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重庆去胎记的医院飞度晚报重庆去眼袋最有效的方法

2019年09月16日 02:08:14    日报  参与评论()人

重庆专业祛痘重庆眼部去皱价格重庆市哪个医院除痣最好 Fakes sold only to foreigners假货只卖给外国人A cosmetic store near Ewha Womans University in South Korea has been caught selling counterfeit Korean cosmetics at lower prices exclusively to foreigners.韩国梨花女子大学附近一家化妆品店被曝仅向外国人出售低价韩国化妆品假货。The products seem exactly like original ones sold at nearby direct-sale cosmetic stores.其所售商品与附近的化妆品牌直营店的原装货看起来所差无几。Its sign said in Chinese that Korean brand cosmetics were offered at a 30-70% discount.商铺的中文标语写着韩国化妆品打3至7折。It was packed with Chinese tourists and had few Koreans.店里挤满了中国游客,很少有韩国人。Other nearby shops were similar.据悉,附近商铺也存在类似现象。Some claimed that the shops selling fake goods shun Korean customers because they are more likely to discern fake goods from authentic ones.有人称,售假商铺不接待韩国顾客是因为韩国顾客更能明辨真伪。 /201506/379932There are plenty of foods that are either named after places or are assumed to come from certain places. The following is a list of certain food origins that we#39;re frequently wrong about.很多食物都以它的诞生地命名,或者从其名字上就能知道它来自某个确切的地方。然而,以下10种食物的原产地却因为它的命名而产生了误解。也就是说,从名字上看,你以为它来源于这个地方,但事实上根本不是这么一回事儿。10.German Chocolate Cake10.德式巧克力蛋糕German chocolate cake is delicious, but its name is lying to you; it#39;s not German at all. It was named after a German, though: a man named Sam German. He didn#39;t invent the cake itself, but back in 1852, he created a chocolate bar. It was different from normal chocolate (at the time) because it was made for cooking, and it came to be called Baker#39;s German Sweet Chocolate. The first time the recipe for this cake was published was way back in the late #39;50s. It was advertised in a Dallas newspaper and became popular almost immediately. The demand for German#39;s baking chocolate skyrocketed, and his name became synonymous with the dessert.德式巧克力蛋糕的美味总是令人难以忘怀,但它的名字却很可能会误导你。这种蛋糕并不源自德国,而是由一位名叫山姆·格尔曼(Sam German,German一词另有“德国的”之意)的人发明的。他最初并没有直接发明这种蛋糕,而是在1852年发明了在当时颇为与众不同的巧克力棒,使得巧克力可以更好地在烹饪中使用。这种巧克力棒因此被命名为“格尔曼的甜巧克力”。19世纪50年代末期,这种蛋糕的制作方法首次刊登在达拉斯的一家报纸上,并迅速流传开来。格尔曼烘焙的这款蛋糕一时间销量大增,并以他的名字命名为“German Chocolate Cake”——也就是今天的德式巧克力蛋糕。9.Baked Alaska9.火焰冰激凌The Baked Alaska dessert was actually invented in New York City, most likely in 1868—the same year the US purchased Alaska from Russia. Charles Ranhofer, the chef who named it, called it Baked Alaska to cash in on the fame of the recently completed deal. It was considered a luxury at the time, since making ice cream in the 1860s was a laborious process and wasn#39;t yet mechanized.事实上,火焰冰激凌(英译Baked Alaska,Alaska意为阿拉斯加,美国州名)源自纽约,据说产生于1868年,也就是美国政府向俄罗斯购买阿拉斯加州的那一年。厨师查尔斯·瑞奥弗(Charles Ranhofer)给冰激凌起名为火焰冰激凌(Baked Alaska),目的就在于利用人们对这一事件的关注来获利。在19世纪60年代,冰激凌的制作还尚未实现机械化,其过程耗时而费力,因而这款甜品在当时被人们看作是奢侈品。8.French Dip8.法式蘸汁三明治The French dip sandwich, perhaps unsurprisingly, isn#39;t from France. It was invented at Phillipe#39;s in Los Angeles, in 1918. The first sandwich of its kind came about by accident. The restaurant#39;s namesake, Phillipe Mathieu, was making a sandwich for a police officer when he accidentally dropped the roll into hot oil. The officer (supposedly named French) bought it anyway. He loved it so much that he returned the next day with his friends and they all ordered their rolls dipped in oil. Another restaurant in the area, Cole#39;s Pacific Electric Buffet, also claim the invention of the French dip. In their version, they dipped the b in jus (like au jus) to make it softer for a customer that was on her way back from a dentist#39;s appointment.经过前面的介绍,你或许已经猜到了,法式蘸汁三明治并非源自法国,而是在1918年,由位于美国洛杉矶的菲利普餐厅最先发明的。与餐厅同名的菲利普·马蒂厄(Philippe Mathieu)在为一位警官制作三明治时,不小心将面包条掉入滚烫的油锅中。不过,这位警官(据说名为弗伦奇,英French,另有“法国的”之意)还是照常买下了它。不料,在品尝过后,弗伦奇非常喜欢这种三明治。