乌鲁木齐县去鼻唇沟多少钱城市面诊

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 乌鲁木齐县去鼻唇沟多少钱康泰社区
Books and Arts; Book Review;The end of the Soviet Union; Walking dead;文艺;书评;前苏联的末途;行尸走肉;The Last Man in Russia: The Struggle to Save a Dying Nation.By Oliver Bullough.《俄罗斯最后一人:拯救行将灭亡之国》,奥利佛·布洛。Stagnation, writes Oliver Bullough in his haunting account of the late Soviet Union, is not sexy. Biographies of Stalin and Mikhail Gorbachev abound, but nobody has written seriously about Leonid Brezhnev, on whose watch the Soviet Union sank into drunken decay. The author of a definitive book about the tortured history of the north Caucasus (“Let our Fame be Great”), Mr Bullough has a good sense of how the traumas of Russias past affect its present. His new book is a mixture of travelogue and biography, as he traces the life of Father Dmitry Dudko, an Orthodox priest who exemplified both resistance to Soviet rule and defeat at its hands.奥利弗·布洛写过一本描述前苏联晚年的著作,阅读之后令人过目难忘,不过其中“停滞部分”却让人不愿直视。关于斯大林和戈尔巴乔夫的传记汗牛充栋,勃列日涅夫却鲜有人问津,即便他眼睁睁地看着前苏联陷入混沌恍惚的泥潭。关于叙述北高加索伤痕累累历史的著作,布洛的《让我们名声大噪》无疑是最好的一本,也就是说,对于俄罗斯过去的创伤如何影响当今时代——布洛的嗅觉像一样灵敏。布洛的这本新书集游记和传记于一体,主线以东正教传教士德米特里·杜德科神父的一生为轴。德米特里·杜德科神父代表了一类人,首先反对苏联制度,之后却臣于它。The Orthodox hierarchy in the post-war Soviet Union was tainted by collaboration with the KGB. For those repelled by the sterility and corruption of the official ideology, religion was part of the axis of resistance. So the authorities kept the lid on, and religious practice beyond the liturgy was risky.由于同克格勃合作,二战后的前苏联东正教教义算是蒙上了一层不堪的色。所有厌恶政府思想体系下不作为和腐败的角色中,宗教处在抗争的洪流中心。所以,政府当局一直在雪藏宗教,而宗教习俗也不再局限于礼拜仪式,开始走向危险的边缘。Father Dmitry, whose post-war theological studies had been interrupted by eight years in the gulag, was a striking exception. He preached passionately and lucidly. He fostered discussion and roused his flock against the degradation, despair, abortions, alcoholism and promiscuity of Soviet life. He resolutely opposed anti-Semitism. Jews were “sacred friends”, he said. In the early 1970s his sermons became a sensation, published in the West and in samizdat in the Soviet Union. The Communist authorities objected. He defied them. They exiled him to a distant village. His flock followed him there. The authorities moved him again. And on it went.德米特里·杜德科神父战后研究宗教学,期间由于羁押在古拉格(关押叛国罪罪犯的苦役监狱)而中断八年。他可以说是人尽皆知的异数。德米特里·杜德科神父传教富有、条理清晰,并且鼓励集思广益,号召教徒反对国家的倒退,抗击前苏联令人绝望生活中的病症,比如堕胎、酗酒和滥交。毋庸置疑,他是坚决反对反犹太主义的。用他的话说,犹太人是“神圣的朋友”。上世纪70年代,他所著的长篇训诫引起不小的轰动,西方国家和前苏联地下都有出版,当然共产党当局是明令禁止的。德米特里·杜德科神父同他们抗争,政府将他流放到了边远农村。教徒们继而一路追随。政府又转移他的流放地,教徒继续跟随。最后就是“政府藏,教徒追”。He began to see the Soviet system as the source of his countrys ills. In 1977 he told the New York Times of the “diabolic storm” that had broken on his country. “Our nation has become corrupted, the family has fallen apart, the nation has got drunk, traitors have betrayed each other.” That was true. But by the late 1970s detente was ending. Fame in the West was no protection. Even a lone independent-minded priest was an existential—and intolerable—threat for the brittle Soviet leadership. The fledgling dissident movement was systematically crushed—by imprisonment, exile, coercive psychiatry or ferocious pressure on family members.