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All right boy,first of all I have to say,what a brave brave human being you are首先我必须得说 你是一个非常非常勇敢的人Thank you.Because for so many reasons and then to be this lightening rod right now that is getting all this attention谢谢 正因为有着那么多的理由 现在你成为了众人的焦点But first of all,its your first time on the show,so thanks for being here.thank you for having me,thank you这是你第一次上我们的节目 谢谢你来参加我们节目 很感谢你让我来到这里 谢谢And I knew you,I knew you in the past as Chastity,a lot of people knew you as Chasity我知道你 在你是Chastity时候就知道你 也有许多人都知道你And I know you have been asked this question before,but just in case for those people havent heard this from you,right我知道之前已经有人问你这个问题了 但有些人对之前的你并不了解 是的When did you know that it was not the right body or you felt different你是什么时候感觉到你的身体让你感到异样You know innately as a child,as far back as I have memory I Knew从我有记忆开始就知道了But When I was kid there was nobody like me on TV我就发现我跟电视里的小孩不一样So I didnt know that anything was possible,I just felt like something was desperately wrong with me我不知道原因是什么 只觉得肯定是我哪里出了大问题and then as I got older,I knew what gay lesbian meant,So I thought that must be what I am慢慢的我长大了 知道有同性恋这种群体时 我就想我肯定是那样的人了and so I tried to fit in there for many many years我花了很多年去融入那个群体and probably at about thirty was when I started to realize this is still not,something is still really off大概在30岁的时候 我意识到问题并没有完全解决Have you met because you are involved with GLAAD,so you had obviously met transgendered people 因为你加入了同性恋反诋毁联盟 显然你会跟变性人接触Did anything like the first time you met people,when you go oh,that is what it is.You know thats not really所以你有没有第一次见到某人 就觉得 哦 我就应该是那样的 实际上并没有 /201610/473843

Flood insurance洪水保险Sea change海平面上升If you have an expensive house near the sea, its time to sell如果你在海边有一栋豪宅,那么现在赶快抛售吧ON DECEMBER 6th the largest storm surge since 1953 hit Britains coasts, flooding 1,400 houses. The fact that only two people died—compared with 326 in the earlier storm—is testament to the tidal barriers built in Britain over the past few decades. Yet the system that created many of those sea defences, and encouraged people to keep living in flood-prone areas, is being abandoned.12月6日,英国沿海地区遭遇自1953年以来最严重的暴风雨,有1400间民居受灾,两人死亡。和1953年死亡326人的情况相比,这场灾难人员伤亡大大减少。原因是,在过去几十年里,英国修建了大量的防波堤。尽管之前政府修建了许多海防工事并鼓励人们住在洪水风险区的,目前这一计划正面临着搁浅的命运。Since the 1960s the government has paid to build flood defences while insisting that insurers cover most properties in flood-prone areas. This arrangement has gradually become a casualty of austerity and climate change. Spending on flood defences fell from629m (2m) to 510m between 2010 and 2012. Simply repairing existing defences would cost 1 billion per year by 2035. New flood defences will be subject to a rigorous cost-benefit analysis, with more land in effect surrendered to the sea. The last agreement with the insurance industry came to an end this July.自从20世纪60年代以来,英国政府就出资修建海防工事,并宣称住在洪水风险区的承包人的保险可覆盖大部分财产。这一政策调整逐渐成为通货紧缩和气候变化的牺牲品。从2010年到2012年,用于海防工事的投资从六亿两千九百万英镑(九亿七千两百万美元)降到了五亿一千万英镑。到2035年,每年仅检修目前的海防工事就要耗资10亿英镑。新的海防工事将纳入严格的成本效益分析,涉及更大范围的沿海地区。今年六月,英国政府与保险业签订的上一个协议落下了帷幕。In place of the old system, the government has proposed shifting the costs of flooding onto homeowners. All households taking out insurance will now pay a 10.50 levy to Flood Re, a not-for-profit fund, to subsidise premiums for 500,000 houses in flood-prone areas.新的保险系统下,政府提出将洪灾的费用加到房主的身上。参与洪水保险的家庭现在要向洪水再次保险(一个非盈利性的基金会)缴纳10.5英镑的税款,以帮助修复那些位于洪水风险区的500,000间房屋。The new scheme is patchy. Whereas the old agreement covered all properties with no worse than a 1-in-75 annual risk of flooding, the new scheme will exclude many. Houses in the top council-tax band and businesses will not be allowed to join the scheme. Houses built since will also not be covered (28,000 were planned to be built on floodplains in 2011 alone). If properties flood too often they will be thrown out of the scheme. MPs in flood-prone places such as Hull are not happy.