第二天,他带着一帮好友又来到这里,大家纷纷点了这种“新做法”制作而成的三明治。同样位于洛杉矶的另一家餐厅——科尔的太平洋电动自助餐,也声称是他们发明了法式蘸汁三明治。据他们所说,一次,为了能让一位刚刚看完牙医的顾客吃到更加松软的面包,餐厅的厨师将面包蘸上酱汁,因而发明了法式蘸汁三明治。7.Coney Dog7.科尼热The Coney dog may be attributed to Coney Island, but its true origins lie a few states west: Michigan. Much like the French dip, the exact origin is unknown, as there are three different eateries that claim they invented the iconic dog. All three restaurants are located in Michigan. So there you have it. While we can#39;t be sure of the exact origin, we know it#39;s definitely not from New York.通常,科尼热会被认为源自科尼岛(位于纽约的小岛),事实上它的真正产地是密歇根州。与法式蘸汁三明治的情况相似,科尼热的确切来源已无从考。目前有三家餐馆均声称自己发明了科尼热,有趣的是,这三家餐馆都位于密歇根州。所以,尽管我们难以确定其确切来源,然而至少有一点可以肯定的是,科尼热绝对不产自于纽约。6.Curry Powder6.咖喱粉The curry powder we know today is nothing like the original spice it was supposed to mimic. It was heavily influenced by the British, and in India it isn#39;t even referred to as curry. They call it masala, and there are many different varieties. The curry powder we know best is what the British produced when they tried to replicate the flavors they encountered in traditional Indian cooking. True Indian curry powder is custom-made to accompany whatever food is being prepared.我们今天所熟知的咖喱粉,通常被认为是模仿而来的,但事实上它与最原始的香料截然不同,它在很大程度上受到英国的影响。在印度,人们甚至不将其称作“咖喱”,而管它叫香料粉,并且有许多不同的品种。现如今最广为人知的咖喱粉是英国人制作的,他们试图复制传统印度菜肴中咖喱的味道。正宗的印度咖喱粉是可以搭配任何现成的食物的。翻译:冯璐 前十网 /201507/384457重庆和平医院好吗

重庆腋臭手术You may have chic skirts, stylish shades, and versatile hats that will keep you looking cool this summer, but don’t forget about this seasonal staple — sandals.复古裙、时尚墨镜、百搭帽子让你这个夏天看上去潮范儿十足,但是别忘了这个季节的主角——凉鞋。Slipping into a pair of sandals to let your feet and toes breathe is definitely necessary in this blazing time of year. Whether you feel bored with your old sandals or are looking for something new that will let you put your newly pedicured toes on display, here are some trendy sandals you can wear to waltz through the streets in style.能让脚和脚趾呼吸的凉鞋自然是每个炎炎夏日的必需品。不管你是“厌旧”还是“喜新”,想要秀出自己刚刚修过的脚,下面这些潮流凉鞋都能让你在大街上舞出时尚的华尔兹。Delicate gladiator sandals精致罗马式绑带凉鞋For fashionistas who are looking for bold and eye-catching summer footwear, gladiator sandals might be your new best friend. This style of shoe has deep roots in history, with its bold design being associated with the ancient Roman military. This year, the gladiator trend is coming back again with new designs. Along with the classic gladiator sandals released by German brand Hugo Boss, French fashion house Chloe has given the sandals wedge heels and knee high strap ties, while Italian brand Valentino remade the sandals with zippers. To make onlookers’ eyes pop, Glamour magazine encourages you to wear your gladiators with printed dresses, jean shorts or denim skirts.如果身为时尚达人的你正在寻找风格大胆又吸睛的夏日潮品,那么罗马式绑带凉鞋也许会成为你的“新欢”。罗马鞋的历史源远流长,它的大胆设计与古罗马军队息息相关。今夏,全新设计下的罗马鞋再次回归,成为时尚主流。今年的罗马鞋除了德国品牌Hugo Boss新发布的传统款,还有法国时尚品牌Chloe推出的坡跟及膝绑带款以及意大利品牌Valentino的拉链款等等。若想令路人眼前一亮,《魅力》杂志的建议是穿罗马鞋搭配印花裙、牛仔短裤或是牛仔裙。Creative flats创意平底凉鞋Many fashion aficionados are gravitating toward flats, among them US actresses Anne Hathaway, 32, and Jennifer Lawrence, 24, have been spotted strolling around in flats recently. As one of the best alternatives to painful heels, flats never go out of style as far as trendy sandals go, and this year is no exception. But there are new and creative twists, as always. Cutout flats, classic pointy-toe flats and colorful flat sandals stand out, fashion website fashionisers.com notes. Unlike most high-heeled sandals, flats look chic while still being comfortable to wear.平底凉鞋一直是许多时尚大咖的最爱, 32岁的美国演员安妮#8226;海瑟薇和24岁的詹妮弗#8226;劳伦斯最近都被拍到穿着平底凉鞋逛街。平底凉鞋是换下痛苦高跟鞋的最佳选择之一。只要是凉鞋流行的年份里,平底凉鞋都不会过时,今年也不例外。不过,和往年一样,今年也有诸多充满创意的新款问世。据时尚网站fashionisers.com介绍,镂空平底鞋、复古平底鱼嘴鞋以及色平底凉鞋在今年格外吸睛。与高跟凉鞋不同,平底鞋在保持你的时尚品味的同时还穿着舒适。