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2019年08月23日 02:27:33|来源:国际在线|编辑:飞度云活动
In his youth, Chou Wen-chung, the 91-year-old subject of a Composer Portrait at the Columbia University Miller Theater on Thursday, had many strict teachers. One was Edgard Varèse, the temperamental French-born Modernist and godfather of electronic music, who once showed his displeasure by throwing a score of Mr. Chou’s on the floor and ordering him to urinate on it. Then there was Bohuslav Martinu, the Czech symphonist, who reacted to a fugue Mr. Chou had written using Chinese melodic material with a single, withering, “Why?”星期四,91岁的作曲家周文中将成为哥伦比亚大学米勒剧场“作曲家的画像”演出的主题。他年轻时有过很多位严师,其中一位便是埃德加·瓦雷兹(Edgard Varèse),这位喜怒无常的法国现代主义作曲家和电子音乐教父发火时曾把周的乐谱扔在地上,让他自己往上面小便。后来周又师从捷克交响乐作曲家波赫斯拉夫·马尔蒂努(Bohuslav Martinu),周用中国传统旋律写了一首赋格曲,马尔蒂努的反应简单而令人难堪:“为什么?”But the sternest teacher of all was war, which swept over Mr. Chou’s native China in 1937, and which, over the next eight years, forced him to flee from one town to the next and often brought him face to face with death. In Shanghai, he practiced Bach and Mozart on the violin to the sound of artillery fire. Later, he trained his hearing as a university student in Guilin, where he learned to identify the flight path of Japanese warplanes by their sound. During a recent interview in his West Village townhouse, Mr. Chou recounted many harrowing war stories.但是最严厉的老师还要算是1937年席卷中国的战争,它持续了八年之久,周被迫背井离乡,到处迁徙,常常面对死亡。在上海,他在炮火声中用小提琴演奏巴赫和莫扎特。后来他在桂林上大学,听力有了长足进步,可以凭声音就听出日本军用机的飞行路径。最近周在西村的家中接受了访谈,详细回忆了很多悲惨的战争故事。“This is the kind of thing we don’t want to experience,” he said after describing a traumatic escape from Guilin in 1944, moments before Japanese forces entered the city. “But if you do experience it, use that. We have to learn from life.”“这是我们不想去经历的事情,”他描述了1944年赶在日军入城之前逃离桂林的惨痛经历,之后说,“但如果你经历过,就得利用它。我们得从生命中学习。”As Mr. Chou spoke, Varèse frowned down at him from an oil portrait that hung above his desk. In fact, it is in Varèse’s former house where Mr. Chou (his name is pronounced Joe Wen-joong) now lives with his wife, the pianist Yi-an Chang. Its rooms are filled with Chinese antiques and samples of Mr. Chou’s own elegant calligraphy art; a collection of instruments from around the world, including a wall of hanging gongs; and small treasures that once belonged to Varèse. As such, the house is a physical expression of Mr. Chou’s lifelong pursuit of a union of Chinese culture, rooted in serious scholarship, and the architectural rigors of Western music.周说,瓦雷兹的油画肖像就挂在自己的书桌上方,蹙着眉头凝视着他。事实上,周现在同妻子、钢琴家张易安所住的房子原本就属于瓦雷兹。房间里到处都是中国古玩和周自己写的优美书法;还有从世界各地收集的乐器,有一整面墙都挂着锣;还有曾经属于瓦雷兹的小件珍宝。周致力于将基于严肃学术的中国文化与有着建筑般严谨的西方文化融为一体,这栋房子就是他毕生追求的实体化。“I never regarded myself as a Chinese composer,” Mr. Chou said. “I regard myself as a 20th-century composer. I have to reflect my time: That is my responsibility.”“我从来不把自己视为中国作曲家,”周说,“我把自己视为20世纪的作曲家。我必须反映自己的时代:这是我的责任。”