池州东至县医院做宫腔镜的医生
时间:2019年11月21日 03:38:13

Chinese cuisine is noted for the following characteristics:中国菜肴具有以下有名的特点:Vegetables are the main ingredients.蔬菜是主要配料。This explains why most Chinese women are slim and men free of cardiovascular diseases. This is because in China an there is a traditional respell for land. As the old saying goes agricultural country,Live on the mountain if you live in one and live on water if you live by water.”The Chinese are meticulous about food preparation. Whether the ingredients they use are pastries or vegetables,they always try to make the dishes tasty. For example,beans,a tommon vegetable,are exquisitely prepared into such delicious dishes as bean sprouts and bean curd.这就是中国妇女十分苗条而男子不用担心得心血管疾病的原因。中国作为一个农业国家,对土地有着传统的敬仰。正如一句老话所说的:“靠山吃山,靠水吃水。”中国人对于食物的烹制十分讲究。无论是糕点还是蔬菜,他们总是力图将其做得美味可口。例如,豆子这种普通的蔬菜就精致地做成了诸如豆芽和豆腐等美味的菜肴。The Chinese people like well prepared food.中国人喜欢精心烹制的食物。To facilitate food absorption and digestion,they are scrupulous about the temperature while cooking. Undercooked food is unacceptable to them. To the Chinese,the sight of Westerners eating undercooked steaks still oozing blood inside is horrible. In addition,warm soup is very important. Wonton,or dumpling soup,and noodles are popular nationwide. Other hot soups include jellied bean curd,rice porridge and corn porridge.为了便于食物的消化和吸收,中国人注重烹饪时的温度。对于他们来说,没有烧熟的食物是难以下咽的。当中国人看到外国人吃着渗着血的半熟牛排时会觉得十分恶心。此外,热汤也是极为重要的。馄饨汤或饺子汤以及面条都在全国深受欢迎。其他热汤包括豆腐脑、米粥以及玉米粥。Chinese also like to eat together,a tradition that can be traced back a long time ago.中国人还喜欢在一起吃饭,这个传统可以追溯到很久之前。It reflects the Chinese notion of union versus division round tables,round dishes,and round bowls all syriibolize union and perfection. Dishes are usually placed at the center of the table so that everyone around the table can share them. A hot pot, in particular, adds to the atmosphere of harmony and union. Friends eat and live together. A recent book by an American Sinologist held that the Chinese collective tradition developed out of the practice of eating together.这反映出中国人喜欢团圆不愿分离的观念—圆桌、圆盘、还有圆碗都象征着团圆和美满。盘子通常放在桌子的中央,这样坐在桌子面前的所有人都可以吃得到。一锅热汤尤其可以增加和谐、团圆的气氛。朋友们在一起吃饭、生活。最近一位美国汉学家的著作认为,中国人的集体观念就是从一同吃饭发展而来的。 /201506/378438

After 70 years, why aren’t we better at developing flu vaccines?今年的流感疫情非常严峻。从去年秋天至今,已经有数千美国人死于流感,其中包括56名儿童。美国疾病控制与预防中心已经发布了流感预警,而现在我们才刚刚进入二月,也就是流感疫情通常会集中爆发的月份。This year’s influenza season is a serious one. Thousands of Americans — including 56 children — have died from the flu since last fall. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has labeled the outbreak an epidemic, and we’re barely into February, the month that typically brings the peak of the season.流感疫情如此严重的部分原因是,今年的流感疫苗注射效果是近十年来最弱的一次。这或许也可以解释今年的流感疫情为什么如此早地就达到流行病级别。美国疾病控制与预防中心表示,今年的流感疫苗有效率只有23%,远低于往年50%到60%的水平。Part of the problem is this year’s flu shot has been one of the least effective in a decade, and it may account for why we are seeing the flu reach epidemic levels so early this season. The current flu vaccine is only 23% effective, compared to between 50% and 60% efficacy for a typical seasonal flu vaccine, according to the CDC.