Feminine platform sandals优雅厚底粗跟凉鞋Platform sandals are known for their elongating effect and the comfort their chunky soles offer. Called one of this season’s hottest shoe styles by Bazaar magazine, these sandals are coming back this season in materials ranging from shimmery and colorful fabric to natural leather. These shoes might look intimidating, but they are actually easy to wear. To enhance your feminine look, Bazaar magazine advises you pair these sandals with pastel floral prints, a ladylike shoulder bag as well as a necklace appropriate to your look.厚底凉鞋以其增高效果和舒适体验而著称,更是被《时尚芭莎》杂志评为今夏最火的款式之一。今年强势回归的厚底凉鞋面料各异,闪亮色的织物面料到自然的皮革面料都在其中。其中的一些款式也许会让人目瞪口呆,但是他们确实都很好穿。为了让你更有女人味,《时尚芭莎》杂志的建议搭配单色印花图案的衣,女士单肩包以及配合造型的项链。Versatile block heel sandals多用复古方根凉鞋Block heel sandals are huge this season not only because they were spotted in New York Fashion Week but also because stylish celebrities such as US singers Taylor Swift, 25, and Emmy Rossum, 28, favor them. Similar to most flats, block heel sandals are also comfortable because of their squared heels. Even better, they are versatile. US entertainment website hollywoodlife.com suggests girls who want to make a personal statement try to contrast colorful block heels with tailored shorts or jeans. Girls who are looking for a classic look can wear ankle-strap block heel sandals with summer dresses.复古方根凉鞋也是今夏的大势款。它不仅亮相纽约时装周,也是很多时尚明星的心头爱:25岁的美国女歌手泰勒#8226;斯威夫特,28岁的艾美#8226;罗森都在其中。因为鞋跟呈方形,方根凉鞋和大多数平底鞋一样舒适,甚至比平底鞋更加白搭。美国网站hollywoodlife.com建议追求个性的女孩试试撞色方根凉鞋与西短裤或是牛仔裤的搭配;喜欢经典款的子则可以用绑带方根凉鞋搭配夏日裙装。 /201506/383146重庆市人民医院去疤痕 The 25 year old singer and songwriter has become the youngest woman ever to be included on the Forbes list of The World#39;s 100 Most Powerful Women.这位25岁的年轻歌手及创作人成为登上“福布斯全球最有影响力百位女性”榜单的最年轻的女性。She#39;s included at number 64 inthe list released on Tuesday because, Forbes says, she #39;has not only broken record sales and captivated the world with her fantastically honest lyrics, but she has proven herself as an impressive businesswoman.#39;在26日公布的榜单中,她位列第64位,福布斯方面表示:“她不仅打破了唱片销售的纪录,独特且坦诚的歌词风靡全球,还成功明了自己是位优秀的女商人。”Taylor, who#39;s 1989 album was her third consecutive release to sell one million copies in its first week, is described by the business bible as a #39;bona fide cross-genre, global megastar.#39;泰勒的《1989》是她的第三张发行首周就突破一百万张销量的专辑,她被福布斯称为“最真诚的跨流派的全球超级巨星。”Forbes said she has changed the nature of celebrity by posting personally on Twitter and Instagram and making time to engage with her fans or #39;Swifties#39;.福布斯表示,她通过在Twitter和Instagram等社交网络上袒露真我,并与粉丝(或称为斯威夫特粉)互动,重新定义了“名人”这个词。It also cited her controversial decision to pull her music from the streaming service Spotify.福布斯还提到了她有争议性的决定:把她的音乐作品从流务Spotify中撤出。#39;There’s no denying that she’s one of the most significant cultural influencers of our time,#39; Forbes said.福布斯表示:“不可否认,她是我们这个时代最具有文化影响力的人物之一。”Joining Tayloron the Forbes list are fellow celebrities Oprah Winfrey, the most powerful woman in entertainment ranking 12, Beyonce at 21 and Ellen DeGeneres at number 50.同泰勒一样荣登榜单的名人还有奥普拉·温弗瑞,位列最有影响力女性榜单第12位,碧昂斯位列第21位,艾伦·德杰尼勒斯位列第50位。Also making the cut are Angelina Jolie at number 54 on the list and Sofia Vergara at number 57.同时还有分别位列第54位和第57位的安吉丽娜·朱莉和索菲亚·维加拉。The world#39;s most powerful woman remains German Chancellor Angela Merkel followed in second place by Hilary Clinton.First Lady Michelle Obama is in tenth place on the list and Queen Elizabeth II is at 41.世界最有影响力的女性依然是德国总理默克尔,其次是希拉里·克林顿。美国第一夫人米歇尔·奥巴马位列榜单第10位,而英国女王伊丽莎白二世则位列第41位。There are 15 billionaires with a net worth of 73.3 billion dollars (#163;47bn) which does not include Melinda Gates, 24 chief executives and 19 newcomers in this year#39;s power list.今年的榜单中有15名亿万富翁,净资产达733亿美元,但不包括梅琳达·盖茨。榜单中有24位女首席执行官,有19位是首次上榜。 /201505/377875四川省去胎记一般要多少钱

