a tiny British company, Pointr — the archetypal Shoreditch, beanbags in the meeting room start-up — seems to have really cracked indoor direction finding.大型科技公司一直在进行一些有趣的室内定位试验,并取得了成功。但我很高兴地告诉你们,现在英国的一家小公司Pointr似乎真的掌握了室内定位技术。Pointr是典型的肖尔迪奇区(Shoreditch)的初创公司,在会议室中有豆袋坐垫。Unannounced, Pointr’s system, which offers indoor navigation accurate to a metre, is currently being trialled by a huge London department store (I can’t say which yet), a leading British supermarket (ditto), a big London rail station and four major airports worldwide.Pointr没有公布其室内导航系统,该系统可以精确到米的距离,目前在伦敦一家大型百货商店(我现在还不能说是哪一家)、一家英国大型超市(同上)、一座伦敦大型火车站和全球4个大机场试验。I had a tortuous but fascinating briefing the other day on those accursed beanbags (Dear Tech Startups, please go back to chairs) and then went to see a live Pointr installation. And it absolutely works. For me, it felt like a replay of 20 years ago and that prototype satnav moment.有一天,我在那些该死的豆袋坐垫上参与了曲折而有趣的简介会(亲爱的科技初创企业,请回到椅子上),然后去看了Pointr的现场安装展示。这套系统绝对管用。对我来说,它就像是20年前的一幕再现,那种原型导航系统亮相的时刻。The Pointr demo was on the 39th floor of One Canada Square at Canary Wharf in London, the tall, fat centrepiece building, each floor of which contains 30,000 sq ft of prime getting-lost real estate.Pointr是在伦敦金丝雀码头第一加拿大广场(One Canada Square)的第39层进行展示的。第一加拿大广场是一座高大宽阔的中心大楼,每层都有3万平方英尺的很容易让人迷路的空间。There are 250 fintech start-ups in Space 39, as it’s called, along with public areas. Using Pointr, even I was able to find legendarily tricky places like the gents more or less sure-footedly.这个名为“Space 39”的楼层有250家金融科技初创企业,还有一些公共区域。使用Pointr导航系统,即便是我也多少能够稳妥地找到男厕这么隐秘的地方。Back in Shoreditch, Pointr’s Axel Katalan told me just how big the business of locating people and assets indoors could be.回到肖尔迪奇区,Pointr的阿克塞尔#8226;考陶隆(Axel Katalan)告诉我,室内定位人和东西的业务有多广阔。“It’s for airport passengers to see where they are, where the gate is, how long it will take to get there. But also think of libraries, hospitals, warehouses, factories, retail, even casinos. Anywhere big enough to get lost. And it is also usable by the visually impaired, using audio cues.”“机场乘客可以知道自己在哪里,大门在哪儿,以及去那儿需要多长时间。再想想图书馆、医院、仓库、工厂、零售店,甚至是。任何大到容易迷路的地方都有用。那些视力受损的人通过语音提示也可以用。”Part of the business case for Pointr is that when people at stations and airports are confident about getting where they need to be, they will relax and explore the retail opportunities, which they will also be able to locate more easily.Pointr的部分商业理由是,当在车站和机场的人们确信他们能够到达需要去的地方的时候,他们将感到放松,并顺便寻找购物的机会——他们也会更容易找到那些零售店。Operators of such venues also get a trade-off in the form of detailed “heat maps” of where people (at least those carrying mobile phones with Bluetooth) cluster. These maps are apparently something of a data holy grail — traffic mapping is currently done by people with hand clickers.此类场所的运营方也不得不权衡考虑,因为该技术可以提供人群(至少是那些携带蓝牙手机的人)聚集的详细“热图”。这些图显然是让人求之不得的“圣杯”数据——目前流量绘图由携带手动点击器的人员完成。The technology for Pointr is based on Bluetooth beacons, coin-sized, battery-powered discs mostly made, curiously, by Polish companies. Beacons were once touted as the future of marketing, but people weren’t keen on being marketed at; navigation may be their rebirth. It took 450 beacons to kit out the London department store, installed secretly at night over a week.Pointr的技术基于蓝牙信标,这是一种硬币大小、由电池供电的磁盘,有意思的是它们大多由波兰的公司制造。蓝牙信标一度被吹嘘为营销的未来,但人们却不希望成为营销目标:导航可能是它们的新生。那家伦敦百货商店花了一周时间在晚上秘密安装了450个信标。But don’t supermarkets like you getting lost so you’ll find more to buy? Yes, Mr Katalan says, but precious footfall data are even more important to them. The only retail venue to date that has told Pointr they prefer people being confused is the Grand Bazaar in Istanbul — home to one of the 25-strong start-up’s three overseas offices, alongside Munich and Dubai.但超市不是希望你迷路,以便购买更多东西吗?考陶隆表示,是肯定的,但宝贵的客流数据对他们来说更为重要。迄今只有伊斯坦布尔的Grand Bazaar告诉Pointr,它们希望顾客在超市中迷路。伊斯坦布尔是这家25人初创企业的3个海外办公室所在地之一,另两个地方是慕尼黑和迪拜。So is indoor nav a keeper? Mr Katalan believes it’s at the stage WiFi was 10 years ago: alien to most people, but on its way to being a tech staple.那么室内导航仪就是防止人迷路的吗?考陶隆认为,当前室内导航技术正处于WiFi在十年前所处的阶段:对大多数人来说还感到陌生,但正朝着成为主流技术的方向发展。I have a feeling that 10 years from now, those unable to find their way around a big public space will be as annoyingly retro as people today who don’t have GPS and stop their car to ask a pedestrian — normally me — for directions.我觉得,10年以后,那些在大型公共场所迷路的人将会和现在没有GPS并停下车问路的人(通常就是我)一样落伍得招人烦。 /201605/446651四川医学院附属医院B超成都哪里看月经量少好

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