新的洪水保险计划条款很琐碎。旧保险系统覆盖了1到79项洪灾严重性的情况下所有财产的保险,而新保险系统则删除了很多受灾情况。缴纳最高家庭税的房子和公司不能加入这一保险计划,也不包括建于年后的房子(仅2011年在泛滥平原区就计划修建了28000间房子)。如果涉及洪水的财产太多,政府将搁置这一计划。来自洪水风险区的国会议员,如赫尔,对此非常不满。Worse, Flood Res sums do not yet add up. One government study suggested that the fund has a 58% chance of running out of money in the initial 20 years the scheme is to run for. Some fear that the state may find itself spending some of the money saved by building fewer defences on topping the scheme up.更糟糕的是,还未合计洪水再保险的资金总额。一项政府调查说,该基金有58%的概率已经花完了该计划前20年的资金。有些人担心政府会为了省钱而减少海防工事的修建量,从而堵上该计划的资金漏洞。The housing market seems aly to be pricing in higher risk. Between 2008 and 2012 property prices rose in four out of the five Lincolnshire postcodes with the lowest flood risk. They fell in four out of the five areas of highest risk (see chart). This may have some good effects. Forcing homeowners to shoulder more of the costs of flooding should encourage them to invest in precautions and discourage builders from erecting houses in risky areas. But in the meantime, in low-lying parts of Britain, wellington boots and sandbags may make wiser investments than houses.房地产市场的房价似乎面临着更大的危险。从2008年到2012年,由于少有洪水灾害,林肯郡的房价已经涨了80%。由于日前洪灾的巨大威胁,房价已经降了80%。这可能会起到一些积极的作用。迫使房主承担更多的洪灾风险可促使他们谨慎投资,避免建筑商重建危险地带的房屋。然而,在同一时间,在英国低洼地区,与房地产投资比起来,投资长筒防水靴和沙包是更为明智的选择。译者: 毛慧 译文属译生译世 /201511/408069

Psychology心理学Time is not money时间不等于金钱Thinking about it makes you a better person, not a worse one时间观念只会提升人格,绝无裨益“THE love of money”, St Paul memorably wrote to his protege Timothy, “is the root of all evil.” “All” may be putting it a bit strongly, but dozens of psychological studies have indeed shown that people primed to think about money before an experiment are more likely to lie, cheat and steal during the course of that experiment.圣保尔曾在给其亲信蒂莫西的信中写到“金钱是万恶之源”。或许,“万恶”一词说的过于严重,但无数心理研究表明实验前被灌输金钱观念的人更容易在实验过程中撒谎、作弊并行窃。Another well-known aphorism, ascribed to Benjamin Franklin, is “time is money”. If true, that suggests a syllogism: that the love of time is a root of evil, too. But a paper just published in Psychological Science by Francesca Gino of Harvard and Cassie Mogilner of the University of Pennsylvania suggests precisely the opposite.另一名言—“时间就是金钱”,出自本杰.富兰克林。如果他说的有理,那么就可以推断出:对时间的珍爱也是万恶之源。然而,哈佛商学院的弗兰切斯卡· 吉诺(Francesca Gino)和宾夕法尼亚大学的凯希·莫吉内尔(Cassie Mogilner)教授共同撰写发表在《心理科学》的论文则持有完全相反的结论。Dr Gino and Dr Mogilner asked a group of volunteers to do a series of what appeared to be aptitude tests. As is often the case in such experiments, though, what the volunteers were told, and what the truth was, were rather different things.他俩召集了一些志愿者,参加一系列类似性向测试的实验活动。和其它这类实验一样,这些志愿者被告知的与事实往往是不同的。In the first test they were asked to make, within three minutes, as many coherent sentences as they could out of a set of words they had been presented with. What they were not told was that each of them had been assigned to one of three groups. Some volunteers word sets were seeded with ones associated with money, such as “dollars”, “financing” and “spend”. Some were seeded with words associated with time (eg, “clock”, “hours”, “moment”). And some were seeded with neither. Thus unknowingly primed, the volunteers were y for the second test.第一轮测验要求他们用所给词汇在限定的三分钟内尽可能造出更多连贯的句子。但他们并不知道,所有参与者已被悄悄分为三组。第一组所给词汇主要是金钱类的,如“美元”、“融资”、“消费”等。第二组则与时间相关,如“钟表”、“小时”、“一刻”等。第三组则为中性词汇,完全不同于前两组。就这样毫无知觉地,志愿者们进入了下一轮测试。This was mathematical. They were given a sheet of paper with 20 matrices which each contained 12 numbers, two of which added up to ten (for example, 3.81 and 6.19). They had to write down, on a separate answer sheet, how many of these pairs they could manage to find in five minutes. They were also given a packet of money and told they could reward themselves with a dollar for each pair they discovered.