重庆医科大学附属儿童医院玻尿酸多少钱Filling the chair that for 34 seasons was occupied by Glenn Dicterow, its longest-serving concertmaster, the New York Philharmonic on Wednesday announced the appointment of Frank Huang, currently concertmaster of the Houston Symphony.过去34个演出季里,纽约爱乐乐团首席小提琴手的位置一直属于格兰·迪克特罗(Glenn Dicterow),他也是这个位置上呆得最久的人。周三,乐团宣布,现任休斯顿交响乐团首席小提琴手的黄欣将接任迪克特罗。Mr. Huang, 36, will take over in September, beginning with the opening gala concert of the Philharmonic’s 2015-16 season. Mr. Dicterow stepped down last June.现年36岁的黄欣将于九月正式加入纽约爱乐,参加2015-16演出季的开幕音乐会。迪克特罗是去年六月卸任的。“The concertmaster, more than any other member, really shapes the persona of the orchestra,” Alan Gilbert, the Philharmonic’s music director, said. “I’ve made a lot of appointments, but this is obviously the most crucial.”“首席小提琴手可以决定乐团的整体风格,在这一点上,比其他成员的影响力更大”,乐团音乐总监兼指挥阿伦·基尔伯特(Alan Gilbert)说道,“我做过许多人事任命,但明显这一次最为关键。”The appointment comes two months after Mr. Gilbert announced that he would step down in 2017, after eight seasons. The orchestra has started the search for his successor.两个月前,基尔伯特宣布自己将于八个演出季后,即2017年离开纽约爱乐乐团。乐团已开始物色他的接班人。In an interview, Mr. Huang said he was not unsettled by coming aboard just as Mr. Gilbert winds down his tenure. “Whoever is the director will make a big impact,” Mr. Huang said. “But a great orchestra will sound great no matter who’s conducting. With such talented musicians, you’re going to get committed and convincing playing regardless of the interpretation.”在一次采访中,黄欣说,基尔伯特的离职不会让他对加入乐团感到不安。“音乐总监的确会对乐团产生非常重大的影响”,黄欣说,“但一优秀的管弦乐团不管谁来指挥都会保持演出水准。和这些天才音乐家在一起,不管对音乐如何诠释,我都可以十分投入并且自信地演出。”Mr. Huang said he had great respect for the orchestra’s musicians, with whom he played this season as guest concertmaster in three programs conducted by Mr. Gilbert, including works by Bartok, Bruckner and Mozart in October and the Verdi Requiem in January.黄欣还表示,他非常尊敬乐团的音乐家们。在纽约爱乐乐团本季的演出中,黄欣以首席小提琴家身份试参加了基尔伯特指挥的三次音乐会,包括去年十月演奏巴托克(Bartok)、布鲁克纳(Bruckner)和莫扎特的作品,以及今年一月演奏威尔第的《安魂曲》。He also said he was comfortable with Mr. Gilbert’s emphasis on contemporary programming.黄欣坦言,他欣赏基尔伯特对音乐的现代诠释。“It’s only fitting that they’re presenting these challenging works sometimes,” Mr. Huang said. “I’m excited to work with a lot of these contemporary composers and to get to know some of these newer pieces that I haven’t had the chance to play yet.”“他们很适合不时演出这些富有挑战性的作品,”黄欣说,“我很开心能和这些当代作曲家合作,接触之前自己没有机会演奏的新作品。”Born in Beijing, Mr. Huang began studying violin with his mother when he was 7, after moving to Houston. But he resisted the instrument when he was young, he said. “I never understood why it was important when I was little — I did not love music the way I do now,” he said in a telephone interview. “There were some years when I was close to giving up on the violin. Even though I was technically good at the instrument, I never felt it was something I could not live without.”黄欣出生在北京,后搬往休斯敦,七岁时开始跟随其母学习小提琴。不过据黄欣介绍,他在年幼时并没有这么喜欢小提琴。在一次电话采访中,黄欣回忆道,“我小时候不明白小提琴对我来说有什么意义,也没那么喜欢音乐,”他说。“我有几年差点放弃小提琴。那时候我觉得虽然自己擅长演奏这件乐器,但并没有觉得离开它就不能活了。”He commenced studying with Fredell Lack at the University of Houston and at 16 he enrolled in the precollege program at the Cleveland Institute of Music, where he studied with Donald Weilerstein and earned a bachelor’s degree in music in 2002. He also studied with Robert Mann at the Juilliard School in New York.黄欣在休斯顿大学学习时,师从弗莱德·莱克(Fredell Lack)。16岁时,他被克利夫兰音乐学院的大学预科班录取,后跟随唐纳德·维勒斯汀(Donald Weilerstein)学习。2002年,黄欣获得音乐学士学位。此外,他曾在纽约茱莉亚音乐学院(Juilliard School)跟随罗伯特·马恩 (Robert Mann)学习。“I’m lucky to have had fantastic teachers who helped me not only improve on the instrument but helped me develop this love of what music can do, how it can change your life,” he said. “Teaching has become a huge part of what I love to do.”