Even so, there is a strong Chinese inflection in much of Mr. Chou’s music, even in works for purely Western instruments, like the gorgeous, brooding “The Willows Are New,” for solo piano, or in his elegant string quartets, which at times imitate the sounds of a Chinese zither or that of the bowed two-string erhu. On Thursday night’s program, the Brentano Quartet will perform his String Quartet No. 2 (“Streams”) in a program that also features the New York New Music Ensemble and Talujon. He has also written works for Chinese and Korean instruments, and for a broad spectrum of percussion instruments.尽管如此,周文中的音乐里还是有着强烈的中国调子,就连在只使用西方乐器的曲子中也是如此,譬如美妙而富于沉思气质的钢琴独奏曲《柳色新》;他那些华丽的弦乐四重奏中,不时会模仿一下中国古筝或二胡的声音。星期四晚上的演出中,布兰塔诺四重奏组(Brentano Quartet)将演出他的弦乐四重奏2号(流水),该演出中还有纽约新音乐乐团和塔鲁琼乐团(Talujon)。周还为中国和韩国乐器,以及广泛的一系列打击乐器创作作品。As a child, Mr. Chou was exposed to many different styles of Chinese music, even as he was ing translations of European fairy tales his father took home from his travels. As a toddler, he stumbled on an impromptu party in his home’s servants’ quarters.孩提时代,周便接触了各种不同风格的中国音乐,就连在读父亲从旅途带回家来的中译欧洲童话故事时也要听音乐。学步时,他曾经蹒跚着走入家中佣人临时举行的聚会。“I opened the door, and there was a strong smell of cheap Chinese wine, and they were singing and playing,” he said. “I thought, ‘That is real life.’ From then on, I associated music with pleasure and enjoyment.”“我打开门,闻到一股刺鼻的廉价白酒气味,他们在唱歌,弹琴,”他说。“我想,‘这就是真正的生活。’后来我就一直把音乐同快乐与享受联系在一起。”But Mr. Chou also remembers watching first-rate musicians play for pennies in the streets, because the breakdown of the old social order had all but wiped out traditional patronage of the arts. Preserving and, where necessary, restoring knowledge of those arts — among them classical poetry and calligraphy — would become a vital concern of his after he moved to the ed States in 1949.但是周也记得自己曾经目睹一流音乐家在街头卖艺的情形,旧的社会秩序崩溃了,艺术几乎失去了所有传统的资助。1949年他迁来美国后,最关心的事情就是保存关于这些艺术的知识,如有必要,还需要修复它们。At Columbia University, where he began teaching in 1964, he gave informal seminars on Chinese philosophy and aesthetics to the ever-growing numbers of Chinese composition students. The best known of these are Tan Dun (who, among other distinctions, won an Oscar for his score to the 2000 film “Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon”); Bright Sheng, recipient of a MacArthur Fellowship in 2001; and Zhou Long, who won the Pulitzer Prize for music in 2011.1964年,他开始在哥伦比亚大学任教,为愈来愈多学习作曲的中国学生举办非正式的中国哲学与美学讲座。其中最著名的学生包括谭盾(他曾获得多项荣誉,更因2000年为电影《卧虎藏龙》配乐而获得奥斯卡奖),以及2001年麦克阿瑟奖学金的获得者盛宗亮和2011年获得普利策音乐奖的周龙。In a phone interview, Mr. Sheng recalled feeling intimidated by Mr. Chou. Coming out of Mao’s Cultural Revolution of the 1960s, he said he and his peers had had little training in the Chinese arts that Mr. Chou insisted they be familiar with.在电话采访中,盛宗亮回忆自己对周文中的敬畏之情。盛经历了20世纪60年代毛泽东的“文化大革命”,他说自己和同学们对中国传统文化知之甚少,而周文中坚持让他们熟悉中国文化。“We would have weekly dinner seminars at his home, or sometimes in a restaurant, where he would discuss these philosophical ideas,” Mr. Sheng said, noting that topics might cover the I Ching’s system of divination and its application to music; percussion rhythms of Chinese opera; or calligraphy and the art of capturing the illusion of motion on paper. “In the beginning, we went out of respect and the lure of food, but in the end, he made a deep impression.”