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Soap operas and development肥皂剧与发展Good trash肥皂剧也可以有用How television and radio shows can improve behaviour电视和广播怎样改进人们的行为May 5th 2011 | from The Economist print edition In the radio drama “Nau em Taim” (“Now is the time” in Pidgin) aired in Papua New Guinea, a widowed father takes up dynamite fishing—profitable but disastrous for the reef. Then he meets a dashing marine scientist who warns him off. The idea is that by the end of the drama, which debuted in February, both he—and the listeners—will renounce dynamite for sustainable fishing.在巴布亚新几内亚播出的广播剧“Nautica em Taim”(用洋泾浜英语说就是“现在是时候了”)中,一个丧偶的父亲开始从事用炸药的行当——利润可观但对珊瑚危害很大。之后他遇见一位冲劲儿十足的海洋专家,这个人警告他不要再从事这项行业。这部于二月首播的广播剧的主旨就是播到剧尾的时候,这个父亲和听众都将谴责炸药对业可发展性的危害。The show’s producer, the Population Media Center (PMC) in Vermont, has been a pioneer of programmes with the goal of fostering development. But other groups have increasingly followed suit. In Vietnam Khat Vong Song uses radio drama to teach its listeners about domestic violence. In Kenya Mediae promotes civil rights with a television soap called “Makutano Junction”.该广播剧的制作方式佛蒙特州的人口传媒中心(PMC)是通过电视广播节目来促进发展方面的先锋。不过其他机构也在不断效仿。在越南,Khat Vong Song使用广播剧向听众教授家庭暴力方面的知识。肯尼亚的Mediae通过电视剧《Makutano Junction》推广民权。Evidence that radio and television soaps can change behaviour was first spotted in the 1970s. But solid academic research was lacking until a few years ago. In 2008 economists at the Inter-American Development Bank, for instance, found that Brazilians receiving Globo, a television network, had fewer children and got divorced more often. Another study discovered that, as cable television sp, the fertility rate in rural India dropped by as much as if women had received five additional years of education.能明广播剧和电视剧可以改变人们的行为方式的据首次出现在上个世纪70年代。但是直到前几年才有可靠的学术研究出现。比如2008年,在美洲发展的经济学家们发现收看电视网络Globo的巴西人生的孩子较少、离婚更频繁。另一项研究发现,随着有线电视的普及,印度乡村地区的生育率降低的程度相当于妇女再接受五年的额外教育。201105/135522Turbines with one or two blades are actually even more efficient. But because theyrsquo;re also lighter and tend to spin faster, theyrsquo;re also noisier. These designs also require a special tilting hub that acts as a sort of shock absorber, which is expensive. On the other hand, having more than three blades raises other problems. For one thing, the extra material needed to build the blades raises the cost. And the more blades there are, the lighter and thinner they need to be. Relatively thin blades are more flexible, making them prone to bend and break. Three-bladed turbines arenrsquo;t perfect, but they avoid many of these problems. Theyrsquo;re powerful enough without being overly expensive. And theyrsquo;re less noisy than their two bladed cousins.带一个或两个叶片的涡轮机实际上更有效率。但是因为这样重量较轻,旋转速度更快,噪音也就更大。设计还需要一个特殊的作为一种减震器的倾斜轮轴,它很贵。另一方面,如果叶片超过三个也会引发其他问题。一方面,建造更多的叶片需要更多的材料,这提高了成本。而且叶片,叶片就要更轻,更薄。很薄的叶片也更灵活,但容易弯曲和断裂。三个叶片的涡轮机并不完美,但会避免这些问题。他们造价不高,但是功率足够了。而且两个叶片的涡轮机噪音小。164514Making 'green' cheese in Wisconsin By converting cow manure into methane gas, the Crave Brothers have found a "greener" way to power their Wisconsin dairy farmOur 'Making a Difference' report tonight is how Brothers are going green, a little bit at a time, by transforming an American tradition. Here is N’s Roger O’Neil down on the farm in Wisconsin. Making fine Wisconsin cheese drives the economic engine of the Crave Brothers’ farm. But electricity turns the motor of their milk engines. With 6 thousand dollar a month utilities bills, the brothers forward decided to make their own power, from something Charles, the idea brother, knew they had an endless supplier--Manure. I have been dreaming of this for 25 or 30 years, and I set an interest in trying to do things better than what has been done in the past. 5 years ago when the Crave Brothers decided to turn the dairy farm into a cheese factory, more than a few thought they have bitten off more than they could chew. But Brothers say it was a leap of faith then, like now, turning manure into electricity. What looks like a giant crock pot is now converting the cows’ waste into methane gas, which generates enough electricity to power the farm and an