“我非常幸运能遇到这么多优秀的老师,他们不仅帮助我提高演奏水平,还激发了我对音乐本身的兴趣,让我明白音乐可以做什么,能给生活带来什么改变,”他说。“教授音乐也变成了我非常热爱的事”。Mr. Huang won first prizes in the 2003 Walter W. Naumburg Foundation’s violin competition and the 2000 Hannover International violin competition.2003年黄欣赢得了沃尔特瑙姆堡(Walter W. Naumburg Foundation)一等奖,2000年,他亦曾赢得汉诺威国际小提琴比赛(Hannover International violin competition)一等奖。He was first violinist of the Ying Quartet before joining the Houston Symphony, where he became concertmaster in 2010.在加入休斯敦交响乐团前,黄欣在应氏四重奏(the Ying Quartet)中担任第一小提琴手。而后,2010年成为休斯敦交响乐团首席。Mr. Huang has also performed as a chamber musician at the Marlboro Music Festival, the Ravinia’s Steans Music Institute, the Seattle Chamber Music Society’s festival and at Caramoor. He frequently takes part in Musicians From Marlboro tours and was selected by the Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center to be a member of its Chamber Music II program.黄欣也参加一些音乐节,比如万宝路音乐节、拉维尼亚音乐节(Ravinia’s Steans Music Institute)、西雅图室内音乐协会音乐节、卡拉穆尔音乐节(Caramoor)。此外,他还经常参加“来自万宝路的音乐家”巡演,并当选为林肯中心室内乐协会的室内乐II项目(Chamber Music II program)成员。On Friday, Mr. Huang is to be married in Houston to Sarah Ludwig, a violinist with the Houston Grand Opera. Somehow, he said, they would manage the long-distance relationship.周五,黄欣将在休斯敦同萨拉·路德维格(Sarah Ludwig)举行婚礼,萨拉也是一名小提琴演奏家,任职于休斯顿歌剧院(Houston Grand Opera)。黄欣说,两人会努力克他们之间的地理距离。Mr. Huang said his favorite works tend to be whatever piece he is working on at the moment. “If you really understand it, and really understand the reasons for making it convincing,” he said, “you can’t help but fall in love with it a little bit.”黄欣说,他最喜欢的作品往往就是当下练习的作品,“如果你真的理解作品,理解它打动人心的原因”,他说,“你便会情不自禁地爱上它。” /201504/369979 Are you open to new experiences? Are you a risk taker? Do you like parties?你乐于体验新鲜事物吗?你愿意冒险吗?你喜欢派对吗?Odds are, questions like these were not part of your last doctor’s appointment. But one day they might be — a growing body of research suggests that your personality can influence your health. And some experts think changing people’s personal traits might one day help treat diseases — or keep people from getting them in the first place.这类问题不大可能出自你刚看过的医生之口。但有朝一日医生也许真会这么问——越来越多的研究表明,你的个性会影响你的健康。一些专家认为,在未来的某一天,改变人的性格特征或许会有助于治疗疾病——或者把病痛扼杀在摇篮之中。The research also comes at a time when many are calling for a more individualized approach to medicine. Some day, researchers hope, personality testing could be used to help your doctor design treatment specifically to you.相关研究工作取得进展之际,许多人正在呼吁医生以更有针对性的方法来给病人开药。研究者们希望,个性测试有一天可以成为你的医生为你专门设计治疗方案的辅助手段。For a study published in the journal Psychoneuroendocrinology, Kavita Vedhara and her co-authors gave personality tests to 121 people, and tested their blood to analyze the expression of genes related to inflammation. They found that the personality trait of extroversion was associated with increased expression of genes promoting inflammation. Meanwhile, conscientiousness, which the authors define as a trait “reflecting planfulness, caution, and harm avoidance,” was associated with decreased expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Since inflammation can be part of the body’s response to infection, higher expression of pro-inflammatory genes can mean a more active immune system; lower expression can mean a relatively less active one.《神经心理内分泌学》(Psychoneuroendocrinology)杂志发表了卡维塔·韦德哈拉(Kavita Vedhara)等人基于其研究写就的一篇论文。他们对121个人进行了性格测试;还为其做了血液检测,以分析与炎症反应有关的基因表达。他们发现,外向型的性格特征是与更高的促炎基因表达水平联系在一起的。与此同时,勤勉审慎型人格——按照作者们的义中,这种性格的主要特点在于计划性强、谨小慎微、能够避免受到伤害——则是和较低的促炎基因表达水平联系在一起的。既然炎症可以被看作人体对感染的反应,那么促炎基因表达水平较高可能意味着免疫系统更加活跃,促炎基因表达水平较低则意味着免疫系统不那么活跃。