“我们每周都在他的家里举行晚餐会,有时是在饭馆,他会讨论这些哲学思想,”盛说,这些话题包括易经的预言体系与它在音乐中的应用;中国戏曲的打击乐节奏;乃至书法和写意画艺术。“一开始,我们去他家是出于尊重,也是被食物吸引,但是到最后,他给我们留下了深刻印象。”As founder and director of the U.S.-China Arts Exchange at Columbia, Mr. Chou also poured substantial energies — at the expense of his own composing — into bridging the cultural divide between East and West. On that subject, he said, his optimism is waning.周文中是哥伦比亚中美艺术交流中心的创立者和主任,他投入大量精力,不惜牺牲自己的作曲时间,致力于建立东西方文化交流的桥梁。但他说,自己在这个领域的乐观精神在逐渐减退。“I’m very worried about Europe,” he said. “It is very, very late for Europeans to still not be paying attention to non-European cultures.”“我非常担心欧洲,”他说,“欧洲人再不关注非欧洲文化就太晚了。”Then again, Mr. Chou knows the value of patience. Varèse’s verdict that Mr. Chou’s music was fit for toilet paper would not be his last word on the subject. The two worked very closely together for years.但是周文中依然深知保持耐心的重要。瓦雷兹曾经预言周的音乐只适合印在厕纸上,但这并没有成为他的最终结论。后来两人曾经密切合作多年。In 1996, Mr. Chou completed “Clouds,” a landmark work for string quartet that possesses a profoundly autumnal beauty. It represents the fruit of half a century spent studying what Mr. Chou called one of his prime musical influences: clouds. It’s also a testament to the silent encouragement of perhaps his most gentle teacher: his father.1996年,周谱写了《浮云》,这是一部有着重大影响的弦乐四重奏,描绘了深邃的秋日之美。周文中说,“云”是对自己的音乐有重要影响的东西之一,这部作品标志着他半个世纪以来对“云”的研究成果;也明了父亲曾给予他的无言的鼓励,父亲或许是他最温和的一位教师了。He recalled a day in Nanjing when he came home early from middle school. “I went to the garden and lay down in the grass,” he said. “The weather was going to change, and you could see the cloud formations move. I was fascinated. All of a sudden, a shadow came over me, and it was my father: ‘What are you doing? Why are you not studying?’ I could tell from his face he was furious. I had to tell him the truth: ‘I am attracted by the clouds. I want to see how they move.’ ”他回忆,在南京的一天,自己早早从中学放学回来。“我来到花园,躺在草坪上,”他说。“要变天了,你可以看到云的结构发生变化。我被迷住了。突然,一个影子笼罩在我身上,那正是父亲:‘你在干什么,怎么不学习?’他的脸色显然是在生气。我只好告诉他实话:‘我看云看得入迷。我想看它们是怎么移动的。’”Mr. Chou said his father then walked away without saying another word. “He knew I was discovering something, and he did not want to interfere with me. He let me think it out.”周文中说,父亲一句话也没说就走开了。“他知道我发现了什么东西,他不想打搅我,他让我自己去思考。” /201410/337038In order to prove the harmful effect of alcohol,the teacher put a bug into a glass filled with alcohol, soon the bug died.The teacher asked a student, ;What does this show?;The student answered, ;It shows that people won#39;t get parasites if they drink more alcohol.;为了明酒精对生物的危害,老师把一只虫子放入装有酒精的杯子里,虫子很快就死了。老师问一个学生:“这说明了什么?”学生答道:“说明人多喝酒,就不会长虫子。”