德米特里·杜德科神父开始认识到前苏联大的系统正是国家症结所在。1977年,他向“纽约时报”讲道,说“罪恶的风暴”搅得这个国家天翻地覆。“我们的国家腐败透顶,家庭离破碎,我们的国家此时就像一个醉汉,卖国贼之间互相叛变。”他没说错。不过,70年代后期国际紧张关系不再处在缓和状态,西方国家不再顾及名声。在脆弱不堪的前苏联领导层面看来,甚至一个单独具有独立思想的神父也成了实实在在并且不能再坐视不管的威胁。异见运动还没孵化就遭到有计划的打击——监禁、流放、强加精神病罪名亦或异见者家人承受着不堪重负的压力。In January 1980 Father Dmitry was arrested. His friends prayed; the West protested. But he emerged six months later, a changed man: a zealous, repentant patriot who, in a sensational television broadcast, admitted to working with foreign powers against the Soviet state. Worse, he denounced his friends and helpers.1980年1月,德米特里·杜德科神父遭逮捕。他的朋友开始祈祷,西方国家表示抗议。不过在六个月之后,德米特里·杜德科神父不再是之前德米特里·杜德科神父:“洗心革面”之后的他成了一位热忱的爱国志士。他在电视广播中的表态令人震惊:承认与外国势力里勾外连,以反对前苏联政府。更不堪的是,他还揭发了自己的朋友和战友。It was a huge propaganda coup for the regime. He showed no signs of torture, drugs or exhaustion. One of his followers wrote an open letter accusing the KGB of the “murder of my spiritual father”.对于政权而言,大篇幅的宣传获得了意想不到的成功。在他身上,人们看不出一丝拷打或者下了迷魂药的迹象,而他也不显一丝疲态。德米特里·杜德科神父的一位追随者发表了一封公开信,谴责克格勃“谋杀了自己的灵魂长者”。Mr Bullough explains the mystifying conversion. The KGB played on his fears of renewed imprisonment and separation from his family. A skilful interrogator, Vladimir Sorokin found and enlarged the “chink” in his victims soul: patriotism. Surely no true, law-abiding Russian could side with the enemies of his country?布洛在书中解释了这一令人匪夷所思的转变。克格勃利用了德米特里·杜德科神父恐惧二进宫的心理以及害怕同家人再度分开的心情。弗拉基米尔·索罗金深谙审讯之道,他在手中这位受害者的灵魂之中察觉到了一个致命的软肋,并且将其放大:爱国主义。但是,真就没有一个真正并且守法的俄国人会站在国家敌人这一边了吗?Later Father Dmitry was filled with remorse. But it was too late. Dogged by loneliness and guilt, and unable to resurrect his crusade for trust, hope and faith, he descended into the fetid swamps of Russian nationalism, wallowing in the paranoid anti-Semitism he had once eschewed. The brave, happy and confident man of the 1960s and 1970s became a miserable racist, a campaigner for hatred and nihilism.之后,虽然德米特里·杜德科神父心理满是悔恨,但是为时已晚。孤独和罪恶感陪着他走完余生,其间他一直苦于不能重塑自己当年“为信任、希望和信念而战斗的形象”。他深陷散发着“俄罗斯式爱国主义”恶臭的泥潭之中,沉浸在多疑好猜忌的反犹太主义之中,即使这是他曾经一度反对的。60年代勇敢、自信、快乐的德米特里·杜德科神父死了,70年代的德米特里·杜德科神父变成一个卑鄙无耻的种族主义分子,一个满脑子仇恨、虚无缥缈的沿街叫骂的人。Mr Bullough largely succeeds in using this sad tale as a metaphor for the fate of the Soviet Union. He weaves the woes of past decades into his journeys to wretched villages, along with the lies and greed in the metropolis. Father Dmitry may be all but forgotten in modern Russia, but his old self would have plenty to say about it.布洛以这则悲情故事来充当前苏联命运的影子,新书也因此获得了巨大的成功。在过去的几十年里,他游历了一些贫穷困苦村庄,他把其中所体验的悲伤编入书中,当然还有大都市的谎言和欲望。德米特里·杜德科神父或许已经消逝在现代俄罗斯人民的生活里,但是60年代的神父依然对现代俄罗斯影响深刻。 /201306/244713

A camel can travel hundreds of miles, over several days, without stopping to drink.骆驼可以行走数百英里,并在几天之内也不用喝水。On todays Moment of Science, well learn how camels survive the dry desert.在今天的科学一刻中,我们将会学习骆驼是怎样在干燥的沙漠中生存的。Lets start with the hump.我们先从驼峰说起,Contrary to what you might have heard, camels do not store extrawater here.和你所听说的不一样的是,骆驼并没有储存多余的水在这里。The hump stores fat, providing energy for their long, desert trek.驼峰积聚着脂肪,为它们长距离的沙漠旅行提供能量。This fat, however,can help keep a camel from getting thirsty.然而就是这些脂肪,可以帮助骆驼止渴。