第二场是数字游戏。每人持有一张印有20个数阵的试卷,每个数阵含12个数字,两两相加为10(如3.81和6.19)。要求每人5分钟内在答题纸上写下所能找到的所有相加为10的配对。同时,每人得到一袋硬币,且被告知,若找到一对即可奖励自己一美元。Crucially, they were not asked to show their workings on the answer sheets—and the matrix sheets, on which those workings might have appeared, carried no identifier and were ostentatiously discarded once the test was done. Nevertheless, by hiding an identification code in a sample matrix on the answer sheet, Dr Gino and Dr Mogilner knew which matrix sheet each candidate had been given and thus who had cheated and who had not. They found that 88% of those who had been primed with money-related words in the first test cheated, as did 67% of those given neutral words. Of those primed with time-related words, though, only 42% cheated.关键是,本次测验并未要求考生上交答卷或在试卷上写下姓名等身份信息,尽管试卷上可能会有他们的做题思路,但测试一结束就被狠狠地抛弃了。不过,吉诺教授和莫吉内尔教授其实事先已在答题卷上秘密标好对应试卷的身份代码,因此哪些人作弊、哪些人没作弊,他们是一清二楚的。结果表明,第一次实验中接触金钱相关词汇的志愿者有88%的人作弊,接触中性词汇的志愿者有67%的人作弊,而接触时间相关词汇的只有42%作弊。Nor, despite St Pauls aphorism, was the lure of lucre during the experiment (as opposed to the effect of thinking about it as a result of being primed) necessary as a corrupting influence. A similar trial on different participants showed that presenting the matrix as a test of intelligence also caused those primed with the idea of money to cheat more than those primed with the idea of time—though, intriguingly, that did not apply if the matrix was presented as a test of personality.尽管圣保尔的格言并非毫无道理,但并不一定明就是试验中的利益诱惑才如此广泛地腐蚀了人们纯洁的心灵(该观点反对将实验结果归于事先所灌输的观念)。因为在另一相似的实验中(参与者不同),参与者被告知自己是在做智力测验,最后发现也是同样的结果,即那些有着金钱观念的比时间观念的更易作弊——有趣得是,如果只是视为人格测验,结果却完全不同。This led Dr Gino and Dr Mogilner to suspect that self-reflection played a part in controlling unethical behaviour during the test. They therefore conducted a third test in which, for half the volunteers, there was a mirror in the cubicle they were sitting in when doing the experiment.针对以上测试结果,吉诺教授和莫吉内尔教授怀疑测试中的非道德行为是受自我反省控制的。为此,他们又设计了第三场试验,其中半数人在测验过程中眼前是搁有镜子的。Volunteers primed to think about money cheated 39% of the time when a mirror was present but 67% when it was not. Those primed to think about time cheated 32% of the time in the presence of the mirror and 36% in its absence—results that are statistically indistinguishable.被灌输金钱思想的一组,当现场设有镜子时,参与者在39%的测试过程中出现作弊行为,而没有镜子时,则为67%。相同条件下,被灌输时间观念的一组,分别为32%和36%,该组前后结果基本没什么变化。Finally, a fourth experiment asked primed volunteers to fill in a questionnaire before tackling the matrix. In among “filler” questions intended to disguise what was happening this asked them to rate how they felt about self-reflective statements like, “Right now, I am thinking about who I am as a person.”最后第四场实验要求每位已有不同思想输入的参与者在解决数阵前先完成一份问卷。问卷上设有掩饰之前不光行为的“补充性”问题,调查他们在看到自我反思表述语句时的想法与感受,如“此时此刻,我在思考着作为人,自己究竟是谁。”。As in the previous tests, those primed with money words cheated more often than those primed with neutral words and far more often than those primed with time words. But whether someone cheated was also related to how strongly he felt about the self-reflective statements presented to him in the questionnaire.之前的实验结果显示,被输入金钱类词汇的参与者作弊倾向最高,被输入中心词汇的其次,而被输入时间类词汇的作弊倾向为最小。但是,最后一次实验明,参与者是否作弊也受其在看到问卷上自我反思陈述时的内心感受所影响。It seems, then, that thinking about time has the opposite effect on people from thinking about money. It makes them more honest than normal, rather than less so. Moreover, the more reflective they are, the more honest they become. There must be an aphorism in that.由此,我们似乎可以得出这样一个结论,时间观念与金钱观念对人们所产生的影响是截然不同的。时间观念带给个人诚信的只会是正能量,绝非负能量。而且,一个人越懂得反躬自省,那么他就越诚实。我想,对此必定也有那么一句格言的吧。译者:徐珍 校对者:毛慧 译文属译生译世 /201512/415246


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