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2020年01月21日 03:01:02来源:挂号爱问

  • SAN FRANCISCO — Apple’s 13 years of continuous quarterly growth have finally ended. 旧金山——苹果公司持续13年的每季度增长终于走到了尽头。 The technology giant said on Tuesday that revenue for its second fiscal quarter, which ended in March, fell 13 percent to .6 billion as sales of its flagship product, the iPhone, fell, with little else to take its place. Net income fell 22 percent to .5 billion, or .90 a share. 周二,这家科技巨头表示,截止今年3月份的第二财季,随着其旗舰产品iPhone销量下滑,又没什么其他产品顶上,公司营收下跌13%,至506亿美元。净利润下挫22%,至105亿美元,合每股1.90美元。 The results fell short of Wall Street expectations and Apple’s shares were down more than 7 percent in early after-hours trading. 由于季度业绩不及华尔街预期,苹果股价在盘后交易早期下跌逾7%。 Apple may be reaching the saturation point among potential customers in some countries, and other smartphone makers using Google’s Android operating system continue to challenge the company with powerful, lower-price devices. China, Apple’s second-largest market after the ed States, is experiencing an economic slowdown and recently shut down Apple’s e-book and digital movie services in the country. 在一些国家的潜在用户中,苹果可能到达了饱和点。同时,采用谷歌Android操作系统的其他智能手机生产商,持续用性能强大、价格更低的设备对它发起挑战。中国是仅次于美国的苹果第二大市场,但它正在经历经济增长放缓,最近还关停了那里的苹果电子书和数字电影务。 Sales fell faster in China than in any other region, down 26 percent compared to the previous year. And sales in the Americas were down 10 percent. Over all, Apple sold 16 percent fewer iPhones in the quarter compared to the same quarter last year. 在中国的销售同比下降26%,幅度大于其他任何地区。在美洲的销售下滑了10%。总体而言,苹果本季度比去年同期少售出16%的iPhone。 Apple has high hopes for some of its consumer-oriented services, such as Apple Music and iCloud, as well as for its nascent Watch accessory, but those have yet to turn into giant businesses. The iPad tablet, once a powerful revenue generator for the company, has had disappointing sales in recent years, despite new, larger professional versions. 对于Apple Music和iCloud等面向消费者的务,以及新推出的Watch配件,苹果寄予了厚望,但这些业务尚未真正壮大。IPad平板曾经是一个强劲的收入来源,但尽管推出了新的、大屏的专业型号,近几年来它的销量仍令人失望。 Nevertheless, Apple still generates tens of billions of dollars of cash every year. And the company said Tuesday that it would pass along more of that money to its shareholders. Apple said it would raise its quarterly dividend 10 percent to 57 cents a share and increase the amount of stock it buys back to 5 billion. 虽说如此,苹果每年的入账仍然以百亿美元计。公司周二表示,它将更多地把这些钱发放给股东。苹果宣布把季度股息从每股10美分提高到57美分,并把股票回购金额增加到1750亿美元。 Apple’s service business was one bright spot in the quarter, with revenue up 20 percent. The company ended the quarter with 3 billion in cash and marketable securities. 苹果的务部门是本季度的一大亮点,部门营收增长20%。苹果在季度末拥有2330亿美元的现金和有价券。 “When we look at the dynamics of the iPhone business, we feel very good,” Luca Maestri, Apple’s chief financial officer, said in a phone interview. Although unit sales were down 16 percent, “we continue to draw millions of people that are buying their first smartphone to iPhone.” “从iPhone的业务发展细节来看,我们感觉上佳,”苹果公司的首席财务官卢卡·马埃斯特里(Luca Maestri)在接受电话采访时说。尽管销售下降了16%,“仍然有无数人在购买第一部智能手机时选择了iPhone。” Mr. Maestri acknowledged weakness in greater China, but he said the strong dollar played a big role there. In Hong Kong, whose currency is pegged to the dollar, sales fell sharply, but in mainland China, revenue was down only 11 percent. 马埃斯特里承认苹果在大中华区表现疲软,但他表示,美元走强在其中发挥了很大作用。港元与美元挂钩,苹果在香港的销售出现了大幅下挫,而在中国大陆,营收仅下滑了11%。 