When Lucy Garland first told her parents she wanted try out wrestling, they didn#39;t think she was serious.当露西·加兰告诉父母她想试试学摔跤的时候,他们没想过她是认真的。But now the petite blonde, at only 5ft 5ins tall, takes on men in the ring who are more than twice her age and size.而现在,这个身高约165厘米的娇小的金发女郎,可以在摔跤擂台上与那些年龄和身型都比自己大一倍的男人对抗。The 17-year-old started training just one year ago but has aly progressed to a competitive level.这位17岁的小摔跤手一年之前刚刚开始训练,然而如今,她已经达到竞赛级别的水准了。With her long blonde curly hair, small frame and studying art and costume design at Btec level, Lucy is not your typical wrestler.她有着长长的金色鬈发,娇小的身型,在高职教育机构学习艺术与装设计——露西显然不是人们心目中传统的摔跤手形象。She says that people are always shocked to hear about her double life in the fighting ring.她说,当人们听说自己在摔跤场上的第二重生活时,总是显得惊讶不已。#39;People are always quite surprised when I tell them I#39;m a wrestler,#39; she says.#39;My parents didn#39;t think I would stick at it as I was the only girl at the club, but now they are very supportive and really proud.#39;“当我告诉人们我是一个摔跤手,人们总是会惊讶不已。”她说。“我是俱乐部里唯一的女生,我的父母起初并不相信我能坚持下来,但是现在他们很持我,也非常为我骄傲。”Lucy says she is devoted to her craft, and trains once a week, working out at the gym six days a week and sticking to a strict diet in order to keep up with professional standards.露西说她对自己的这门技术非常刻苦用功,为了能够达到专业水平,她每周训练一次,每周六天去健身房锻炼,坚持采用非常严格的饮食标准。Lucy will be battling against trainer Paul at North Hertfordshire College#39;s Hitchin Centre for Arts on July 19.7月19日,露西将在北赫特福德郡学院的希钦艺术中心对战一位名叫保尔的摔跤助练。 /201407/310194

Shannon was on a date with a guy (we#39;ll call him Sean) who had been chasing her for the better part of a decade. She finally caved into his advances and agreed to go on a casual date at a local bar. Shannon was not a fancy, prissy type. She played in an intramural softball league, preferred flip flops to high heels and owned a handicapped dog. But when he uttered the fatal words ;So do you mind splitting the check?; she assumed one thing; he wasn#39;t interested.香农曾经遇到个一个男的,(暂且叫他肖恩)。这个肖恩苦追了香农很多年了,现在,香农终于答应肖恩,在当地一个酒店共享晚餐。香农不是个挑剔讲究的女孩,喜欢垒球、相比高跟鞋更喜欢人字拖,还养着一条残疾。但是,当饭后买单时,肖恩说出:“介不介意AA?”时,香农心理顿时觉得:“他原来不是很看重这次约会。”Things fizzled between them and Shannon later learned Sean was interested, but he was flat broke. She was perplexed. If he was so low on cash, why didn#39;t he take her somewhere less expensive? Or to a free art gallery? Or a movie in the park? Or a dive bar instead of the fancy wine bar he had picked out?就是因为最后的这一出,他俩的关系似乎没什么进展。香农事后才知道,其实不是肖恩不看重那次约会,而是他当时真没什么钱。然而,让香农百思不解的是,既然都没钱了,为什么不选个一般点的地方吃饭?或是去参观免费的画廊、或是去公园看场免费电影;或是就到个廉价小酒馆也好。In What Men Really Want: For Ladies To Pay On The Date Too, we learned that many men would like women to start paying their way when it comes to dating. But in all seriousness, what those men fail to realize is that most women are not out for a free ride. For Shannon, it wasn#39;t about his money — it was about being courted.男人也许在约会的时候也希望女性承担自己那一部分开销。我们知道有些男士是会在约会时要求女性承担自己的开销的,但是,严肃的讲,男人根本不理解女人出来约会其实不是为了占小便宜,就香农的例子而言,香农在约会时不是在乎肖恩的钱多钱少,更在乎的是是否有被追求的感觉。Yes, it#39;s 2013, but in these days of texting instead of calling, late-night booty calls instead of dates, men disappearing and reappearing, it#39;s nice to have a little old-fashioned romance. Women may have increased wealth and equality, but some things may never change. Gold diggers aside, most women don#39;t care how much a man drops on a date. According to a Match.com study, 46 percent of women say it doesn#39;t really matter how much a date spends on the evening, and 58 percent of women are not even looking for an expensive date. A whopping 75 percent of women do not want to eat dinner at a fancy restaurant.