It could be, the authors write, that people with weak immune systems become more introverted to protect themselves from infection (meet fewer people, get fewer germs). They might become more conscientious for the same reason. On the other hand, it’s possible that people’s personalities affect their gene expression — people who go to a lot of fun, germy parties (or who are really bad at washing their hands) might start to undergo gene-expression changes that strengthen their immune systems.这篇论文的作者在文中写道,为了避免感染,免疫系统比较脆弱的人可能会变得更内向(少见人,少接触细菌)。出于同样的原因,他们或许也会变得更谨慎。反过来说,人们的个性也有可能在影响他们的基因表达——经常参加有趣但却在散播细菌的派对的人(或者不会好好洗手的人)或许会在基因表达方面有所变化,而这种变化能强化他们的免疫系统。This doesn’t mean everybody should get a personality test, Dr. Vedhara told Op-Talk. But it does suggest that in general, a treatment approach that considers the patient’s psychological profile may be more effective than one that just looks at physical symptoms.韦德哈拉士告诉本报Op-Talk栏目,这并不意味着每个人都该做性格测试。但由此的确可以看出,在通常情况下,把患者的心理状况考虑在内的治疗方案,可能会比只着眼于生理症状的治疗方案有效得多。“If you’re confronted with a chronic condition” like diabetes or heart disease, she explained, “you may well have underlying beliefs about your condition which influence how likely you are to engage with treatment, you might have an emotional response to that condition which might influence your underlying physiology and your ability to recover or to manage your disease, you may well have an orientation which makes you more or less likely to exercise” — and looking at all of those factors as well as the physical manifestations of the condition itself might help doctors treat it better.她解释说,“如果得了慢性病”,比如糖尿病或者心脏病,“你很可能对自己的疾病有着潜在的看法,这些看法或许会影响你对治疗的投入程度;你可能因为生病而产生情绪上的反应,这种反应或许会影响你的潜在心理、康复能力以及控制疾病的能力;你很可能具有某种倾向性,这种倾向性会影响你锻炼身体的意愿”——把所有这些因素以及疾病本身的生理表现都纳入考量,或许有助于医生更好地治疗你的病痛。“Most areas of medical intervention work quite well,” she said, “but I think that we’re on the brink of seeing a future where we use psychological interventions and behavioral interventions to maximize their efficacy.”“医疗干预在大多数情况下都很管用,”她说,“但我认为,我们即将看到利用心理干预和行为干预来实现医疗干预效用最大化的未来。”Joshua Jackson, a psychology professor at Washington University, also sees understanding personality as a way to improve physical health. In a recent study, he and his co-authors looked at personality and longevity — or, more specifically, at how your friends’ assessments of your personality might predict how long you’ll live. They found that men whose friends thought they were conscientious and open tended to live longer than those whose friends found them less so; for women, the traits associated with longer life were agreeableness and emotional stability. And friends’ assessments of subjects’ personalities were better than their own self-reports at predicting how long they would live.华盛顿大学(Washington University)的心理学教授约书亚·杰克逊(Joshua Jackson)也认为,理解个性是改善身体健康状况的一条途径。在最近的研究中,他和合著者调查了个性和寿命之间的关系——或者更确切地说,是用你朋友对你个性的评估,来预测你的寿命。他们发现,那些被朋友评价为谨慎、心态开放的男性,往往比没有得到这种评价的男性寿命长;而对于女性来说,被评价为随和、情绪稳定的人往往有更长的寿命。在预测受试者的寿命方面,朋友对受试者的个性评估,往往比受试者的自我评估的更准确。Conscientiousness people, Dr. Jackson told Op-Talk, tend to “eat their vegetables and exercise,” as well as avoiding risky behaviors like driving without a seatbelt. “They seem to just live a nice, buttoned-up and tidy life, which helps them live longer.”杰克逊士对本报Op-Talk栏目说,谨慎的人往往更愿意“吃蔬菜、锻炼身体”,避免冒险行动,比如不系安全带驾车等。“他们似乎过着有条理、有规律生活,这有助于他们活得更长。”“Open individuals,” meanwhile, “are not necessarily set in their ways, they’re able to change, they’re open to new experiences.” So they may be amenable to altering their diets or making other changes that could improve their health. Openness may also be associated with a tendency to do mentally challenging activities like crosswords, Dr. Jackson noted, which may also promote good health.同时,“心态开放的人不会自我设限,可以做出改变,乐于体验新东西。”因此,他们可能会改变饮食习惯,或者其他习惯,来增进自身健康。心态开放的人可能喜欢填字游戏这样的智力挑战性活动,杰克逊士指出,这也可能会增进健康状况。