流感疫苗并不是一项高新技术,早在1935年,人类就测试了第一流感疫苗。仅仅7年后,也就是1942年,美国就开始在美军基地里进行大规模的流感疫苗研究。那么经过了70多年的研究,为什么我们还没有创造出一种持续有效的流感疫苗呢?The flu vaccine isn’t a newfangled technology. The first human influenza vaccines were tested as early as 1935, and extensive flu vaccine studies were started on U.S. army bases in 1942. So, after more than 70 years of research, why aren’t we better at creating a consistently effective seasonal flu vaccine?分析流感变种Analyzing the strains每年2月,世界卫生组织都会召集全球流感专家进行研讨,以确定下一季流感疫苗所使用的病毒株。全球科学家和医生都在努力收集和分析当前流行的病毒株,希望找到那些有可能演化为新流感的病毒变种。The answer to that question begins in February of every year, when global flu experts and the World Health Organization meet as part of an annual consortium to peg the influenza strains for the following season’s flu vaccine美国疾病控制与预防中心的世卫合作中心负责人杰基o卡茨表示:“这是一个持续不断的过程。一个病毒的变种会衍生出一系列变种。它是一种持续不断的线性进化,但也是很难预测的。想获得一精确的流感疫苗,关键就在于及时获得病毒样本,这样我们才能及时分析,准备下一年的疫苗。”Scientists and doctors from around the world work diligently to collect and analyze the flu strains currently in circulation, looking to pinpoint mutations that could become ground zero for a new epidemic.一旦这些病毒株被确定,专家就会针对其中的三到四种,来研制下一年的疫苗。这些病毒株会被大量生产,然后交给葛兰素史克、诺华和赛诺菲等生产厂家来生产和销售——这个过程需要显著的提前期,才能保疫苗在10月初到达各地的医院。“It’s a constant process,” said Jackie Katz, the head of the CDC’s WHO collaborating center. “One set of mutations will build on another. It’s a constant sort of linear evolution, but it’s one that is very hard to predict. One of the key features to get an accurate vaccine is having the viruses arrive in time, so we can characterize and analyze these viruses for the coming season.”去年二月中旬开始的疫苗研制过程,也和往年没有什么差别。来自美国疾病控制与预防中心、美国食品药品监督(FDA)、美国国家卫生研究院和世界卫生组织和其他国际机构的官员在瑞士日内瓦召开会议,确定了下一年度可能在北半球流行的流感病毒株,然后将它们交给生产厂商。(为了给南半球研制流感疫苗,去年9月也召开了另一场类似的峰会。)Once those strains are identified, the experts choose three to four to include in the next season’s vaccine. Those strains are then produced and handed off to manufacturers, such as GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis and Sanofi, to produce and distribute — a process that requires significant lead time to ensure the doses reach doctor offices by early October.到了去年三月,一种流感病毒的变种突然出现了,科学家们知道它有肆虐的可能,但为时已晚。卡茨表示:“时间是我们研制流感疫苗最大的敌人。”This same process happened in mid-February last year. Officials from the CDC, Food and Drug Administration, National Institute of Health, WHO, and other international bodies, met in Geneva, Switzerland, to pinpoint the strains that would be prevalent in the Northern Hemisphere then handed those off to manufacturers. (A separate but similar summit happens for the Southern Hemisphere in September.)疫苗是如何生产的The problem came in March when a mutation showed up that scientists knew would wreak havoc, but it was too late. “Time is one of our biggest enemies for the flu vaccine,” said Katz.据葛兰素史克公司介绍,最普通的流感疫苗生产方法往往会使用鸡蛋,这个过程会持续5个月。几百万只受精的鸡蛋会被用作流感病毒的培养基,然后病毒会被收集、提纯并装进药瓶。在疫苗正式投放全国之前,生产厂家和FDA会测试它们的效能和安全性。How vaccines are made这个方法从上世纪50年代就开始采用。这是一个缓慢且冗长的过程,尤其是考虑到它面临的挑战。首先,生产过程依赖足够的受精鸡蛋。如果鸡蛋的供给不足,那就会影响免疫血清的产量。其次,有些病毒变种在鸡蛋里成长得并不好,有的还会发生意想不到的变异,从而影响疫苗的效能。