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来源:QQ互动    发布时间:2019年06月25日 04:13:09    编辑:admin         

Whether you are suffering from another hosepipe ban in Nevada, or hitting deeper potholes in Chicago, global warming is affecting millions of Americans.无论是因内华达州再次出台的软管禁令(hosepipe ban,指禁止在水龙头上接橡胶软管为花园浇水、灌游泳池等——译者注)而倍感不便,还是在芝加哥街头撞上某个比往常更深的地陷坑,数百万美国人都体会到了全球变暖的影响。Evidence of its impact is steadily mounting – as is the US public’s awareness. Yet the will to take tough decisions is missing. Next month President Barack Obama’s administration will issue regulations to curb carbon emissions from US power plants. With Congress out of the picture, executive action is better than nothing. Yet unless the US can show it is serious about putting a price on carbon, it will have little chance of bringing the rest of the world along. The deadline is next year’s climate change summit in Paris. It is vital the US shores up its credentials before then.显示全球变暖影响的据还在不断累积,美国公众对这个问题的认知也在不断加深。不过,依然没有谁愿意来做出艰难的决定。巴拉克#8226;奥巴马(Barack Obama)政府下月将推出限制美国电厂碳排放的规定。在国会(Congress)缺席的情况下,行政部门能采取一些行动聊胜于无。然而,除非美国能明自己对碳排放定价是认真的,否则美国几乎不可能带动世界其他地区效仿。最后期限是明年的巴黎气候变化峰会。美国赶在那个期限之前建立信誉至关重要。The developing world will undoubtedly suffer a bigger fallout from global warming than most of the west. Countries such as Bangladesh confront the spectre of submergence while China, India and others are directly threatened by the retreat of the Himalayan glaciers. With or without US leadership, it is in their interests to take action.全球变暖让发展中世界受到的影响,无疑比大部分西方世界受到的影响更大。孟加拉等国笼罩在被淹没的恐惧中,而中国、印度等国则直接受到喜马拉雅山冰川消融的威胁。无论有没有美国的领导,采取行动应对这一问题都符合这些国家的利益。Yet this week’s US climate change report underlines the growing price Americans are paying at home. The report shows that average US temperatures have risen by almost 2 degrees centigrade since 1895 with most of it taking place over the past four decades. The incidence of drought, big hurricanes and unusually heavy rainfall has soared.然而本周美国的气候变化报告凸显出,这一问题让美国人在本土付出的代价也越来越高了。报告显示,自1895年至今,美国的平均气温上升了近两摄氏度,其中大部分升幅发生在过去40年中。旱灾、飓风以及反常暴雨的发生频率也大大增加。So too has the price of dealing with the consequences. It cost more than bn to clean up after Hurricane Sandy in 2012 – a storm that nearly submerged large tracts of New York City. Now the US is spending billions more to upgrade its tidal barriers. Meanwhile, the cost of water in the drought-prone southwest keeps rising.救灾成本也大幅上涨。2012年的桑迪飓风(Hurricane Sandy)过后,清理成本超过了600亿美元。那场飓风让纽约市许多地区几乎被淹没了。如今美国正拿出数十亿美元来加固防浪堤。与此同时,在容易发生旱灾的美国西南部,水的成本不断上涨。Yet Washington still refuses to act on the principle that prevention is cheaper than cure. Part of its reluctance comes from the boiling frog syndrome. Most Americans accept that global warming is happening. Yet they chafe when confronted with the higher bills they would have to pay to avert it. In a recent Gallup poll, voters ranked tackling climate change last out of 15 priorities. In 2009, Mr Obama tried and failed to push through a cap and trade bill that would have put a price on carbon. Politics makes it futile for him to go through Congress again in the near future. His only options are to use the White House bully pulpit to galvanise public opinion and deploy his executive powers to raise the cost of fossil fuel consumption. He has plenty of scope to go further on both.尽管如此,华盛顿方面仍然拒绝按照预防比治疗更便宜的原则来采取行动。这种不情愿部分源于“温水中的青蛙”症候群。大多数美国人接受全球确实在变暖的观点。但当他们看到为避免全球变暖、自己必须付的更贵账单,他们就开始愤愤不平了。盖洛普(Gallup)最近的一项调查显示,在15个优先事项中,投票者将解决气候变化排在最末一位。2009年,奥巴马曾试图推动一项为碳排放定价的“限额和交易”法案,但他的努力失败了。眼下政局意味着,他近期再次向国会提交相关法案将会徒劳无功。他唯一的选择就是,利用白宫“头号讲坛”的地位来刺激民意,并运用他的行政权来提高消费化石燃料的成本。他在两方面都还有很大推进空间。Last month, the Supreme Court upheld the Environmental Protection Agency’s authority to regulate carbon as a pollutant. Next month the EPA will issue new rules limiting power plant emissions. It should follow up with curbs on refineries, cement plants and other polluters. Rule-based economics is certainly less efficient than market signalling. But if the framework is intelligent – and avoids picking technological winners – it can simulate many of the benefits of an actual carbon market.