是的,现在是2013年了,到了短信比电话重要,夜间的电话比白天的重要,男人去了又来的年头。但是那些传统的浪漫在这时不是更弥足珍贵吗?在就当下,女人的社会价值和平等性和男人并无异,但是有些东西却从未改变。当然,今天的话题和拜金女无关,我们说的是大多说女性并不在意男性在约会时花多少钱。根据Match.com做的调查,百分之46的女性认为约会时的开销并不重要,百分之58的女性不会刻意寻找有钱人约会,高达75的女性其实根本就不期望约会的时候在很贵的餐厅消费。Historically courtship has revolved around ;a man proving to a woman that he values her,; says psychotherapist Tina B. Messina. In the days before women were CEOs and doctors, a woman would lose all of her wealth to her husband once she was married. So it was imperative that a man proved to both the woman and her family that he could take care of her. Hence a man paying and providing for a woman.精神治疗师蒂娜说过,有史以来,求偶都是围绕着“男人如何向女人表达自己有多看重她”而开展的。在女人没有资格和男人获得同样的社会地位的时代,女人一旦嫁人,就会失去的财富,所以,男人要用各种方法向让女人和她的家人明一旦女人嫁给他,会受到很好的照顾。这也是男人为什么为女人买单的历史原因。But now that it#39;s 2013 and not 1952, where does that leave us? Many women, myself included, do not need a man#39;s moula. The real problem is not that men are spending too much money on dates; it#39;s that they#39;re not dating wisely. In the age of online dating and the gaggle of choices out there, truer words were never said. Men waste money and energy dating the wrong people. ;They don#39;t have purpose or focus, and they go out with folks who possess dealbreakers — simply because they#39;re not taking the dating process seriously.; For these men, it#39;s not about the money either. By datingonly people they#39;re truly interested in and who have the same goals and desires, men can save time and energy.但是现在已经是2013年了,而不是1952年。我们的传统变了吗?很多女人,包括我自己,并不予要男人养活。其实真正的问题时男人在约会时花了太多的钱,而在婚恋网上的选择很多,有诚意的却很少。“一些男人自己也没定性,在网上也会那些没有诚意长期交往的女孩——原因很简单,他们自己都没有将这次约会看得很重要。”对于这类男人,钱也许也不是问题。然而,和有想要着认真交往的女孩约会可以节约时间和精力。Having dated online myself, I can certainly attest to that fact. Though I stated clearly on my profile that I was looking for a longterm relationship, there was no shortage of men who took me out with less than serious intentions. Men who go on date after date hoping that just one of them will ;stick;. It#39;s not just men who do this; I#39;ve been guilty of it too. I#39;ve gone out with guys who possessed way too many of my dealbreakers — believed Top 40 was good music, didn#39;t vote and owned cats — because I hoped that if I was more open-minded I might meet the right guy. It wasn#39;t until I focused on quality not quantity that I met the right guy.我自己也有网上交友的经历,当我在我的个人介绍里写清楚了我要寻找的是长期伴侣时,任然有很多不是很严肃对待约会的男人来约我出去。很多男人觉一次又一次的约会总会有合适的出现,当然有这种想法的不仅仅是男人,我也曾经忏悔自己对约会的不严肃。我曾和许多不严肃对待约会的男人约会过。很多人都有共性——喜欢音乐、不参加选举和养猫。我当时觉得,我也许更开放就有机会遇到我的白马王子。 然而事实却不是这样的,我意识到质量比数量更重要。