extra 120 of their neighbors’ homes. George is the Brothers’ visionary. It takes a little bit of stretch, a little bit imagination. As we milk more cows, we will be able to power a lot more homes, and it will be good for everyone in our community. And what’s left after the manure makes methane gas is a new odor-free potting soil and a new liquid fertilizer the Craves put on their fields. Mark, the baby brother, says utilizing all of the farm waste just make sense. I don’t even look at myself as an active environmentalist. It is what I do. It all pulls together increased productivity, better conservation for the soil and the water.Brothers responsible to each other, their community and the changing the future through innovation. One bowl of Mozzarella at a time. Roger O’Neil, N news, Waterloo, Wisconsin. 01/61255Pentagon Welcomes Pakistani Raids, Calls for Sustained Effort Against Terror Networks美国促巴持续打击恐怖分子大本营  The Pentagon has welcomed Pakistan's raid on alleged terrorist bases in its northwestern region, but says counter-terrorism efforts need to be made on a sustained basis. 美国国防部欢迎巴基斯坦对据称是恐怖分子大本营的西北地区进行突袭,但是同时表示,反恐努力应当具有持续性。Press Secretary Geoff Morrell says neither Pakistan nor India has asked the U.S. military for help in responding to the Mumbai attacks. But at a news conference Tuesday he welcomed Pakistan's raids in its tribal areas, which are reported to have netted the alleged mastermind of the attacks. 美国国防部新闻发言人莫雷尔说,不论是巴基斯坦还是印度,都没有要求美国军方帮助应对孟买袭击事件。在星期二的新闻发布会上,莫雷尔表示欢迎巴基斯坦突袭西北部落地区,据称那里是孟买袭击策划人的老巢。"We see it as a positive step," he said. "I think what all the problems we have emanating from Pakistan, terror-wise, is that this is a problem that needs to be dealt with on a sustained basis, that it can't be done in fits and starts, that there needs to be a constant and vigilant effort to go after the terrorist networks that exist there and throughout the region." 他说:“我们认为这是一个积极的步骤。我认为,我们面临的所有这些来自巴基斯坦的有关恐怖主义的问题,需要持续性努力才能解决,而不是时断时续的努力能解决的问题。需要契而不舍地在全地区追踪当地恐怖主义网络。”Morrell said the ed States is prepared to help both Pakistan and India deal with their terrorism problems, but he would not comment on whether the ed States has asked for any specific action, such as access for its experts to the captured terror suspects.  莫雷尔说,美国随时准备帮助巴基斯坦和印度对付恐怖主义的问题,但是他不愿透露美国是否提出了任何具体要求,例如允许美国专家接触被抓获的恐怖嫌疑人。President-elect Barack Obama has called the terrorist safe havens in northwestern Pakistan the biggest threat to the security of Americans.  美国当选总统奥巴马将恐怖分子在巴基斯坦西北地区的藏身地称为对美国安全的最大威胁。During a speech at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York, President Bush said Pakistan has some of the most dangerous "ungoverned spaces" in the world. He said the ed States wants to help Pakistan and other countries get control of such areas. 布什总统在纽约州西点军校的一次演讲中说,巴基斯坦有世界上最危险的“无人管理的地带”。他说,美国希望帮助巴基斯坦和其他国家把这类地区控制起来。"The Pakistani people and government understand the threat because they have been victims of terror themselves," said Mr. Bush. "They are working to enforce the law and fight terror in the border areas, and our government is providing strong support for these efforts." 布什说:“巴基斯坦人民和政府懂得这种威胁,因为他们本身曾经是恐怖主义的受害者。他们在加强执法,打击边境地区的恐怖分子,美国政府对这些努力提供强有力的持。”U.S. air strikes in Pakistan's tribal areas, which have resulted in a number of civilian casualties, have been sharply criticized by officials and the Pakistani public. But President Bush repeated that while the ed States wants to help partner nations deal with their own terrorism problems, it will do whatever it must to protect its troops just across the border in Afghanistan. 美国在巴基斯坦部落地区进行的空袭造成了一些平民的伤亡,因此遭到巴基斯坦政府和公众的尖锐批评。但是布什总统重申,美国希望在帮助盟国对付他们国内恐怖主义问题的同时,也会尽一切努力来保护边界另一侧驻阿富汗的美国部队。In a column in Tuesday's New York Times newspaper, Pakistan's President Asif Ali Zardari said Pakistanis understand the threat of terrorism because they have repeatedly been the victims of it. He says terrorists have killed nearly 2,000 Pakistanis so far this year alone. He said he is determined to fight terrorist groups in his country, but he also warned Indian officials and ordinary citizens not to use the Mumbai attacks to stir up anti-Pakistan feeling and to push for military action. He said if that happens, the Mumbai terrorists will have accomplished their mission. 