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2018年12月14日 03:11:04|来源:国际在线|编辑:健步资讯
Donald Trump has proposed a 45 percent tariff on imports from China, on the theory that this would protect American jobs and promote American business. 唐纳德·特朗普(Donald Trump)建议对来自中国的进口产品收取45%的关税,理由是有助于保住美国的工作机会,促进美国商业发展What’s more likely, though, is that the new tariffs would set off a cascade of global economic consequences, mostly negative. 然而,更有可能发生的情况是,这一新关税标准会带来一系列大多为负面的全球性经济影响Trade between China and the ed States which reached 8 billion in 2015 has generated large economic benefits for Americans. Manufacturing many goods in China, whether sneakers or smartphones, has kept their prices lower than they would be if made here. That’s been a boon to American consumers, especially those with less money. 中美贸易的规015年已980亿美元,为美国人带来了巨大的经济利好。不管是运动鞋还是智能手机,企业将很多商品拿到中国生产,使其售价比在美国生产更低。这对美国消费者来说是种福利,尤其是对手上钱比较少的消费者而言But more and more, economists are also recognizing a downside to free trade. Competition from China and other low-wage emerging economies has severely hurt some American workers. One study figures that the ed States lost at least two million jobs between 1999 and 2011 because of Chinese imports. To many people, Mr. Trump’s solution may seem to make sense: Restrict those imports, save jobs and support American business. 不过,经济学家们也日渐认识到自由贸易的负面影响。来自中国等低人工成本的新兴经济体的竞争,严重影响了一些美国劳动者的生计。据一项研究统计,因中国进口商品影响,美国999011年间至少损失00万个就业机会。在不少人看来,特朗普提出的解决之道似乎有道理:限制这些进口产品,保住工作机会,持美国企业But if there were a 45 percent tariff on Chinese goods, at least part of that would probably be passed onto consumers in the form of higher prices. Americans would end up buying fewer Chinese things, and fewer things from anywhere else. 不过,如果对中国商品收取45%的关税,其中至少有部分会通过更高的物价转嫁到消费者身上。结果是,美国人会购买更少的中国商品,同时也购买更少的其他商品Shrinking sales of Chinese products would generally hurt American businesses and workers. A product labeled “Made in Chinais not necessarily 100 percent Chinese, since many goods are assembled in China with parts from the ed States and elsewhere. Sluggish purchases of these so-called Chinese products would reduce the sales of their American components, too. 中国产品销售萎缩,会在整体上给美国企业和劳动者带来伤害。打着“中国制造”标签的商品不见得都是中国的,因为也有许多产品是用来自美国和其他国家的零部件在中国组装而成。所谓的“中国产品”销售疲软,也会减少美国零部件的销售For this reason and others, quite a lot of the money spent on Chinese goods actually ends up in the wallets of Americans. A study by the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco figured that 55 cents of every spent by an American shopper on a “Made in Chinaproduct goes to the Americans selling, transporting and marketing that product. Suppressing Chinese imports would harm shopkeepers and truck drivers. 正是由于这样的原因,花在中国商品上的大量资金最后实际上是进了美国人的腰包。旧金山联邦储备(Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco)的一项研究发现,美国消费者在“中国制造”的商品上花费的每一美元,都5%落到了销售、运输和为这种产品做推广的美国人手中。限制中国进口商品,将会损害美国店主和卡车司机的利益In fact, making Chinese-made goods more expensive would ripple through American shopping malls. An extra for, say, children’s clothing from China is not spent on a new baseball glove for a child, or a birthday gift for a grandmother. A tariff on China would dent the sales of all kinds of products, even those made in the ed States. 事实上,中国制造的商品价格上涨带来的影响,还会波及美国各大购物中心。比如,为一件来自中国的童装多花20美元,可能会导致一个美国家庭为孩子少买一副新的棒球手套,或为祖母少买一件生日礼物。对中国增收关税,会影响各种产品的销售,包括在美国生产的那些It seems likely that such a tariff would burden American consumers while doing little to create jobs for them. Gary Clyde Hufbauer and Sean Lowry at the Peterson Institute for International Economics, studying the impact of a 35 percent tariff imposed on Chinese tire imports by Washington in , found that American consumers had to spend an extra .1 billion on tires, while the tariff protected no more than 1,200 jobs. About 0,000 for every job saved, in other words. 而且这项关税在给美国消费者带来负担的同时,似乎也不会对创造工作机会产生太大助益。针对华盛顿009年对中国轮胎产品收取35%关税这一决策所产生的影响,彼得森国际经济研究所(Peterson Institute for International Economics)的加釷克莱德·赫夫鲍尔(Gary Clyde Hufbauer)和肖恩·劳Sean Lowry)曾做过一项研究,结果发现美国消费者不得不为此在购买轮胎上多花11亿美元,与此同时这项关税却只保住了不超过1200个工作岗位。换句话说,我们为这每个工作岗位付出的代价大约为90万美元A big tariff would also harm China. Depressing its exports to the ed States would deal another blow to an economy aly enduring its worst slowdown in 25 years. In the longer term, increasing the cost of doing business in China would probably prompt manufacturers of basic consumer items to consider moving out of China. 收取高额关税也会损害中国的利益。抑制中国对美出口,会让一个本就遭5年来最严重的增速放缓的经济体雪上加霜。