As the fat is burned, water is produced as one of thebyproducts.水就是这些脂肪燃烧所产生的副产物之一。This extra water enters the camels bloodstream to add to its water supply.这些额外的水进入骆驼的血液,增加其水分的供应。Camels conserve water by not sweating as much as we do.骆驼不像我们那样出汗,这样也可以储存水分。A camels metabolism lowers at night,making its body temperature much lower than a humans.骆驼的新陈代谢到晚上就会降低,让它的体温低于人类。Because we sweat to cool ourselves off,starting with a lower body temperature means less need to sweat.出汗可以冷却我们自己,因此如果体温较低的话,对汗水的需求也会比较少。Camels are also covered withheavy fur which keeps the daytime heat out.骆驼同样覆盖着厚重的皮毛,这些皮毛可以防止白天的热量进入体内。Because its so good at keeping its cool, a camel cantravel a long way without sweating very much.正因为骆驼如此擅长保持其身体的冷却,所以它可以走很长时间,却不会流很多汗。Camels are also good at maintaining their blood volume.骆驼同样也很擅长保持它们的血容量。Once we humans lose about twelvepercent of our bodys water, our blood becomes too thick to work properly.我们人类一旦流失了身体百分之十二的水分,血液就会变得太浓稠以至于不能正常工作。A camels blood,however, stays more or less consistent, allowing the camel to lose up to twenty-five percent of itsweight by dehydration.可是骆驼的血液,总是可以坚持到让其脱水到其重量的百分之二十五。Another thing that helps a camel conserve water is its nasal passages.另一个有助于骆驼储存水的东西就是鼻腔。When we exhale, we loosea lot of water vapor, as any fogged up car window will prove.当我们呼气的时候,我们会流失许多水蒸汽,被雾气模糊的车窗可以明这一点。Camels have extra dry nasalpassages which actually recondense the water out of each breath, allowing much less to escape.骆驼有额外的干燥鼻腔,可以凝聚每次呼吸的水分,让水分的蒸发的变少。As you can see, there is no single explanation for a camels desert survival abilities.就如你所见,没有关于骆驼沙漠生存能力的单一解释。Instead, a cameldraws on a whole range of adaptations.相反地,骆驼有一系列的适应能力。 /201408/323661America and the Middle East美国和中东Back to Iraq重返伊拉克By combining military force with political brinkmanship, America is making some headway通过对地缘政治和军事力量的结合,美国正取得一些进展AMERICAS last two presidents have got things wrong in Iraq in opposite ways. George W. Bush went into the country in 2003 guns blazing, with 148,000 soldiers and too little thought of how to stabilise it after Saddam Hussein had been defeated. The consequences were disastrous.美国最近两任总统在处理伊拉克问题上都错误的走向了两个极端。2003年乔治·W·布什带着148000名士兵对这个国家进行军事打击,却没有考虑在萨达姆被击败后如何来稳定它。其后果是灾难性的。Barack Obama took a different approach. Americans, he reckoned, were not capable of bringing peace to this complex, violent and distant place. He allowed the troops mandate in the country to run out with insufficient attention to what might follow, and then applied the same logic in Syria where he did little to support moderate opponents of Bashar Assad. His policy aided the rise of the Islamic State (IS), a Sunni terrorist group, that has taken territory in Syria and Iraq.奥巴马采取了不同的方式。他觉得美国人没法给这个复杂、暴力和遥远的地方带来和平。他允许结束部队在该国的任务,却没考虑到这一做会带来些什么,然后在对待叙利亚问题上用了相同的逻辑,在那里他没怎么持巴沙尔·阿萨德温和的反对者。他的这一政策促使了伊斯兰国(IS)的的兴起,而这一逊尼派恐怖组织已在叙利亚和伊拉克占领了领土。Now the prospect of a caliphate run by extremists bent on attacking the West has persuaded a reluctant Mr Obama that he cannot walk away from the Mesopotamian mess, and he is trying a new tack—combining modest military force with hard-nosed political brinkmanship. Given conditions in the region, the chances of success are limited. But they are better than those offered by any other approach.