纽约时报星期二刊登了巴基斯坦总统扎尔达里的文章。他说,巴基斯坦人了解恐怖主义的威胁,因为他们不断地遭受恐怖主义的袭击。仅今年一年,恐怖主义就已经提夺去了2千多名巴基斯坦人的生命。扎尔达里说,他决心在巴基斯坦和恐怖主义抗击到底,但是他警告印度官员和普通公民不要利用孟买袭击事件挑动反巴基斯坦的情绪,推动军事行动。他说,如果发生这种情况,孟买恐怖分子才真正达到了目的。200812/58530McCain Offers New Economic Plan美总统候选人承诺帮助中产阶级  Republican presidential candidate John McCain has unveiled a new economic plan. 美国共和党总统候选人约翰.麦凯恩公布了一项新的经济计划。Senator John McCain announced a series of steps he would take if elected that are intended to help middle-class Americans cope with the ongoing financial crisis. 参议员麦凯恩宣布了一系列措施,如果他能够当选,他将帮助美国的中产阶级应付目前的财政危机。McCain said he would eliminate taxes on unemployment benefits and would have the government take additional steps to protect against bank failures.  麦凯恩说,他将取消对失业福利的税收,同时政府将采取更多的步骤,以防止倒闭。"On my orders, the Department of the Treasury will guarantee 100 percent of all savings accounts for a period of six months," McCain said. "This will calm the understandable fears of widesp bank failure, while also restoring rational judgment to the choices of the market."  麦凯恩说:“根据我的命令,财政部将在六个月内百分之百地担保所有储蓄账户,这将能够平静对倒闭的普遍担心,同时也能够对市场的选择恢复理性的判断。”Behind in public-opinion polls with three weeks to go until election day, McCain is trying to find ways to address voter concerns about the economy, the number-one issue in the campaign. 由于离美投票还有三个星期的时间,而麦凯恩在民意调查中落后,他正努力寻找办法来解决选民关注的经济问题,这已经成为这次选举的头号议题。In his latest speeches, McCain has backed off from some of the personal attacks aimed at Senator Obama. 麦凯恩在最新讲话中不再对参议员奥巴马进行人身攻击。Instead, McCain recalls his experience as a prisoner of war during the Vietnam War and urges voters to fight for their beliefs.  麦凯恩转而回顾他在越南战争中曾经当过战俘的经历,并敦促选民应该为他们的信仰而奋斗。"I know what fear feels like," McCain said. "It's a thief in the night who robs your strength. I know what hopelessness feels like. It is an enemy who defeats your will. I felt those things once before. I will never let them in again. I'm an American and I choose to fight!"  麦凯恩说:“我知道恐惧的感觉。那种感觉就像窃贼在夜间剥夺了你的力量。我知道无望的感觉,就像你的敌人摧垮了你的意志。我以前曾经有过一次那样的感觉,我永远不会让他们再来。我是一个美国人,我选择战斗!”McCain's focus on the economy came one day after Senator Obama outlined his own plan to help Middle America. 就在麦凯恩把重点放在经济问题上的前一天,参议员奥巴马概述了他自己的帮助美国中产阶级的计划。Obama would also suspend taxes on unemployment benefits and would place a 90-day moratorium on home foreclosures. 奥巴马也将暂停对失业福利征税,并对由于付不出分期贷款而导致房屋被拍卖的家庭实行为期90天的宽限。Obama also said he would provide tax breaks for businesses to create new jobs.  奥巴马还表示,他将提供税收优惠,以鼓励企业创造新的就业机会。"It is a plan that begins with one word that is on everybody's mind, and it's easy to spell. J-O-B-S, jobs! Senator McCain may be worried about losing an election, but I am worried about you losing your jobs," Obama said. "I am worried about you losing your homes. I am worried about you losing your life savings."  奥巴马说:“这是一个计划,这个计划以一个单词开始,并在每一个人的头脑里,这个单词也很容易拼写,那就是J-O-B-S, 就业机会!参议员麦凯恩可能担心在这次总统大选中失败,但我担心的是你会不会失去你的工作。我担心的是你会不会失去你的房屋,我担心的是你会不会失去你一生的积蓄。”Obama took the day off to prepare for the third and final presidential debate on Wednesday. The economy will be the focus of the debate, which will be held at Hofstra University in New York. 奥巴马休假一天,准备第三次也是最后一次总统候选人辩论。美国经济将是这次辩论的重点,辩论将于星期三在美国纽约州的霍夫斯特拉大学举行。The debate may present one of the last opportunities to change the trajectory of the presidential race. 这次辩论可能是改变总统竞选势头的最后机会之一。Recent national polls give Obama a lead of between six and 10 points over McCain. 最新的全国民意调查结果显示奥巴马领先麦凯恩6至10个百分点。In addition, polling by Quinnipiac University in Connecticut shows Obama pulling away from McCain in key battleground states including Colorado, Wisconsin, Minnesota and Michigan.  此外,奎尼匹克大学在康涅狄克所做的民调显示,奥巴马正在赢得双方争夺的关键的州,包括科罗拉多州、威斯康星州、明尼苏达州和密西根州。Polling experts say historically it can be difficult for candidates trailing this late in a presidential campaign to come from behind and win on Election Day.But Gallup pollster Frank Newport told MSN television that Senator McCain could take encouragement from the 1980 election race between President Jimmy Carter, a Democrat, and Republican challenger Ronald Reagan. "Another example, however, is in 1980 when our polling showed Jimmy Carter, the incumbent, ahead by as much as six points just a week or two before the election," Newport said. "Then they had a debate, the dust settled, and Reagan won the popular vote by 10 points." Recent polls also show that voters regard the economy as the top issue in the campaign by a large margin over other topics such as national security, the war in Iraq, and health care.200810/52849