The most common vaccine production method useschicken eggs. This process takes about five months, according to GlaxoSmithKline. Millions of fertilized eggs are used as a culture to grow influenza viruses, which are then harvested, purified and packaged into vials. Manufacturers and the FDA then test for potency and safety before shipping the lot releases around the country.约翰霍普金斯大学布隆伯格公共卫生学院教授安德鲁o皮克兹表示:“问题的关键在于要改变疫苗的生产方式,它是制约疫苗精确性的一个重要因素。其实,我们确定这些病毒株的速度是非常快的,尤其考虑到它对细节的要求。”This method has been in practice since the 1950s. It’s slow and tedious, especially given the challenges. Firstly, manufacturing relies on the availability of enough fertilized eggs. If egg supplies were ever compromised it would affect our ability to produce enough serum. Second, some flu strains don’t grow that well in chicken eggs and undergo undesirable mutations that affect the potency of a seasonal vaccine.从2013年1月起,一种新的疫苗生产方式开始进入市场。它的生产速度更快,不需要用鸡蛋作为培养基,而且它的效能可能会更高。这种疫苗被称作“重组蛋白疫苗”,它采用了一种流感病毒蛋白质,这种蛋白质是通过改变一种感染昆虫细胞的病毒的基因而合成的。它可以引发人体的免疫反应,生成保护性抗体。“The question is about changing the way these vaccines are made. It’s the real factor limiting the accuracy,” said Andrew Pekosz, a professor at Johns Hopkins University’s Bloomberg School of Public Health. “The speed at which we can identify these strains, especially given the level of detail, is very rapid.”FluBlok是第一也是首获得FDA认的重组蛋白疫苗。其制造商Protein Sciences公司的女发言人雷切尔o菲尔伯鲍姆指出:“生产出疫苗只需要几个星期,而不是几个月。另外它还含有三倍的抗原,能起到更好的保护效果。有了这项技术,我们基本上避免了时间上的拖延。”As of January 2013, a new vaccine production method hit the market. It’s faster, egg-free and potentially more effective. It’s called a recombinant protein vaccine and uses an influenza virus protein that’s made by genetically altering a virus that infects insect cells. The resulting protein is what triggers the immune response in humans to make protective antibodies.重组蛋白疫苗通常需要6到12周的生产时间。在发生流感大爆发的情况下,Protein Sciences只需要3到6个月的时间,就能向全美提供5000万流感疫苗。而用鸡蛋培养的疫苗要想达到这样的应急产量,则至少需要6个月的时间。“It takes only weeks versus months to produce,” said Rachel Felberbaum, a spokeswoman for Protein Sciences, the maker of FluBlok, the first and only FDA approved recombinant influenza vaccine. “It also has three times the antigens, which helps protect better. We can do that without a time lag because of the technology.”与时间赛跑The recombinant vaccine typically takes between six to 12 weeks to manufacture, and in the case of a pandemic Protein Sciences is y to provide 50 million doses to the U.S. government in as quickly as three to six months. Egg-based vaccines would require at least six months for similar emergency output.重组技术通过基因手段在成长速度更快的昆虫细胞中孵化流感蛋白质,从而可以为科学家节省更多宝贵的时间,更精确地确定下一季可能爆发的流感病毒变种。它必定能够帮助科学家更好地研制今年的疫苗。Vying for time皮克兹表示:“我们只需要花四五个星期的时间,就能信心十足地抓住即将流行的流感病毒变种的长尾巴。”Recombinant technology — which uses genetic modification to incubate the flu proteins in faster-growing insect cells — could help carve out the vital time that scientists need to more accurately target influenza strains that will circulate during the upcoming season. It certainly would have helped scientists better target this year’s vaccine.该技术有可能为我们节省宝贵的时间,但它仍是一项新技术。