现在,由于极端分子掌控的哈里发可能会执意要攻击西方世界,这使得即使不情愿也没发从美索不达米亚的混乱中脱身,而他正在尝试一种新的手段—把适度的武力和强硬的地缘政治政策相结合。鉴于该地区的情况,很难取得成功。但它们是比其他任何的方式都好一些。A risky bet冒险一搏When on August 8th jets from an aircraft-carrier in the Gulf bombed IS and halted its advance, critics argued that Mr Obama was doing too little, too late. America had sat by for two months and watched IS conquer parts of northern Iraq. A humanitarian disaster followed: thousands of Yazidis, members of a Kurdish-speaking sect, fled into the mountains to escape the jihadists. IS tried to take Erbil, the capital of the Iraqi Kurds, threatening their peaceful, prosperous enclave.当8月8日海湾的航空母舰上的飞机轰炸对IS进行轰炸时,批评者认为,奥巴马做得太少且太迟了。两个月来,美国坐视IS占领了伊拉克北部部分地区。人道主义灾难接踵而至:成千上万名为雅兹迪人的库尔德语教派的成员纷纷逃入深山以躲避圣战者。IS试图夺取伊拉克库尔德人的首府埃尔比勒,并威胁它们和平繁荣的土地。Certainly, more will need to be done to root out the extremists. But Mr Obama deserves credit for learning from past mistakes. He is the fourth American president in succession to bomb Iraq. In order to break that sequence, it is not enough just to unleash another round of shock and awe. The jihadists would only regroup. A politically stable Iraq is needed, run by a government that is broad-based and popular.当然,要想铲除极端分子还有很多事情要做。但事值得表扬的是奥巴马从过去的错误中学到了东西。他是连续第四位对伊拉克进行军事打击的总统。为了打破这种惯例,仅仅释放新一轮的震慑是不足够的。圣战主义者只会重新联合。这时迫切需要一个由具有广泛基础和受欢迎的政府管理下的稳定的伊拉克。The one headed for the past eight years by Nuri al-Maliki, a member of the Shia majority, was nothing of the kind. It alienated Kurds and excluded Sunnis, who make up a quarter of the population. Some Sunnis came to support the extremists of IS, seeing them—often reluctantly—as the only defence against a brutal security apparatus. An all-out American attack on IS risks being seen as a sectarian move.那个在过去八年里以多数什叶派的成员努里·马利基为首的政府就完全不属于这一类。它疏远库尔德人并把逊尼人排除在外,而他们占了总人口的四分之一。一些逊尼派开始持IS极端分子,通常是不情愿地把他们看作是对抗残暴的政府安全机构的唯一屏障。美国对IS的全力攻击可能会被视为宗派行为。Mr Obamas gamble has been to withhold all but minimal military support in order to force political change in Baghdad. That strategy has come at a cost. IS has consolidated its hold on Iraqs second-biggest city, Mosul, and captured a dam that supplies much of the country with water. It is well-armed and self-financing. But political change appears now to be under way in Baghdad. Mr Maliki may with luck be replaced as prime minister by Haider al-Abadi, a more inclusive figure. The Americans alone did not usher Mr Maliki out. He made enemies among Iraqis, including in his own party. Iran also fell out with him. Even so, pressure from Mr Obama helped see him on his way.奥巴马的冒险在于仅以极少的军事持来迫使在巴格达的政治变革。这一策略的执行已经付出了代价。IS已经巩固其对伊拉克第二大城市苏尔的掌控,并夺取了给该国大部分地区供水的大坝。它装备精良,并自给资金。但政治变革现在看来正在巴格达进行。马利基可能会幸运的被更具包容性的人物海德尔·阿巴迪取代作为总理。美国人单独并没有送出马利基。他在包括他自己的政党在内的伊拉克人中到处树敌。伊朗也与他闹翻了。即便如此,来自奥巴马的压力也有助于了他的离去。Mr Maliki has been an awful prime minister. If Mr Abadi, also a Shia, appoints a cabinet that includes senior Sunnis in prominent positions, as seems likely, he will reduce popular support for the extremists, which should help persuade Sunni rebels to switch sides. That would pave the way for concerted military action by the Iraqi government to regain territory lost to the extremists. With America acting as its air force, it should be possible to push back IS. The extremists numbers are limited and their equipment still no match for the West.