He thinks the gender differences his team found may have to do with social mores in the 1930s, when the personality assessments were conducted. He and his co-authors write, “It is likely that high levels of peer-rated emotional stability and agreeableness predict mortality because they largely assess positive characteristics indicative of a supportive and easy-going wife, such as that described in the social theory of the time.” However, he told Op-Talk, some research suggests “that personality within women has a less robust relationship with health and longevity.”他认为,其团队发现的性别差异,可能与上世纪30年代进行这项个性评估时的社会风气有关。他和合著者写到,“在女性评估中,同伴在情绪稳定、为人随和方面给出的高分评价,可以预测女性的寿命,这可能是因为,当时评估的女性特性,主要显示她们能不能成为顾家、随和的妻子,就像当时的社会理论所描述的那样。”不过,他告诉Op-Talk,有些研究表明,“女性的个性与健康以及寿命之间的关系,不是太可靠。”Dr. Jackson sees a role for personality research beyond predicting when you’re going to die. Understanding someone’s personality could help doctors determine which patients are going to have trouble following a new medication or exercise regimen (conscientious people, he said, are especially good at doing what their doctors tell them to do).杰克逊士认为,人格研究的作用不仅局限在寿命预测上。了解一个人的个性,可以帮助医生预知哪些病人难以坚持用新药物或遵循新疗法(他说,谨慎的人在遵守医嘱方面做得特别好)。He’s also involved in research into how changes in personality might affect health. “We know that personality changes across the life span” — people tend to become more conscientious and less neurotic over time — “but some people change more than others.” And since personality traits are associated with health, altering those traits might make someone healthier or sicker.他还参与研究了个性变化可能会如何影响健康状况。“我们知道,在整个生命周期里,人的性格都在改变”——随着时间的推移,人们往往会变得更加谨慎,不那么神经质——但有些人变化大,有些人变化小”。既然人格特质与健康有关,那么改变这些特质就可能会让人变得更健康或更多病。Brent Roberts, a psychology professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (Dr. Jackson was once his student), has found that changes in personality can be linked to changes in health. “That sets up an interesting possibility,” he told Op-Talk: If personality can be altered, “then it could be a target of intervention.” People can become less neurotic with medication or therapy, he said, and “if that’s the case, then you have an interesting question about whether interventions like that could be used to help people be healthier at an earlier age because you could change their personality.”布伦特·罗伯茨(Brent Roberts)是伊利诺伊大学厄巴纳-香槟分校(University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)的心理学教授(杰克逊士曾经是他的学生),他发现,人格改变可以引起健康状况的变化。“这开启了一个有趣的可能性,”他对Op-Talk说,如果性格是可以改变的,“那它就可能成为干预目标”。通过用药物,或者采用一些疗法,人们可以变得不那么神经质,他说,“如果事实如此,那么你就会面对一个有趣的问题:你有了改变人们个性的能力,那么这样的干预是否可以在他们年轻的时候就用来改善其健康状况呢?”The psychiatry professor Benjamin Chapman says personality was long thought to be unchangeable: “the term was, personality was set like plaster.” But now, he told Op-Talk, some believe people can change their personalities if they want to: “You might be able to change at least some aspect of conscientiousness in your 40s, for instance, and not get heart disease in your 60s.”精神病学教授本杰明·查普曼(Benjamin Chapman)表示,长期以来,人们一直认为性格是无法改变的:“也就是说,人的性格都是定了型的。”不过现在,他对Op-Talk栏目说,一些人认为,如果有意愿的话,人可以改变自己的性格:“例如,你至少能在40多岁的时候在某些方面改善自己的谨慎程度,然后,在60多岁的时候就不会得心脏病了。”Therapy is one way to change personality, he added, but its scale is necessarily limited. “Psychotherapy for hundreds of thousands of people is not cost-effective,” he said, and the question is “whether this sort of thing can be accomplished with something that’s less labor-intense and reaches more people.” Some programs in schools, such as those that teach responsibility and goal setting, “probably have a de facto effect on the shaping of personality and traits like conscientiousness,” he noted. “The tricky thing is, how would you do that later in life?”他还表示,改变性格的一种方法是通过治疗,但它的覆盖范围必定有限。“让几十万人去做心理治疗可不划算,”他说。问题是,“能不能通过不那么劳民伤财的办法来达到这个目的,并且惠及更多人。”中小学的某些项目,比如培养责任感和目标设定的课程,“很可能在塑造性格以及培养谨慎等个性特征方面拥有实实在在的效果,”他指出。