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金华妇幼保健医院整形怎么预约义乌市中医院看病贵么Xin Dynasty新朝The Xin Dynasty (新朝)was a “dynasty”(even though, contrary to the usual meaning of a dynasty, it had but one emperor) in Chinese history.新朝是中国历史上的一个“朝代”(尽管它和普通朝代的意义有所不同,它仅有一位皇帝)。It followed the Western Han Dynasty and preceded the Eastern Han Dynasty.它上乘西汉下启东汉。The Xin Dynasty’s sole emperor, Wang Mang (王莽) was the nephew of Grand Empress Dowager Wang Zhengjun, and he became powerful after the death of her step-grandson, Emperor Ai in 1 B.C.新朝唯一一位帝王王莽是太皇太后王政君的侄子,公元前1年,他在王政君的继孙汉哀帝驾崩后夺权。After several years of cultivating a personality cult, he finally took over as emperor in 8 A.D.建立了多年的个人崇拜之后,他最终在公元8年自立为帝。However, while he was a creative scholar and politician, he was an incompetent ruler, and his capital Chang’an was sieged in 23 AD by peasant rebels.然而,尽管他是一个极富创造力的学者与政治家,他却是一个无能的帝王,他的都城长安在公元23年被农民起义者围攻。He died in the siege.他死于那场围攻之中。 /201510/397353金华婺城活细胞丰胸价格 In 139 B. C. , Emperor Wu Di succeeded to the throne.公元前139年,汉武帝继位。His long reign became known as the zenith or highlight of the Western Han period.武帝时期是西汉发展的鼎盛时期。The economy flourished, and the state treasury was abundent.期间经济繁荣、府库充实。The casting of coins became a state monopoly that was observed by special officials, and the currency was standardized to a nominal face value of five zhu . The most important tax reform was concerning the state monopoly on production, transport and merchandise of salt and iron that was centrally organized by the chamberlain for the national treasury. The transport system was standardized by special regulations, as well as the quality control of the goods. Therefore, the financial revenue increased greatly.国家统一货币,铸五铢钱,严禁私铸钱;进行税制改革,盐、铁的生产、运输、销售由大司农负责,实行国家专营;实行均输法、平准法,朝廷财政收入大增。Politics : In politics, Emperor Wudi took further steps to consolidate the centralization. Substantial changes also took place in the structure of the central government that resulted in a new kind of bureaucratic centralism within a state that was officially Confucianist but in fact Legist.政治方面:武帝进一步采取措施加强中央集权,国家的政治制度发生了实质性变化,形成了新的外儒内法的中央集权的官僚体制。The emperor reformed the central government and built up his cabinet.具体包括:“改革中枢体制,建立中朝”。The status of the Imperial Board of Secretaries was raised, for all the memorials to the throne would be submitted to the emperor by secretariats.尚书台的地位提升,大臣们的章奏要由尚书进呈皇帝。This reinforced the autocratic monarchy and stripped power of the prime minister. Meanwhile, the emperor strengthened his control over the local卜 ties.这一举措加强了王权,削弱了丞相的权力。He divided the whole country into 13 regions, and appointed an itinerant inspector to each of these divisions to keep a watchful eye on the local affairs.加强对地方的控制,将全国分为13个州部。每个州部设刺史一人,以监察地方。Adopting the proposal of Zhu Fuyan, the emperor decreed that when a prince died, his eldest son was to succeed him, and the territory of his principality was to be ed among all his sons. With the exception of the eldest son, each would be granted the status of a marquis, who was subjected to the prefecture.武帝采纳了主父偃的建议,规定诸侯王死后,除嫡长子继承王位外,其他庶子由皇帝分割原王国的部分土地为列侯,列侯归郡统辖。Consequently, the power of the principalities was split apart without their fiefdoms being taken back by the imperial court, which reinforced the centralization.这样一来,朝廷虽未剥夺诸侯封地,却成功地分化了诸侯国的权力,进一步加强了中央集权。Not long after Emperor Wudi * s ascension, Dong Zhongshu proposed the task of the 44 grand unificationof the empire in political philosophy.汉武帝即位不久,董仲舒提出了“大-统”的政治哲学思想。Emperor Wudi accepted his suggestion, adopted Confucianism as official philosophy, and denied scholars of all other schools the opportunity to 6nter the civil service. From then on Confucianism became dominant in the middle and late period of the Han Dynasty.汉武帝采纳了这一建议,实行“罢黜,独尊儒术”,从此儒家学说逐步成为西汉中后期的统治思想。