马利基一直是一个糟糕的总理。如果同为什叶派的阿巴迪先生任命包括显要地位的高级逊尼派人在内的一个内阁,他将减少民众对极端分子的持,而这将有助于说逊尼派反叛者转换立场。这将为由伊拉克政府的军事行动铺平道路,这一行动是为了从极端分子那夺回领地。借助美军的空中力量,它应该有可能打退IS。极端分子的人数有限,而他们的装备仍然根本不是西方的对手。There are dangers here: if American bombing caused many civilian casualties, the extremists would have more chance of portraying themselves as protectors of Sunnis against a hostile Shia-led government and its infidel allies. American soldiers will still be in harms way. Even in the age of satellite-guided bombs, precise strikes depend on the presence of special forces to identify targets. But a plausible path to forcing the jihadists out of Iraq would open up.危险隐患在于:如果美国轰炸造成许多平民伤亡,极端分子将会有更多的机会将自己塑造成是对抗敌对的什叶派主导的政府及其异教徒盟友的逊尼派的保护者。美国士兵仍然面临伤亡。即使是在卫星制导炸弹的时代,精确打击仍依靠特种部队的存在以确定目标。但是将开启一条把圣战者驱逐出伊拉克道路。The trickier question for Mr Obama is what to do if Iraq lives down to expectations, and fails to get a better prime minister or a more inclusive government. The jihadists ambitions to establish an Islamic caliphate cannot be tolerated. But an all-out assault may bolster Sunni support for IS and risk the disintegration of Iraq. The Kurds live in a more-or-less defined territory: it is possible to imagine the formation of an independent Kurdish state. Sunnis and Shias do not. A break-up of the country could lead to bloodshed on an unprecedented scale. The capital is shared by the sects, as are surrounding areas. America may then be reduced to conducting occasional punitive missions to keep IS contained.对于奥巴马来说更棘手的问题是如果伊拉克不能如期得到一个更好的总理或更具包容性的政府那该怎么做。伊斯兰圣战者建立一个伊斯兰哈里发政权的雄心是不能被容忍的。而全力以赴的攻击可能会加强逊尼派对IS的持并有招致伊拉克瓦解的风险。库尔德人生活在一片多少有些防御的领土:可以想像一个独立的库尔德国家的形成。国家的破裂可能导致前所未有的规模的流血冲突。首都如同周边区域一样是由各教派占有的。那样美国为遏制IS而进行的偶尔的惩罚性任务将会受到削减。And once again Syria再来看看叙利亚In all events, Western leaders must prepare the public for a lengthy military engagement in this part of the world. Even if confronted by Americas full military might, the extremists could melt back into the population of Mosul, a city of 2m people where they have had a strong underground presence for years. They could also slip back across the nearby border with Syria, where they have a safe haven in swathes of land they have seized during the civil war. From there they would probably continue to foster instability in Iraq.不管发生什么事件,西方领导者必须让公众接受在这一地区将会有长期的军事介入。即使面临美国的全部军事力量,极端分子也可以融回苏尔的人群中,他们多年来在苏尔这个有200万人口的城市中有着强大的地下存在。他们还可以穿越附近挨着叙利亚的边境溜回,在那里有他们在内战期间夺取的大片的安全避风港。而这将可能会继续加剧伊拉克的不稳定性。That raises an uncomfortable truth for Mr Obama. His judgment is that the jihadists can be properly dealt with only by creating long-term stability in Iraq. A similar situation exists in Syria. Yet the president has long resisted intervening there, and been backed in this by a war-weary American public and Congress as well as international lawyers. Still, in the long run America is unlikely to be able to destroy or even contain militant jihadism without involving itself in Syria.对于奥巴马这引发了一个令人不安的事实。他认为圣战分子的问题只能通过在伊拉克创立长期的稳定才能得以妥善处理。在叙利亚的情况也是如此。然而,总统一直拒绝介入,并且不论是美国民众或是国会以及国际律师都持这一做法。不过,从长远来看,除非美国自身介入叙利亚,否则它不太可能能够摧毁或是遏制住激进的圣战主义。Mr Obamas new approach in Iraq seems to be working. But more decisive action against the jihadists will be needed. The Americans are back on the ground, and they will be there for a while.奥巴马处理伊拉克问题的新方法似乎是有用的。但是需要采取更为果断的行动来对抗圣战者。美国大兵又回来了,并且短时间内是不会走了。 /201408/323062