“棘手的地方在于,在此后的人生阶段,该怎样开展这种项目?”The time may be ripe for a focus on the personal. “The personalized medicine movement,” said Dr. Chapman, seeks “to get a very individualized prediction of, will you get this disease, will this treatment work for you, how long will you live?” Such predictions are usually made based on demographic information and risk factors like smoking, he said (some, like the chief executive of England’s National Health Service, have called for a personalized-medicine approach focusing on genetic information). But Dr. Chapman believes personality may be a useful element in such predictions: “What we’ve suggested is that certain aspects of personality pick up on a very unspecified and general but highly relevant set of factors related to future health, and you might be able to augment those predictive models with personality-type measures.”关注个体的时机可能已经成熟。查普曼称,“个性化医疗运动”旨在“针对以下问题进行非常个体化的预测:你是否会患某种疾病?这种治疗方法对你是否管用?你还能活多久?”目前,这些问题的预测通常是根据人口统计信息及吸烟等风险因素做出的,他说(有些人已经呼吁采取关注基因信息的个性化医疗手段,包括英国国家医疗务体系[National Health Service]的首席执行官)。不过查普曼认为,在此类预测中,个性或许是一个有用的元素:“我们的意思是,个性的某些方面强化了一系列不明确且笼统、但却非常重要的与未来健康有关的因素,而把性格纳入考虑的话,也许可以提升这些预测模型的效果。”“Especially with the Affordable Care Act,” he added, “there’s been a big shift in medicine toward patient satisfaction and patient-centered care.” And collecting some information on patients’ personalities might be one way of fostering better relationships between patients and doctors: “the question would be, can the doctor use that information to better understand the patient, better understand how to approach them, how to interpret their behavior?” As Dr. Chapman, Dr. Roberts, and Paul Duberstein write in a 2011 review article in the Journal of Aging Research:“尤其随着《合理医疗费用法案》(Affordable Care Act)的出台,”他还说,“在医疗领域出现了向重视病人满意度,以及提供以病人为中心的医疗务的重大转变。”此外,搜集某些关于患者个性特征的信息可以帮助建立更好的医患关系:“问题是,医生能否通过这些信息更好地理解病人,更好地懂得如何接触他们、如何解读他们的行为?”查普曼、罗伯茨和保罗·杜伯斯坦(Paul Duberstein)在2011年刊登在《衰老研究杂志》(Journal of Aging Research)上的一篇综述文章中写道:“Personality assessment could improve the provision of patient-centered care because the physicians better understand how to approach and interact with different kinds of patients. The mere presence of these assessment tools in primary care waiting rooms would convey to patients that the provision of high quality health care is not solely about ordering diagnostic tests, arriving at the correct diagnosis, and prescribing appropriate treatments. It is also about expressing concern and empathy and understanding the patient’s perspective.”“个性评估或可改善以患者为中心的医疗务,因为医生可以更好地了解如何与不同类型的病人接触和互动。单是在基本医疗候诊室设置这样的评估工具,就会向患者传递这样的信息:高质量的医疗务不光是预定诊断检查、得到正确的诊断结果,以及医生开出适当的治疗方案。它也包括表达关心和同情,以及理解患者的想法。”At The New York Times’s Well Blog, Dr. Sandeep Jauhar writes, “quality improvement in medicine is too often a blunt instrument. We try to take what works in certain situations and apply it to all situations. Our methods yield results for populations, not individual patients.” And, he adds, “a shift to more personalized medicine will be needed to continue to make the kind of progress to which patients and doctors have become accustomed.”桑迪普·乔哈尔(Sandeep Jauhar)士在《纽约时报》的健康客(Well Blog)中写道,“医疗质量的提高方法常常十分笨拙。我们总是设法把在特定情形下有效的方式,应用于所有情况。我们的方法对某些类型的人有效,而不是具体的某些个体。”此外,他接着说,“要继续实现患者和医生已经习惯的那种进展,必须向更加个性化的医疗方式进行转变。”Personality research could become part of such a shift. As Dr. Vedhara puts it, “the individual who has the disease is almost as important as the underlying disease itself. So if medicine treated not only the pathology but the person with the pathology, it would probably get more bang for its buck.”性格研究可以成为这种转变的一部分。正如韦德哈拉士所说,“患病的个体几乎与疾病本身同样重要。因此,如果医务务治疗的不光是病症,还包括患有这种病症的那个人,可能会产生更好的效果。” /201501/351620重庆新桥医院资料渝北区褐青色痣多少钱

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