Additionally, the emperor encouraged the study of the five Confucian classics, namely the Book of Odes, Book of Historyy Book of Rites, Book of Changes 〇nd Spring and Autumn Annals. He even set up the imperial academy in Chang ? an to teach Confucian classics, cultivate qualified personnel dnd select government officials through regular written examinations.汉武帝鼓励学习《诗》、《书》、《易》、《礼》、《春秋》等儒家经典,在长安兴办太 学,传授儒家思想,培养人材,并通过考试选拔官吏。Foreign Policies: On strengthening the autocratic monarchy, Emperor Wudi was also engaged in broadening the Han Dynasty * s relations with the ethnic minorities to an unprecedented extent.外交政策:在巩固王权地同时,汉武帝还致力发展与少数民族的联系。为此,汉时的民族关系达到到前所未有的程度。Wars Against the Xiongnu:ln the earlier years of the Han Dynasty, Xiongnu nomads were very powerful. The Han rulers usually adopted a conciliatory attitude towards them. The chief policy to prevent its invasion was to arrange marriages between the royal family and the Xiongnu chieftains to maintain the peace.抗击匈奴:西汉前期,匈奴势力强大,汉朝主要通过“和亲”政策防范匈奴侵略,维系和平。However, this had been unsuccessful, and Xiongnu harassed the borders constantly.可是这一政策并不成功,匈奴-再入侵。When Emperor Wudi was in the throne, he tried a new tact.汉武帝即位以后,开始发动对匈奴的战争。During ten years, namely from the year 128 B. C. to 119 B. C. , the emperor sent Wei Qing and Huo Qubing to launch three large-scale expeditions against Xiongnu. By these actions, he drove them into the far north of Gobi, Desert, thus maintdining the safety of the Hexi Corridor.从元朔元年(公元前128年)到元狩四年(公元前119年)的10年中,先后三次派卫青、霍去病抗击匈奴,迫使匈奴北徙漠北,确保了河西走廊的安全。Furthermore, new principalities were established there, and land reclamation was practiced, in which militiamen and their families were settled on military^agri-cultural colonies, where they worked and defended.汉朝还在西北边地设郡、屯田,修长城,筑烽燧,建邮亭驿。The Great Wall was reconstructed , which had aly served as defensive line against the stepped nomads for a few centuries. Beacon towers and post stations were built, which played a new role in the defence system of the Great Wall.烽燧和邮亭驿在长城防御体系中发挥了新的重要作用。The constant wars between the Han and Xiongnu made both sides suffer great losses, having no spare capacity to continue the fight.汉匈战争不断,双方均损失惨重,无力再战。In 33 B. C. , Khan Huhanye paid a visit to Chang’an. Emperor Yuan married Wang Zhaojun, a beauty at that time, to him.公元前33年,呼韩邪单于到长安,汉元帝将宫人王昭君嫁与呼韩邪单于。This action not only improved the relationship between the Han Dynasty and Xiongnu, but also promoted economic and cultural exchanges between them.昭君出塞改善了汉、匈之间关系,还促进了两族人民间的经济文化交流。From then on, the Han and Xiongnu got along well with each other, and wars didn, t break out for more than forty years.汉、匈从此友好相处,在40多年间没有发生战争。Zhang Qian on a Diplomatic Mission to the West Regions : At the same time, in order to seek allies to fight against Xiongnu* s invasion, In 138 B. C. , Emperor Wudi sent Zhang Qian as envoy to Dayuezhi, which had originally lived in the area between Dunhuang and Qillan, and was driven to Guishui valley by Xiongnu during the period of Emperor Wendi.张骞出使西域汉:武帝为反击匈奴,争取联合力量,于建元三年(公元前138 年),派张骞出使大月氏(zhT)。大月氏原居于今敦煌、祁连之间;文帝时期,为匈奴所破,西徙妫(g〇l圭)水(今阿姆河)流域。Unfortunately, Zhang Qian was captured on his way to Dayuezhi by Xiongnu. He was kept prisoner for more than ten years before managing to escape westward and finally made his way to the destination.张骞在路上为匈奴所虏,在匈奴十余年,后乘机西逃,到大月氏。However, Dayuezhi was reluctant to attack Xiongnu, and in 126 B. C. , Zhang Qian returned to Chang*an.大月氏不愿共击匈奴。公元前126年,张骞返回长安。In 119 B. C. , Zhang Qian was sent to the West Regions again, inviting Wusun, who were settled in the Yili valley to form a common front to cut the right flank of the Xiongnu.公元前119年,汉武帝第二次派张骞出使西域,约居于伊犁河流域乌孙共击匈奴,以折匈奴如右翼。The king of Wusun, who was old, dared not ally with the Han, for his territory was dose to Xiongnu and was subjected to its menace. Zhang Qian failed a second time, but his visits promoted understanding between the Western Han Dynasty and the regions north and south of the Tianshan Mountains, cemented its links with adjacent regions, and helped to sp the influence of the Han Empire.乌孙王年老,又因箕国临近匈奴,受匈奴的威胁严重,不敢与汉联合,张骞出使未果。尽管如此,张骞出使西域促进了天山南北各少数民族与汉朝的交流,密切了汉与周边地区的联系,使汉朝的影响更为广泛。