Science and technology科学技术Arthritis and botulinum toxin关节炎与肉毒杆菌毒素Something to celebrate值得庆贺Botulinum toxin may help relieve chronic pain肉毒杆菌毒素也许能够帮助缓解慢性疾病的痛苦An inflammatory problem炎症的痛楚ARTHRITIS is the bane of millions of lives.关节炎是数百万人的噩梦。Though it comes in many forms, their common theme is inflammation of the tissues around a joint in the skeleton.关节炎有多种形式,但它们共同的特征是关节处组织的炎症反应。Treatment is merely palliative: anti-inflammatory drugs, painkillers or both.对此的治疗手段往往是治标不治本:消炎药,止痛药,或者两者同时用。But a piece of research published this week in Biochemistry, by Edwin Chapman of the University of Wisconsin and his colleagues, offers arthritis sufferers hope from a strange quarter: botulinum toxin.但是由威斯康辛大学埃德文·查普曼士以及他的同事们在本周生物化学杂志上的发表的一项研究,为关节炎患者提供了希望:肉毒杆菌毒素。This toxin is one of the most dangerous substances on earth.这种毒素是地球上最危险的物质之一,It is made by a bacterium called Clostridium botulinum.它是由一种叫肉毒杆菌的细菌合成。Even a small amount is enough to kill a healthy adult.仅仅很小的量就足以杀死一个健康成年人。The toxin molecules attach themselves to a protein called synaptotagmin, which is found on the surface membranes of nerve cells at their junctions with muscle cells.这种毒素能结合到一种叫做synaptotagmin的蛋白上,SYT则位于神经肌肉接头处神经细胞的细胞膜表面。Thence they are ingested into the cell, where they disable another protein, SNAP-25, the role of which is to help release a chemical messenger called acetylcholine.然后这种毒素被吞入细胞内部,进而让另外一个叫SNAP-25的蛋白失活,SNAP-25的作用是帮助一种叫乙酰胆碱的化学信使的释放。This messenger’s job is to tell muscle cells to contract. Without that signal, muscles stops working. If this happens all over the body, death is rapid.这种化学信使的作用则是让肌肉细胞进行收缩。没有这种信号的话,肌肉便停止工作了。如果全身都发生这样的情况,死亡便接踵而来。Inject the toxin locally, though, and you can do some good.然而局部注射肉毒素还能带来好处。It wipes away frown lines and other wrinkles, which are caused by overstimulated muscles,它能抚平额头和其他部位的皱纹,这些皱纹恰恰是因为肌肉被过度刺激引起的。thus allowing ageing celebs to appear on the covers of gossip magazines without embarrassment.它使得那些上了年纪的名流们毫无尴尬的出现在街头杂志的封面。More seriously, it is used to treat disorders ranging from headaches to muscle spasms.它更为严肃的用途是治疗各种生理紊乱,包括从头痛到肌肉痉挛。It only works, however, in cells that have synaptotagmin on their surfaces.然而,它仅仅能在那些表面具有SYT蛋白的细胞中起作用,Which is where Dr Chapman comes in.这正是查普曼士的切入点。Inflammation is also caused by chemical signalling.炎症反应同样是由化学信号引起的。Cells called macrophages summon all sorts of others to an injury, to try to repair it.巨噬细胞召集其他免疫细胞到达受伤处,并试图修复伤害。If repair cannot be effected, though, the signalling never stops.但如果修复不起作用,则这些信号就不会停止。The swelling causes pain, and the patient suffers.肿痛造成痛苦,而病人只能忍受。But macrophage signalling also involves SNAP-25, so Dr Chapman thinks he can use botulinum toxin to shut the cells up.但是巨噬细胞的信号通路中也包括SNAP-25,因此查普曼士想,他能够用肉毒素来关闭这些免疫细胞。