Analysts had expected Apple to report revenue of billion and net income of billion, or a share, according to consensus estimates compiled by Samp;P Global Market Intelligence. 标准普尔全球市场情报(Samp;P Global Market Intelligence)的资料显示,分析师曾一致预期苹果的季度营收为520亿美元,净收入110亿美元,合每股2美元。 In last year’s second fiscal quarter, Apple reported net income of .6 billion, or .33 a share, on revenue of billion. 在去年第二财季,苹果公司录得营收580亿美元,净收入136亿美元,合每股2.33美元。 Denny Fish, a portfolio manager at the Janus Global Technology Fund, said Tuesday that the fund sold some of its position in Apple during the first quarter, citing the company’s growth challenges and worries about its position in China. 骏利环球科技基金(Janus Global Technology Fund)的投资组合经理丹尼·菲什(Denny Fish)周二表示,该基金在第一季度出售了一些苹果仓位,原因是它的增长面临着挑战,它在中国的状况也令人担忧。 Its newest smartphone, the four-inch iPhone SE, went on sale in late March, too late to affect the most recent quarterly results, but analysts hope to get more insight into how it is selling. Apple, which is based in Cupertino, Calif., is also expected to introduce other iPhones this year, which could give sales a fresh jolt. 苹果最新款的智能手机是4英寸的iPhone SE。它在3月下旬上市销售,还来不及对最近的季度业绩产生影响,但分析师们希望能更深入地了解它的销售状况。苹果公司总部设在加州库比蒂诺,预计年内将推出其他iPhone型号,可能会给销售增添新的动力。 The company was expected to provide more details of the impact on sales of its well-publicized battle with the federal government over unlocking encrypted iPhones. Apple argued that it was fighting for customer privacy and security, while the Justice Department contended that the company’s refusal to help was a “brand marketing strategy.” 在之前发生的加密iPhone解锁事件中,苹果与美国联邦政府之间进行了广为人知的对抗。预计公司将提供更多细节,展示此事为对其销售的影响。苹果认为,拒绝为政府提供帮助是在捍卫用户的隐私和安全,而司法部称,这是一种“品牌营销策略”。 /201604/439939。
  • Globalisation has helped lift millions of people in the developing world out of poverty and showered cheap goods on western consumers. 全球化帮助发展中国家数以百万计的人脱离贫困,并让西方消费者有大量廉价商品可以选择。Yet at the ballot box it is also blamed by those very same people for increasing inequality and squeezing living standards.然而在投票箱前,人们却指责全球化加剧不平等,挤压生活水平。Pro-globalisation politicians are facing a noisy backlash in Europe and the US as populists demand greater protection for those who feel the system has been rigged. 在欧洲和美国,持全球化的政治人士正面临强烈反弹,民粹主义者要求加大保护那些觉得体制纵的人士。In their view, globalisation is an innocent fraud, to use John Kenneth Galbraith’s phrase.在他们看来,用约翰.肯尼思.加尔布雷斯(John Kenneth Galbraith)的话来说,全球化是一种无罪欺诈。The US economist argued in his 2004 book of that name that societies were often sustained by handy fictions, such as the idea that companies were run for the benefit of shareholders rather than managers. 这位美国经济学家曾在他2004年的同名著作中辩称,社会经常受到一些方便假想的撑,例如认为企业的经营是为了股东利益,而非管理者。Politics, money and intellectual fashion create their own version of the truth, irrespective of reality. 政治、金融和学术潮流创造了各自版本的真理,而不管现实如何。No one is especially at fault; what is convenient to believe is greatly preferred, Galbraith wrote.加尔布雷斯写道:没有人特别有错;人们就是喜欢那些方便相信的事情。There is a risk that technological disruption may come to be seen as the second great innocent fraud of our times. 风险在于,技术突变可能被视为我们这个时代第二个巨大的无罪欺诈。It is hard to dispute that promising new technologies — like globalisation — can bring enormous benefits. 颇有希望的新技术(与全球化一样)能够带来巨大好处,这点很难质疑。Energy, transport and healthcare are just three sectors that are likely to be transformed for the better in the next few years.能源、交通和医疗是很可能会在未来几年向好的方向转型的其中3个行业。