On the flip side, I had a guy friend named Greg who signed up for an online dating profile but refused to actually message a single woman. Instead he would just wait until they noticed him lurking on their profile and message him; As you can imagine, his lazy methods got him nowhere. He went on a lot of crappy dates, could never understand why none of his dates worked out and complained that women are just interested money.我有一个男性朋友叫格雷格,他在一个婚恋网上登了记,但是却从来不主动找女会员,只是等别的女会员找他。你可以想象,他的懒人理论产生怎样的结果,他有过很多次垃圾般的约会,他永远都不明白他的约会为什么都没有结果,还不停抱怨女人只对钱感兴趣。Men also forget all the time and money women spend pre-date; a new outfit, waxing, shaving, makeup and hair. Consider this: according to the survey by Match.com 65 percent of women spend 50 dollar or more on pre-date grooming and clothing, Don#39;t want to spend money on the first date? I#39;m guessing many women would rather not spend the time or money shaving, putting on makeup, choosing an outfit and blow drying their hair. Not to mention teetering in high heels, donning crippling Spanx, and strapping on push up bras. But alas, most of us don#39;t wake up looking runway-y. Even though most guys claim not to notice all the things that women do to primp, I#39;m also guessing most men would be horrified to see a girl show up to a date with hairy legs, under-eye circles and a Brillo pad for hair like I have when I wake up..男人也不知道,女人在准备约会前的开销,新衣、脱毛、化妆、做头发。根据调查,百分之65的女性花在约会前准备的钱高达50美元甚至更多。我想更多女性宁愿不花钱和时间为了一次约会去收拾打扮自己。更别说穿着摇摇晃晃的高跟鞋,让人窒息的瘦身衣….哎,毕竟不是所有的女人都是天生丽质,尽管大多数男士会说,并没有意识到女性的精心打扮,然而我却想说,如果女人再跟男人约会时没有刮腿毛,带着黑眼圈,头发乱的跟刚睡醒似得,肯定大多数男人都会被吓跑的。If we#39;re really talking about gender equality, then yes we should just split everything down the middle.. But dating isn#39;t about gender equality. Dating is about that dance between two people. Flirting and courting and chivalry, no matter how old-fashioned, is a part of that.从性别平等的角度上讲,是的,我们应该男女各付一半。但是约会不是讨论性别平等的时候,约会是两个人的舞蹈,约会是应该有调情、奉承和绅士风度的部分,不管这样的观念有多守旧,都不应该改变。From a financial standpoint, I#39;m far from needing or wanting a man to pay for my lifestyle. But I do want to be swept off my feet. I want doors opened. Bugs killed. Dragons slayed! Of all the things my boyfriend has done for me, the most memorable one was surprising me with balloons that had hidden notes in them. Expensive? No. Thoughtful and caring? Yes. And I saved every sticky note inside.从财务上讲,我不需要男人为我的生活买单。但是我却想感受到无微不至的体贴,感受到他能力所能及地为我做所有的事。也许对我来讲最大的惊喜就是看到气球上写着他的求爱语。贵吗?一点都不,周到和体贴的他会让我谨记气球上的每句话。I#39;m in no way suggesting that a woman doesn#39;t start chipping in after the first 2-3 dates. In fact, when my boyfriend realized that he brought me to a cash-only restaurant with no cash on our second date, I forked out the money without batting an eyelash. The fact that I knew he was interested in more than an easy fling, he told me he liked me, texted me within 24 hours of our first date and had aly asked me out for a third date, made it easy for me to pay.我不建议女人在2到3次约会以后就将你的未来押在这个男人身上。然而,我的经历也值得分享和参考。我和男朋友第一次约会时,他约我去了一家很贵的餐厅,当他意识到没有钱再约我时,我想也没想就把我的钱拿出来,因为我知道他对我有意,他告诉我他喜欢我,约会后的24小时内发信息给我,计划下一次约会。这些行为让我判断出他的诚意,让我更愿意为爱情买单。Why? Because he was courting me.为什么?因为他的追求让我很受用。本译文属 /201309/256114

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