The problem is that macrophages have no synaptotagmin on their surfaces.问题在于,巨噬细胞的表面并没有SYT蛋白,They do, though, have other proteins, called Fc receptors.他们表面有的是另外一种被称为Fc受体的蛋白。What is needed is a way to get toxin molecules to attach themselves to Fc receptors.现在只需要找到一个办法,让肉毒素结合到Fc受体上去,And this is what Dr Chapman thinks he has managed.而查普曼士认为,他办到了这一点。His trick is to link each molecule to an antibody.他的绝招是将每个分子与抗体连接起来。An antibody is a protein that binds to a hostile invading organism.抗体是一种能结合入侵有机体的分子,If this does not kill the invader outright, then it acts as a flag for the bug in question to be eaten by a macrophage.如果抗体不能马上杀死入侵者,则它将作为入侵者的一个标记,使得它们有可能被巨噬细胞所吞噬,That happens when the antibody that is attached to the invader also attaches itself to an Fc-receptor molecule.这个过程只有当结合在入侵者上的抗体同时也能和Fc受体分子结合时才会发生,This done, the invader is ingested.而这个步骤一完成,则入侵者就被吞噬了。Dr Chapman’s plan was to use this mechanism to get macrophages to eat toxin molecules.查普曼士的计划是,利用这个机制,让巨噬细胞把肉毒素吞进去,Once inside, they would disable SNAP-25 and thus stop the release of signalling molecules in the way they do in nerve cells.而进入细胞之后,它就能使SNAP-25失去活性,从而像在神经细胞中一样,阻止信号分子的释放。The result, the theory goes, would be an end to the chronic inflammation that arthritis causes, and thus to the chronic pain.如果这个理论可行,那么由关节炎所导致的慢性炎症将被终结,同时被终结的,还有长期以来的痛苦。The first stage works.第一步看起来是可行的。The toxin/antibody complex successfully gloms onto the macrophages.肉毒素与抗体的复合物成功地黏附上巨噬细胞,The toxin does get inside them.肉毒素确实进入了巨噬细胞内部,And the cells do stop signalling.这些细胞也的确中止了信号通路。It is a long way from there to a treatment,从这一步到治疗仍有很长的路要走,but Dr Chapman has made the trick work in mice as well as Petri dishes.但是查普曼士已经用这个方法在培养皿的细胞中和在老鼠身上获得了成功。Many more animal trials will be needed before it can be tested on people.在人体上进行测试前,还需要完成更多的动物实验,But for those who suffer the chronic pain of arthritis, it is a hopeful start.但是对于那些正在长期忍受关节炎痛苦的人们来说,这是一个充满希望的开始。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201306/245355Science and technology科学技术Invasive species入侵物种Boom and bust繁衍与湮灭Invasive Argentine ants may be less persistent than once feared入侵性阿根廷蚂蚁可能没有想象的那么可怕Ready for take-off随时准备离开DESPITE their name, Argentine ants are a well-travelled lot.如果不顾它们的恶名,阿根廷蚂蚁可以说是很好的旅行家。Human commerce has allowed them to hitch rides from their homeland to every continent on the planet, with the exception of Antarctica.人类的商业活动将它们带到了世界各大洲,南极洲除外。And when they arrive, they often thrive.并且当它们到达时,它们就会繁衍。At least 15 countries now host colonies, which frequently prosper at the expense of native species.目前,至少15个国家受到外来物种的入侵,这种入侵是以牺牲本土物种为代价的。This flexibility, combined with an aggressive temperament, makes them one of the worlds best-known and most-hated invasive species.这种侵略性及适应性使得它们成为世界上最著名同时也是最令人深恶痛绝的入侵物种。Yet, as any general knows, establishing a beachhead is not the same thing as conducting a successful, long-term occupation.但是,众所周知,建立一个滩头阵地不同于成功地进行一次长期占领。Argentine-ant colonies sometimes collapse suddenly, and with no obvious explanation.阿根廷蚂蚁的入侵有时突然毫无缘由地停止。In a paper just published in Biology Letters, a group of researchers at Victoria University of Wellington, in New Zealand,在最近发表在《生物书简》上的一篇文章中,新西兰惠灵顿维多利亚大学的一组研究人员,led by Meghan Cooling and Phil Lester,由梅根?