But these new technologies will also threaten many established industries, markets and jobs. 但是,此类新技术还会威胁很多成熟行业、市场和就业。As with globalisation, the digital revolution will bring generalised gain but cause localised pain.与全球化一样,数字革命将带来普遍好处,但也会造成局部痛苦。Many new technologies have unintended, and often adverse, consequences — or bite back. 很多新技术产生了意想不到而且往往不利的后果,即反咬。For example, the combustion engine revolutionised transport. 例如,内燃机让交通实现了革命。But it also did terrible damage to the environment. 但它也对环境造成了严重损害。Asbestos was once hailed as a miracle material. 石棉一度被吹嘘为一种神奇的材料。But in the past 20 years we have spent billions stripping it from buildings. 但过去20年,我们花费了数十亿美元将其从建筑中拆除。The potential bite back from the latest crop of new technologies, such as gene editing and artificial intelligence, is terrifying. 最新这批技术(例如基因编辑和人工智能)的潜在反咬令人害怕。As Stephen Hawking, the British scientist, said last week, the creation of powerful artificial intelligence will be either the best, or the worst, thing ever to happen to humanity.正如英国科学家斯蒂芬.霍金(Stephen Hawking)最近所说的,强大人工智能的出现将是对人类要么最好要么最坏的事情。How can we ensure good outcomes? Here are three ideas. 我们怎么能确保良好的结果呢?这里有三个构想。First, the private sector has to embrace the public sector, appreciating that they have common aims. 首先,私营部门必须拥抱公共部门,认识到大家有着共同的目标。As Galbraith wrote, the interdependence of the two sectors is often so great as to render distinctions between them almost meaningless.正如加尔布雷斯所写的,这两个部门的相互依赖往往非常密切,以至于区分它们几乎没有意义。Insurgent West Coast tech firms have a near messianic belief that they are bettering the lot of humanity and do not need adult supervision. 敢想敢干的西海岸科技公司有着一种近乎救世主的信念:他们在为全人类的福祉作出贡献,不需要成人监护。Their chief demand to government is: clear out of the way. 它们向政府提出的主要要求是:别挡道。They are increasingly vocal in pushing such views, having become one of the biggest lobbying forces in Washington.他们在形成华盛顿最大的游说势力之一后,正日益强势地推动这些观念。In a conversation in Wired magazine, President Barack Obama argued that the adoption of new technologies was too important to be left to private companies. 在与《连线》(Wired)杂志的对话中,美国总统巴拉克.奥巴马(Barack Obama)辩称,新技术的采用非常重要,不能留给私营企业。But he warned confidence in collective action had been chipped away, partly because of ideology and rhetoric. 但他警告称,对集体行动的信心已受损,部分原因是意识形态和花言巧语。If we want the values of a diverse community represented in these breakthrough technologies, then government funding has to be a part of it, he said.他表示:如果我们希望多元化社会的价值观在这些突破性技术中得到体现,那么政府资金不得不成为其中的一部分。Second, the public sector needs to retool itself to understand and meet the challenges posed by new technologies. 其次,公共部门需要调整自己,理解并迎接新技术所带来的挑战。Many of the regulatory functions of government, introduced in the US in the early 20th century, were designed to protect the consumer from predatory monopolists and financial cartels.美国在20世纪初引入的很多政府监管职能,是为了保护消费者不受掠夺性垄断者和金融卡特尔的损害。But government institutions today need to protect us as citizens as much as consumers. 但现在的政府体制需要保护我们作为公民以及消费者的双重利益。The frontline of regulation concerns issues of privacy, security, data use, employment rights and freedom of expression. 监管第一线涉及隐私、安全、数据使用、就业权利和言论自由等问题。We need reinvigorated public institutions to help guarantee that new technologies are used in benign ways. 我们需要公共机构重振雄风,帮助保良性利用新技术。We also need enforced legal protections to ensure that government itself does not abuse these technologies.我们还需要施行法律保护,确保政府自己不滥用这些技术。Third, we may need to rewrite the implicit social contracts that govern our democracies, redefining what goods and services our governments provide. 