More importantly, Zhang Qian1 s westward travels also opened the very important trade route to the Central Asia, which later called Road of Silk.更为重要的是,张骞出使西域,打通了汉朝通往中亚的贸易通道一丝绸之路。Many Han commodities like silk and ironware were brought to the west, while spice, grape, woolen carpets, sesame and peaches etc. were introduced to China.当时运往西方的商品有蚕丝、铁器等。西方经“丝绸之路”输人中国的商品,有香料、葡萄、芝麻、胡 桃、毛毯等。With his northwest frontier secured, Emperor Wu then expanded the empire in a northeast direction.在巩固了西北边境后,汉武帝开始向东北方向拓展疆域。With The capture of an area south of the Yangtze River, the territory of Han far exceed that of the previous dynasties.攻占长江以南后,汉的领土已大大超过了前朝。The Han Dynasty then began to expand its political and cultural influence over Vietnam, Central Asia, Mongolia, Korea and other counties.同时汉朝的政治、文化还对越南、朝鲜、中亚、蒙古等国产生了重要影响。However, it was no easy task to hold or appease all these far territories, and rebellions and territorial losses occurred many times for the rest of the Han period.但是对广大边疆地区的统治、平叛却非易事。汉朝中后期,叛乱和疆土流失不断。At the beginning of Emperor Wudi * s reign the state treasury was full, but when he died, luxury and war campaigns had exhausted.汉武帝统治前期,国库充盈。但由于挥霍无度加之连年争战,武帝死时,已是国库空虚。 /201511/412314金华市第二人民医院在线咨询

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金华武义县第一人民医院门诊收费 Many people wonder what the secret to long-lasting love is. Whilst mutual trust, loyalty and a shared love of Game Of Thrones might spring to mind, scientists believe they#39;ve determined the formula to figuring out whether you#39;re well-suited to your partner - and it#39;s all down to how you behave together. A study published in the Journal of Family and Marriage has identified four types of relationship and revealed which type is most likely to get married.许多人都好奇爱情常青的秘密。我们心里最先想到的就是相互信任、忠诚和《权力的游戏》中的那种同心同德。科学家们相信他们已经确定了一种公式,这种公式能够搞清楚你和伴侣是否彼此合适——这完全取决于你们在一起时的行为。一项发表在《家庭与婚姻》杂志上的研究声称其确定了四种爱情类型,并公布了最可能结婚的爱情类型。Do you and your partner have a rollercoaster relationship? You fit into the first group, which is dubbed #39;dramatic#39;?你和伴侣有着“过山车”式的感情吗?那么你就属于第一类情侣了。这种类型的情侣被戏称为“戏剧性情侣”。The #39;dramatic#39; section of participants weren#39;t exactly consistent in their affections, often justifying the bad elements of their relationship by claiming that they #39;weren#39;t good together#39;; they are the most likely to break up.“戏剧性情侣”对待感情并不始终如一,他们经常用“我们在一起并不幸福”来解释感情中的负面因素;这类情侣最有可能分手。Scientists also identified a second group called the conflict-ridden couples who tend to argue a lot. Unlike the dramatic couples, though, this second group weren#39;t as likely to break up and didn#39;t have a tainted future.科学家还定义了第二种情侣,即“吵架倾向型”情侣,这类情侣经常吵架。和“戏剧性情侣”不同,第二种情侣不大容易分手,未来也不太糟糕。The third group - the socially involved - place high emphasis on social approval. So, these couples attribute social reasons - such as #39;my parents and friends like them#39; - for the positive points in their relationship. This type of couple have a bright future thanks to the importance they place on common social networks, as well as having a solid foundation of friendship and cite their partner as their #39;best friend#39; as well as their lover.第三种情侣——“社交参与型情侣”——很重视社会认同。所以这些情侣会把社会原因当做感情中的积极因素,比如“我父母和朋友都喜欢他们”。由于此类情侣重视共同的社交网络、有着坚固的友情基础,并且把对方当做最好的“朋友”和“情人”,所以他们的未来十分明朗。The final - and most successful - group is hailed the partner-focussed commitments.They have plenty of positive turning points in their relationship and credit their success to having plenty in common, as well as spending a lot of time together focussing on each other#39;s needs. Perhaps unsurprisingly, this group were the least likely to break up - and it#39;s all thanks to them being conscientiousness, indicating that they#39;re people who make long-term relationship goals.最后一种——也是最成功的一种——“专注伴侣承诺型”情侣。他们的感情中有许多正面能量,他们把各自的成功归功于彼此的共同点;同时他们也会花费很多时间用于关注对方的需求。毫无意外,此类情侣最不可能分手——这都归功于他们的责任心。当然,这也意味着他们视彼此为长期伴侣目标。 /201601/421232金华整形医院祛疤手术多少钱浙江妇保医院纹眉毛多少钱



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