库灵和菲尔?莱斯特领导,describe their attempts to study such disappearances systematically.描述了他们对这种系统性消失的研究。The researchers examined 150 sites across the country where Argentine-ant nests had been recorded.研究者们考察了全国范围内150个已经被记录下来的阿根廷蚂蚁据点。At 40% of them they found that the ants had vanished.他们发现其中的40%已经消失,At many of the other sites, ant numbers were much reduced,而在其他的据点,蚂蚁数量减少,with areas that once sported dozens of nests over hundreds of hectares reduced to just one or two colonies covering much smaller tracts of land.原来几百公顷的面积上有几十个蚁巢,而现在一片小面积土地上只有一两个聚居群。And with the invaders gone, native ants seemed to be re-establishing themselves,随着侵略者离开,本土蚂蚁似乎在重建自己的种群,suggesting that the Argentine ants impact on biodiversity had been transient, rather than permanent.这表明阿根廷蚂蚁对生物多样性的影响只是暂时的。A statistical analysis of the data yielded an estimate for the likely survival time of a typical colony of between 12.9 and 15.3 years,数据统计分析估测了一个典型的聚居群可能的生存时间。and suggested that warm and dry conditions were more favourable for survival than cold, wet ones.该分析也表明,比起寒冷潮湿的条件,温暖干燥的环境更有利于生存。Exactly what caused the collapses is still not clear, although the researchers suspect that unfamiliar diseases may have played a role.尽管研究者们怀疑不熟悉的疾病可能起到了一定作用,但导致阿根廷蚂蚁消失的确切原因尚不清楚。y is not strength团结不是力量It is a plausible theory.这种理论可信。Because they grew from a small number of founder colonies,因为它们是从很小的群体发展起来的,or possibly even a single one,New Zealands Argentine ants are genetically similar to one another.新西兰的阿根廷蚂蚁之间的基因非常相似。That may be one reason for their success: ant researchers hypothesise that, being so closely related,这也许是它们成功的原因之一:蚂蚁研究者假定,the individual insects are unable to distinguish their nest mates from members of other colonies,关系紧密的个体昆虫不能够把同巢穴的同伴同其它聚居区的成员区分开来,which causes ants from different nests to co-operate as if they were kin,这导致来自不同巢穴的蚂蚁就像亲戚一样相互合作。and has led students of the field to speak not of hundreds of individual infestations, but of a single, country-spanning super-colony.这使得这一领域的学者不再谈及成百的个体侵扰,而是谈及单一的、跨越全国的超级群体。But a shallow gene pool can be a weakness, too.但是,一个浅薄的基因库也可能是一个弱点。If one nest proves susceptible to some environmental factor,如果一个巢穴容易受到某些环境因素的影响,be it disease, predation, or even a cold snap or wet spell,不管是疾病、掠食,亦或是寒流、潮湿期,then it is likely that all the other colonies will share that vulnerability.那么极可能其他的聚居群也有着同样的弱点。Now that they have documented the extent of the collapse the next step,库灵表示,他们现在已经记载了蚁群消失的范围,says Ms Cooling, is to test the hypothesis of genetic vulnerability and try to work out precisely what causes the sudden reversals of formicine fortune she has seen.下一步是验基因脆弱性这一假设,并努力找出导致蚁群突然转变的确切原因。And it is not just ecologists who will be waiting for the results.而等待这一结果的不止是生态学家。New Zealands government had reckoned it might have to spend NZm a year keeping the newcomers under control.新西兰政府估计,每年可能会花掉NZm用于控制新物种的入侵。If Mother Nature can do the job instead, then it would represent a tidy saving for the countrys exchequer.如果自然母亲能够完成这项工作,那将会为国库省下一大笔资金。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201306/244905

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