第三,我们可能需要重写治理我们民主社会的隐性社会契约,重新定义政府提供的商品和务。Economic historian Joel Mokyr argues that the present wave of technological change could create so much social turmoil that we may need to fundamentally rethink our political systems. 经济历史学家乔尔.莫克伊尔(Joel Mokyr)辩称,当前的技术变革浪潮可能会造成巨大社会动荡,以至于我们可能需要从根本上反思我们的政治体制。He suggests the necessary transformation could be on a par with the creation of the German welfare state in the 19th century or the New Deal of the 1930s.他认为,必要的转型可能堪比19世纪德国福利国家的创建或者上世纪30年代的美国新政(New Deal)。Change on that scale could do with input from the brilliant minds of the tech sector. 这种规模的变革需要科技行业优秀人才的集思广益。As Wired, guest-edited by Mr Obama, put it: Ask not what government can do for Silicon Valley; ask what Silicon Valley can do for the government.正如奥巴马担任嘉宾主编的那一期《连线》杂志所言:不要问政府能为硅谷做什么;要问硅谷能为政府做什么。 /201611/475324。
  • What happens when the wave of encryption rippling through the personal technology world washes up against the realities of the data economy? 当个人科技产品世界掀起的加密浪潮拍上数字化经济的现实时,会发生什么情况? Most of the recent debate over the sp of encryption has centred on the implications for personal privacy and national security. Less has been said about business: in particular, what a greater use of encryption will mean for the usability of tech products and services, and for the business models that rely on capturing and extracting value from data. 近期围绕普及加密技术的讨论,主要集中在加密之于个人隐私及国家安全的意义,较少涉及其在商业方面的影响。特别是,加密技术的广泛使用对科技产品及务的可用性、以及依赖于从数据中挖掘价值的商业模式来说意味着什么? This week, it was WhatsApp’s turn to push encryption deeper into everyday life, with the news that conversations between its 1bn users will be scrambled. WhatsApp, the Facebook-owned messaging app, has aly run into problems in Brazil for not storing messages demanded by a court. Now, it will not be able to “” real-time communications either. 这回轮到WhatsApp让加密技术更深入人们的日常生活——上周,有报道称,其10亿用户之间的对话内容将被加密。Facebook的这款通讯应用软件此前已在巴西惹上麻烦,原因是其未按法院要求存储信息。现在,它也将无法“读取”实时对话了。 When the makers of mass-market products and services make a show of taking steps such as this to protect their users, it can shift expectations. Although Apple’s legal fight with the US government over an encrypted iPhone belonging to one of the San Bernardino killers ended inconclusively, it sent a clear message about the lengths the company would go to to protect its users. 当大众市场产品及务的提供商故意表现出要采取此类措施保护用户的姿态时,这可能会改变人们的期望。尽管苹果(Apple)与美国政府的法律之争——围绕圣贝纳迪诺击案凶手一部加密iPhone——已无果而终,但这明确传达出了苹果不遗余力保护用户的态度。 At least at the device level, encryption is quickly becoming the norm. Amazon’s reversal last month over its latest Fire operating system proved the point. News that the software no longer encrypts data as a matter of course brought an instant outcry from privacy activists — forcing the company to backtrack hastily with a promise to restore the capability in a future update. 至少在设备层面上,加密正在迅速成为行业惯例。上个月,亚马逊(Amazon)围绕其最新Fire操作系统的态度大转变便明了这一点。有关该软件不再把数据加密作为理所当然的义务的新闻一经报道,立刻引起了隐私维权人士的强烈抗议——迫使该公司匆忙转变态度,承诺在未来的更新版本中重新恢复加密技术。 After delays, Google has also moved to default encryption in the most recent release of Android, its mobile operating system. Not that many of the world’s Android users will see the benefit in the short term: five months after the software’s release, only 2.6 per cent of Android phones are running the latest operating system, according to the company. 在数次推迟后,谷歌(Google)也在最新发布的手机操作系统Android中默认采用加密功能。