Clintons in tears over Chelsea? You can bet on itChelsea Clinton's hush-hush wedding may as well be classified but one thing is no secret: There will be tears.The only child of former President Bill Clinton and Secretary of State Hillary Clinton will marry longtime boyfriend Marc Mezvinsky this month in a ceremony that has withstood leaks better than many secrets in Washington."You should assume that if he makes it down the aisle in one piece it's a major accomplishment," Hillary Clinton said of her husband in comments to N broadcast Monday from Pakistan."He is going to be so emotional, as am I, but we're both looking forward to it and very happy about it," she said.Local media have reported the wedding will take place on July 31 at an estate in Rhinebeck north of New York City and there is speculation the bride will wear Oscar de la Renta."My lips are sealed," Hillary Clinton said. "I am under very strict orders not to talk about it."Chelsea Clinton, 29, who works at a New York hedge fund, has kept a low profile since her father left the White House in January 2001 but she campaigned for her mother during her unsuccessful run for the 2008 Democratic presidential nomination.Mezvinsky, 31, is an investment banker whose parents, Edward Mezvinsky and Marjorie Margolies-Mezvinsky, are both former Democratic members of the US House of Representatives.The guest list -- rumored by New York media to include around 400 people -- is among the closely guarded secrets. Hillary Clinton has a message for all those Clinton supporters who might be still hoping for an invite: "We love you all but this is her wedding."Vocabulary:hush-hush: highly secret or confidential(秘密的,不公开的)classified: confidential or secret(机密的)down the aisle: 步上红地毯in one piece: entirely undamaged or unharmed(完好地,完整无损)背单词 — 装英语词汇201007/109447

Representatives from more than 190 nations are attending the ed Nations Climate Change Conference in the Mexican resort of Cancun. They're trying to reach accords on a number of issues but are leaving a comprehensive, legally binding agreement for next year. Environmental activists from non-governmental organizations are also in Cancun. They're pushing for action to curb greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to global warming.190多个国家的代表聚集在墨西哥旅游胜地坎昆参加联合国气候变化大会。他们寻求在一系列议题上达成一致,争取在明年签署一项全面的、有法律约束力的条约。来自非政府组织的环保人士也聚集在坎昆,力促采取行动,削减温室气体的排放。他们中的很多人认为,能够拯救地球的时间已所剩不多。地球变暖与人类活动是否造成全球气温上升的问题是联合国气候大会上人们关注的议题。Activists lobby As conference delegates meet elsewhere, author Bill McKibben makes the rounds in the hotel lobbies, talking about the need for action now.在与会代表开会期间,作家比尔.麦克基本在饭店大堂里走来走去,跟人们讨论现在采取行动的必要性。In his best-selling book Eaarth: Making a Life on a Tough New Planet, McKibben argues that an eight-tenths-of-one-percent rise in temperature has aly changed the planet irreversibly and that catastrophe awaits if it goes much higher.麦克基本在他撰写的畅销书《地球》 一书中争辩说,气温上升0.8度就已经无可挽回地改变了地球,如果气温升得更高,等待人类的将是一场重大灾难。"The arctic is melting quickly, Russia caught on fire this summer, Pakistan drowned [in floods], the ocean is 30 percent more acid than it used to be," McKibben said. "We are in tough shape with less than a degree of temperature increase."他说:“北极正在迅速融化,俄罗斯今年夏天遭大火,巴基斯坦被洪水淹没,海洋的酸度比过去提高了30%。我们所处境况不妙,地球气温再上升哪怕不到一度,就会造成灾难。”McKibben says the threat is confirmed, continually, by scientific data, yet world leaders have yet to produce an effective plan to meet the challenge. 麦克基本说,科学家的数据已经不断实这一威胁,可是世界各国领导人却仍然拿不出来一个应对挑战的计划。"The scientific method has worked pretty well. The political method has not worked at all," he added.“科学的方法行之有效,但政治的手段却一事无成。”201012/120088

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