上月,美国最高法院的判决持了国家环境保护局(Environmental Protection Agency)将二氧化碳作为污染物来监管的权力。环保局下月将推出新规,限制电厂的碳排放。该局应该接着推出对精炼厂、水泥厂和其他污染者的限制。用法规来改变人们的经济决策,效果肯定比市场信号要差。但如果法规框架设计明智(而不是选择技术上较优的方案),那么法规可以模拟真实碳排放市场的许多优点。Mr Obama must also do a better job of educating the public. Unfortunately, US environmentalists are fixated with stopping the Keystone XL pipeline – a decision Mr Obama keeps postponing.奥巴马还必须更好地教育公众。遗憾的是,美国环保主义者一门心思关注于阻止拱心石XL输油管道项目(Keystone XL pipeline)的开工建设。奥巴马一直推迟就这一问题做出决定。In reality, Canadian oil sands will still arrive in the US by road and rail, and be exported to China and other markets. Mr Obama should approve the pipeline. But he should make it clear there will be an escalating cost to consumption of oil sands and other carbon-intensive fuels.事实上,加拿大的油砂仍将通过公路和铁路到达美国,也仍将向中国和其他市场出口。奥巴马应批准那个输油管道项目。但他也应明确表示,消费油砂和其他高碳排放燃料的成本将越来越高。The White House lacks the power to set up a carbon market in the US – and the authority to tell other countries to do so. But the more Mr Obama acts as though a carbon market is inevitable, the sooner it is likely to happen.白宫无权在美国建立碳排放交易市场,也无权指示好别的国家这么做。但奥巴马越是用行动表现得仿佛建立碳排放交易市场势在必行,这件事很可能就会越早成真。 /201405/296909。

Chinese companies are significantly ramping up their spending on research and development, according to a new report.一份最新发布的报告指出,中国企业正在大幅增加研发出。Companies based on the mainland of China have increased their spending by a factor of 15 over the past decade, according to a report from the management consulting firm “Strategyamp;,” and the number of Chinese firms on Strategyamp;’s 2014 Global Innovation 1000 has gone from eight in 2005 to 114 today.据管理咨询公司Strategyamp;的报告显示,总部设在中国大陆的企业出水平在过去10年里增长了14倍。入选2014年Strategyamp;“全球创新企业1000强”榜单的中企数量,已从2005年的8家跃升至如今的114家。The reason for the Ramp;D growth: Chinese companies are shifting away from producing cheap goods for export and concentrating on higher quality economic growth.中国企业研发出增长背后的原因在于,它们正把重心从从生产廉价出口商品上移开,专注于实现更高质量的经济增长。“When we are looking at the regional cut, China continues to go gangbusters,” said Barry Jaruzelski, the report’s author and a senior partner with the firm.该报告作者巴里o雅鲁泽尔斯基是Strategyamp;公司的高级合伙人。他说:“在亚洲地区企业纷纷削减研发投入之际,中国企业仍继续大幅增加投入。”“It’s been in the high double-digits for many, many years,” he added. “The rest of the world was double-digit, but lower — around 13 percent — and North America and Europe were positive, but much lower, at 3. 5 percent in North America and 2.5 percent in Europe.”他补充道:“中企研发出已经多年维持两位数的高增长,虽然世界其他地区也有两位数的增幅,但相对较低,在13%左右;而北美和欧洲的增长更是要低得多,分别为3.5%和2.5%。”The findings dovetail with overall research and development trends in China, including government spending, which the National Science Foundation found, is second only behind the ed States.这些结果与包括政府出在内的中国整体研发趋势相契合。美国国家科学基金会(National Science Foundation)称,中国政府的研发出仅次于美国。Patents, too, increasingly have a Chinese flavor, with the largest number of applicants coming from China and Chinese residents. The Chinese overtook the ed States in 2012, according to the World Intellectual Property Organization.在专利申请领域,中国份额也越来越大。来自中国和中国居民的专利申请数最多。世界知识产权组织(World Intellectual Property Organization)称,2012年中国的专利申请量已经超越了美国。“In terms of their development, they have advanced a lot over the past 20 years,” said Mosahid Khan, head of the intellectual property and statistics section at WIPO in Geneva. “They are sort of catching up with the ed States and Japan on the technological frontier whether it be patents or R amp; D investment.”世界知识产权组织日内瓦知识产权及统计部负责人莫萨德o肯说:“在发展方面,中国在过去20年中进步了很多,在技术前沿,无论是专利还是研发投资,中国正在赶超美国和日本。”Chinese companies are still are dwarfed by American-based firms when it comes to the 7 billion spent on global research and development. The Americans, as they have traditionally done, are the biggest spenders at 6.9 billion followed by European-based companies at 3.8 billion and then Japan which is third at 6.7 billion.2014年,全球研发投入达到6470亿美元。但中资公司的研发投入仍然远比不上美资公司。美资企业的研发投入规模历来都高居全球首位,今年达到2569亿美元,其次是欧资企业达到1938亿美元,然后是位居第三的日资企业达到1167亿美元。