并非很多Android用户都会在短期内看到加密的好处:根据谷歌的数据,在该版本发布5个月后,只有2.6%的Android手机运行了最新版本的操作系统。 But this is only one side of the story. Few people would want to lock all their data into a single gadget. Besides the risk of loss, it would be to turn back the clock on one of the main benefits of cloud computing: accessing personal information from different devices. The San Bernardino terrorists also used Apple’s iCloud, even if the last time they backed up data from an iPhone was some seven weeks before last year’s shootings. 但是,这只是故事的一方面而已。没有多少人想把所有的信息都锁在一台设备中。除了丢失的风险,这还相当于让时光倒流到没有云计算的时代——利用云技术,用户可以在不同设备上访问个人信息。贝纳迪诺击案中的恐怖分子也用苹果iCloud,虽然他们最后一次对iPhone数据进行备份是在击案发生前7周左右。 Data in iCloud are encrypted — but, crucially, Apple has the keys, making it possible for courts to order it to hand over information. As a result, since its fight with the FBI, Apple has also been looking at how to put encrypted iCloud data beyond its own reach. 存储在iCloud的数据也是经过加密的——但是,关键是苹果掌握着iCloud的钥匙,所以法院可以命令苹果交出信息。因此,自从与美国联邦调查局(FBI)抗争之后,苹果也在寻找将iCloud加密数据脱离自己掌控的办法。 There are good reasons, though, to think this drive towards strong encryption will reach a natural limit. Putting cloud-based data beyond the reach of the companies hosting it would limit its value. At the most basic level, it would mean users would not be able to recover their personal information if they forgot their passwords. 不过,我们有理由认为,这股朝着“强加密”发展的趋势将自然而然达到一个极限。让云数据脱离科技公司掌控的做法会限制数据的价值。最简单来说,这意味着一旦用户忘记了密码,他们将无法找回个人信息。 Making information unable would also make it harder to tailor many online services. Personalisation is the great hope for a world awash with too much data. Shaping digital experiences relies on being able to analyse a user’s personal and behavioural information. 使数据不可读也会令企业难以定制在线务。在充斥着太多数据的世界,个性化被寄予了很大希望。打造数字化体验,依赖于分析用户的个人数据和行为信息。 There are also powerful economic motivations for limiting encryption. As Harvard University’s Berkman Center said in a recent report , the advertising businesses of companies such as Google and Facebook rely on being able to target adverts based on what they know about their users. 还有强大的经济动因撑着对加密技术加以限制。正如哈佛大学(Harvard University)伯克曼中心(Berkman Center)在最近一份报告中所说的那样,谷歌(Google)和Facebook等公司的广告业务依赖于根据他们对用户的了解来针对性地投放广告。 Many new types of data are also valued for their ability to be processed. For instance, the “internet of things” is founded on the idea of being able to collect, collate and analyse vast amounts of information thrown off by myriad smart objects. Besides sensors, many of these devices will have cameras and microphones: they will, in effect, be watching and listening. 很多新型数据也因为可以被加工而受到重视。例如,“物联网”是基于对众多智能设备释放的大量数据进行收集、整理和分析的理念而建立。除传感器外,很多智能设备将配有摄像头和麦克风:实际上,它们将拥有看和听的功能。 It is no wonder that many in the tech industry reject the idea that the sp of encryption will make life harder for law enforcement, and instead argue that a “golden age of surveillance” is at hand. 难怪很多科技行业人士否认普及加密技术会加大执法难度,相反他们认为“监控的黄金时代”即将到来。 That is hardly a phrase guaranteed to instil confidence in their customers. But privacy concerns often take a back seat when new digital services bring greater convenience to users’ lives. A battle over encryption is set to rage in the coming years, but its impact on the broader data economy should not be overstated. 这不是一个会给他们的用户带来信心的说法。但是,当新的数字化务为用户的生活带来更多便利时,对隐私的担忧往往会靠边站。未来数年,加密之战注定会越演越烈,但是不应该夸大这对数字化经济的影响。 /201604/436869。
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