为了应对今年的流感季节,葛兰素史克公司生产了约2400万基于鸡蛋培养基生产的流感疫苗,在美国还有其他四家公司也在使用鸡蛋培养基技术。相比之下,Protein Sciences公司今年只推出了30万FluBlok流感疫苗。“All we need is to buy four to five weeks to have a high level confidence of catching the long tail of emerging variants,” said Pekosz.目前整个行业都在大力投资重组技术,其中也包括葛兰素史克。不过菲尔伯鲍姆表示,大多数厂商在这项技术上都落后了10到15年。Protein Sciences计划明年将FluBlok疫苗的产量提高到120万,不过对于美国总体的流感疫苗需求量来说,这还只是一个很小的比例。The technology has potential to buy that extra time, but it’s still new. For this year’s flu season, GlaxoSmithKline produced about 24 million vaccine doses using the egg-based method, and it is one of five companies producing traditional egg-based flu vaccines in the U.S. In comparison, Protein Sciences released 300,000 FluBlok doses this season.科学家的终极目标是研制一种能够治愈所有流感变种的疫苗。《财富》记者埃里卡o弗莱正在深入研究科学家们将如何在接下来的大约10年内实现这个目标。The industry as a whole is investing in this recombinant technology, including GlaxoSmithKline GSK -0.09% . However, most manufacturers are still about 10 to 15 years behind, said Felberbaum. Protein Sciences plans to scale up to 1.2 million FluBlok doses for the next flu season, though that’s still a small portion of the overall vaccine quantity needed for the U.S.直到现在,全球科学家还在认真准备今年二月的流感峰会,他们希望在会上精确地确定明年的流感变种——这可能会拯救几万人的生命。Ultimately, scientists hope for a universal vaccine — one shot that would cure all influenza strains.Fortune’s Erika Fry delved into how scientists are working toward that end goal, which remains nearly 10 years off.皮克兹表示:“在大多数年份里,我们的匹配工作都做得很好,这也是我们能够获得进展的情形之一,但这项工作需要各方齐心协力,不只是科学家,生产和监管环节也必须及时跟上才行。”(财富中文网)Until then, scientists around the world are working diligently to be prepared for this February’s influenza summit when they hope to accurately pinpoint next season’s strains — potentially saving tens of thousands of lives.译者:朴成奎“In most years, we have a pretty good match,” said Pekosz. “It’s one of those situations where we could improve, but it takes a really concerted effort. It’s not just science, but manufacturing and regulations.”审校:任文科 /201502/359899

Wonderful Friends, a 3-month-long reality show on Hunan TV, came to an end on March 28th. But the debate it aroused is far from dying out.湖南卫视真人秀节目《奇妙的朋友》历时三个月,已于上月28日完结。但是,因之而起的争论却从未停歇。The weekly show features interactions between animals and six celebrities working as zookeepers in Chimelong Safari Park in Guangzhou. The show is a programming success for Hunan TV.这档周播的真人秀节目聚焦动物与人类的交流,邀请了六位明星担当广州长隆野生动物园的(实习)饲养员。节目由湖南卫视制作,可谓大获成功。“People are more interested in TV shows with celebrities than in documentaries,” animal protection expert Deng Xuejian told Netease News. “The program is a good way to get people closer to animals.”动物保护专家邓学建在接受网易新闻采访时表示,“较之纪录片,人们更喜欢看有名人参与的电视真人秀。这档节目有助于人与动物建立更加亲密的关系。”However, animal welfare advocates say that is exactly what should be avoided.但是,动物保护主义者们却认为,这恰恰是应当避免之处。“It is hugely misleading to the public about the needs and welfare of captive animals,” Dave Neale of Animals Asia, an advocacy group based in Hong Kong, said in a statement.戴夫#8226;尼尔来自总部位于香港的亚洲动物基金,他在一则声明中表示:“这档节目严重误导大众,让他们对圈养动物的需求与救助产生误解。”