Still, the Chinese growth can’t be ignored. It has gone from almost negligible number in 2005 to billion in 2014. Chinese firms increased their spending from a year ago by 46 percent.不过,中资企业的研发投入增长也不可小觑,从2005年几乎可以忽略不计的水平跃升至2014年的300亿美元,今年同比增长46%。Robert Atkinson, the president of The Information Technology and Innovation Foundation, a Washington, D.C., technology policy think tank, warned that some of the Chinese figures may be “somewhat overstated” due to a “rewards system” for state-owned enterprises which is based on them doing “a lot of R amp; D” and thus classifying some things as research and development which wouldn’t be treated as such in the ed States.美国信息技术与创新基金会(The Information Technology and Innovation Foundation)是一家总部设在华盛顿特区的科技政策智库,该基金会的总裁罗伯特o阿特金森提醒称,中国的企业研发投入数据可能“有些水分”,因为中国对国有企业实施的“奖励制度”看重研发,因此中资企业会将一些在美国不会归为研发的活动列入研发出项目。Still, he said, China was “pulling out all the stops” in Ramp;D as part of a strategy to become more self-sufficient by producing as much as they can indigenously and ending their dependence on foreign firms like Apple or Boeing for help.中国正在加大研发出力度,而美国一直在削减其政府研发出。这也是中国未来也许能赶超美国的原因之一。巴特尔研究所(Battelle)和《R&D 杂志》(Battelle/Ramp;D Magazine)公布的《2014年全球研发经费预测报告》(2014 Global Ramp;D Funding Forecast)预测,在研发投入方面,中国最早可能在2025年超越美国。“They have basically decided the old strategy of attracting foreign firms to set up assembly operations is no longer their path to growth,” Atkinson said.阿特金森说,中国的目标是“超越美国”,因此美国若要想保持世界创新领导者的地位,则必须做出更多努力,包括制定更优惠的税收政策持研发、取消对科技经费的削减。“They feel like they have maximized that potential,” he said. “This is one reason why you are seeing now a real backlash against foreign technology firms in China going after companies like Microsoft, Qualcomm and other with whole set of trumped up anti-monopoly complaints and things like that. They feel like they don’t need them anymore.”他说:“美国要硬着头皮像过去那样大力投入研发,我们必须做到这一点,因为我们不能输,如果我们在投入上做到位了,我坚信我们在创新上能继续领先于中国。如果我们不这么做,未来10年或15年内,中国将在很多领域赶上或超过我们。”And while China is spending more, the ed States has been cutting its government R amp; D spending which could be one reason why the Chinese could one day surpass the Americans. The 2014 Global Ramp;D Funding Forecast, published by Battelle/Ramp;D Magazine, projects China could overtake the ed States as early as 2025.Strategyamp;公司发布的这份报告使用了彭资讯(Bloomberg)和Capital IQ提供的数据,并结合了相关调查和访谈。该报告分析了企业的研发投入和创新水平。除了预测全球趋势,该报告还指出了在研发方面投入最大的行业和公司。Atkinson said the goal of China is “beat us” and that America must do more including more generous tax incentives for Ramp;D and reversing cuts in science and technology if it wants to remain the world’s innovation leader.对于美国而言,让人颇为安慰的是,目前还没有一家中资企业在研发投入或创新方面进入十强榜单。这意味着,在短期内没有中国企业能获得谷歌(Google)或强生公司(Johnson amp; Johnson)那样的辉煌业绩。事实上,排名最高的中资公司仅排在第62位。“We’ve got to go back and just bite the bullet and you know what we are going to do that because we are not going to lose,” he said. “If we did those things, I have every faith we could stay ahead of China from an innovation perspective. If we don’t do those things, within 10 years or 15 years China will have caught up to us in many, many areas or surpassed us.”2014年,大众汽车公司(Volkswagen)和三星公司(Samsung)研发投入分别达到135亿美元和134亿美元,连续第二年荣登研发投入榜单榜首。英特尔(Intel)和微软则分列攀升至第三和第四名,而谷歌也首次进入十强,仅领先默克公司(Merck and Co)。除了默克公司外,还有其他三家医药企业进入研发投入十强名单。The report, which uses data from Bloomberg and Capital IQ data combined with surveys and interviews, looks both at a company’s Ramp;D spending and its level of innovation. Along with charting global trends, the report also highlighted the sectors and companies that are doing the most in research and development.英特尔发言人克里斯汀o多茨说:“我们所处行业的发展日新月异,我们需要时刻准备好取代自己的技术。”他以英特尔的14纳米处理器作为例子并说道:“我们不能按兵不动,我们需要遵循尔定律不断创新。” /201411/341215。

‘As precious as gold ...’ That was howthen-president Hu Jintao described Caofeidian during his visit in 2006. It waspledged to be ‘the world’s first fully realised eco-city’ – yet 10 years andalmost 0bn later, only a few thousand inhabitants have moved to this land reclaimed from the sea ...时任主席Hu于2006年参观曹妃甸时曾描述说,“这里如黄金般宝贵。。。”政府曾承诺要让曹妃甸成为“世界上首个全生态城市”——然而10年过后,在投资了1000亿美元之后,这座通过围海造地建立起来的城市只有几千名居民居住。 /201409/326536。