从长远看,在中国做生意的成本增加,可能会促使基本消费品的生产商考虑将生产线撤离中国That process is aly underway. As the Chinese economy has advanced, wages of its workers have risen. A recent survey by the Japan External Trade Organization found that a Chinese factory worker earns 4 a month the highest salary in developing Asia. That has caused many companies producing labor-intensive goods, like clothing or electronics, to shift factories from China to other countries or to diversify their sources of supply to keep costs down. 这个过程已经开始了。随着中国经济水平提高,劳动者工资也不断上涨。日本贸易振兴机Japan External Trade Organization)最近的一项调查显示,中国工厂员工的人均工资达到了每月424美元(约740元人民币),在亚洲的发展中国家里是最高的。这导致生产装、电子元件等劳动密集型产品的企业,将工厂从中国转到了其他国家,或使其供货来源多样化,以继续保持低廉的生产成本Though higher costs in China might prompt some companies to move production back to the ed States, a more plausible destination would be other emerging economies with lower costs. A factory worker earns, on average, 0 a month in India, 5 in Vietnam and 0 in Bangladesh, according to the Japanese survey. 尽管中国的生产成本增加,有可能会促使一些企业将其生产环节移回美国,但它们还有一个更合理的选择,即将生产转移到成本更低的其他新兴国家。上述日本机构的调查数据显示,印度工厂员工的平均工资是每30美元,越南是185美元,在孟加拉国则是100美元Foxconn, the Taiwan-based company that assembles iPhones in China for Apple, announced last year that it would build as many as 12 new factories in India. That means your next smartphone or pair or bluejeans would more likely be made in Mumbai than in Minneapolis. 富士康是一家台湾企业,在中国大陆为苹果公司组装iPhone。该公司去年宣布将在印度新建至多12座工厂。这意味着你的下一部智能手机或者下一条牛仔裤很有可能不是在明尼阿波利斯生产的,而是在孟买And the Chinese government’s response would probably be tariffs of its own on American goods and services rather than lowering barriers for American companies doing business in China. It moved quickly to retaliate for the tariff on Chinese tires with punitive duties on American products. Because the Chinese market has become critical for many American companies whether Apple, Starbucks or Boeing any steps taken by the Chinese government to curtail their ability to operate in China would be bad news for them. 中国政府的反应很可能不是降低美国公司在中国开展业务的障碍,而是对美国商品和务征收关税。中国轮胎被征收的时候,它就迅速采取行动,对美国产品征收惩罚性关税。由于中国逐渐成为很多美国企业——无论是苹果、星巴克,还是波音——的关键市场,中国政府采取的任何削弱它们在中国的运营能力的措施,对它们而言都是坏消息Mr. Trump’s tariff proposal addresses a real and legitimate concern about the effect of competition from low-wage countries on American workers. But that doesn’t mean it’s going to solve the problem and it could create even more. 低工资国家确实给美国劳动者带来了竞争压力,特朗普关税提议针对的这个关注点是真实的、正当的。但是,这并不意味着这项建议可以解决问题——它反而有可能带来更多问题。来 /201604/436322Nicolas Sarkozy has announced he will seek his party’s nomination to stand in next year’s French presidential election.萨科齐宣布他将参加明年的法国总统大选,但还需先在党内争得提名资格。The rightwinger, who was nicknamed “the hyper-presidentfor his frenetic term in power from 2007 to 2012, had made no secret of his ambition to reconquer the élysée palace and avenge his 2012 defeat by the Socialist Fran#231;ois Hollande.因为在任期间007-2012)行事高调,这位右翼领导人曾被戏称为“超级总统”012年他败给了社会党候选人弗朗索瓦·奥朗德,卸任后他也从不掩饰想一雪前耻、重返爱丽舍宫的野心。After weeks of suspense in which he grabbed media headlines by presenting an increasingly hardline stance on national identity and the place of Islam in France, Sarkozy launched his campaign with an announcement on social media and a link to the first chapter of a book, Everything for France, which he will publish this week.几周以来,萨科齐不断发声,在国家认同问题和法国的伊斯兰问题上持强硬立场,使得他频频登上媒体头条,也引发了大家的猜测。这次萨科齐终于在社交媒体上宣布了自己的参选,并附上了一本书首章的链接,这就是他将于本周发行的新书《一切为了法囀?。“The next five years will be filled with danger but also with hope,he wrote. He listed what he said were the five major challenges facing France, including defending French identity, restoring lost competitiveness and enforcing state authority.“接下来的五年将是危机与希望交织的五年,”他写道。他列出了他认为法国正面临的五大挑战,其中包括捍卫国家认同、恢复竞争力和增强国家权威等几项。Sarkozy said France’s “top battlewas over how “to defend our lifestyle without being tempted to cut ourselves off from the rest of the world萨科齐认为法国的“首要任务”是思考如何“维护本国人民的生活方式但又不让法国人与世隔绝”。In his fight to win his party’s nomination, the 61-year-old candidate is putting forward a platform of policies that veer even further to the far right than in 2012, when he set out to win over voters from Marine Le Pen’s Front National.萨科齐正在争取共和党候选资格,为了在选票上胜过领导法国极右政党“国民阵线”的马琳·勒庞,这1岁的竞选人现在所推行的政策主张似乎比2012年时更倾向右派。He wants to ban the Muslim headscarf from universities and public companies, limit the French nationality rights of children born to foreign parents, and ban pork-free options in school canteens, meaning Muslim and Jewish children would no longer be offered a substitute meal.他打算在大学和上市公司里对穆斯林头巾施以禁令,限制外裔人口子女的国民权利,并取消学校餐厅里的无猪肉餐,这也意味着穆斯林和犹太儿童无法获得替代餐。He has also scoffed at what he called “legal nicetiesin the fight against terrorism, prompting the left to warn that his treatment of suspected jihadis could be akin to that of Guantánamo Bay.萨科齐还对打击恐怖主义的“法律细节”表示讥讽,左派人士警告称萨科齐有可能采取像关塔那湾拘留营这样的手段来对待有嫌疑的伊斯兰圣战分子。来 /201608/462609

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