In one scene, celebrities took two baby chimps out and competed to buy the best clothes for them. One of the two chimps suddenly became restless and bit Myolie Wu, one of the star zookeepers.节目中,明星们曾带着两只猩猩幼崽去(游客区)买衣裳,比赛谁买得衣更好。其中一只黑猩猩突然变得焦躁不安,并咬伤了明星饲养员胡杏儿。In another scene a baby chimp was placed near its father to demonstrate that the older animal would treat the infant as a stranger. The baby becomes distressed and the chimp’s father appears anxious and throws a rock at the TV crew.节目的另一幕中,为了明成年黑猩猩会对自己的幼崽置之不理,小猩猩被放在了父亲的身边。小猩猩变得紧张不安,而大猩猩父亲也变得焦躁、并向电视台的工作人员扔石头。The TV company created “stressful and harmful situations” to provoke entertaining storylines, said the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums.世界动物园和水族馆联合会认为,节目方为了制造性的故事情节,将动物置于“有巨大压力和有害的场景”之中。Despite the criticism, Animals Asia founder and CEO Jill Robinson has witnessed a significant rise in the number of Chinese citizens showing concern for animal welfare.尽管遭到批评,但是正如亚洲动物基金创始人兼CEO谢#8226;罗便臣所见,越来越多的中国人开始关心动物保护。“When I first began working in the country from 1985 there was one welfare group in Beijing and now there are over 100 sp across every province,” Robinson said on the website of Animals Asia. “Today, we work with them to give a voice to wild and companion animals and provide a convincing argument as to why they should no longer be exploited as entertainment, ‘medicine’ or food.”她在亚洲动物基金网站上写道,“1985年,我刚来到中国工作时,只有北京一家动物保护组织,而现在全国的动物保护组织已经超过100个,覆盖了全国各省。我们现在与这些组织一道努力,为野生动物及宠物发声,告诉人们为何不应将其作为的对象、‘药材’或是食物。”But a lack of knowledge about animals’ habits and needs may lead to some wrongs.但是,不了解动物的习性与需求,也可能导致一些错误的做法。“Many people may think getting cuddly is an expression of love. What they don’t realize is wild animals need space,” Xie Yan, a zoologist and China director of the US-based Wildlife Conservation Society, told The New York Times. “Putting clothes on chimps is not as adorable as you may think from the animals’ point of view.”解焱是总部位于在纽约的国际野生生物保护学会的动物学家与中国项目主任,他在接受《纽约时报》的采访时说:“很多人觉得爱抚是爱的表达,但他们不知道野生动物更需要空间。人们觉得给猩猩穿上衣很可爱,但是在动物眼中却是另一回事。”Better leave them alone它们会独自生活得更好Teaching chimps to dress could harm their health because it may raise their body temperature and also mentally confuse them.教猩猩穿衣可能会伤害它们的健康,因为穿衣会使其体温升高,同时令其产生困惑。In the world, it’s a common practice to use celebrities to focus public attention on wildlife protection. Yao Ming, for example, traveled to Africa last year to shoot a documentary for WildAid highlighting the problem of elephant and rhinoceros poaching.在野生动物保护中,用名人效应吸引公众注意并不罕见。去年,野生救援推出纪录片《野性的终结》,记录了姚明远赴非洲了解大象和犀牛盗猎的见闻。But in Yao’s case, human observers kept their distance, according to The New York Times.但是,据《纽约时报》报道,在姚明的纪录片中,人类观察者与野生动物是保持距离的。The debate has also gotten young people thinking. “Who doesn’t want to make friends with those cute animals who melt your heart? But after that sentiment, we should put ourselves in their shoes: Is this love what they need?” said Liu Yi, a 19-year-old animal medicine student at Qingdao Agricultural University.这一争论也引起了年轻人的思考。今年19岁的刘祎是青岛农业大学动物医学专业的学生,她说:“谁不想和那些萌到心都化了的动物做朋友?但是在动心之后,我们也应该站在动物的角度想想,这真的是它们需要的爱么?” /201504/368758


文章编辑: 平安大夫
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