赣州市人民医院是私立普及口碑

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年08月23日 02:44:41
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Listening to pop music such as Taylor Swift or Ed Sheeran will enhance your enjoyment of a Chinese takeaway, according to a University of Oxford professor.一位牛津大学的教授声称,伴着泰勒#8226;斯威夫特或者艾德#8226;希兰等人的流行音乐,中餐外卖吃起来会更香。Classical music is said to be best paired with Italian food while a blast of rock music from the likes of Bruce Springsteen will ensure your Indian food tastes even spicier.据说,古典音乐与意大利餐是绝配;享受印度大餐时,来一阵布鲁斯#8226;斯普林斯汀之流的摇滚乐,食物尝起来更辛辣可口。Charles Spence,a professor of experimental psychology, is convinced that certain musical genres complement different cuisines.实验心理学教授查尔斯#8226;斯宾塞确信,某些音乐流派可作为各种美食的补充。And he is so certain of the links between music and the enjoyment of food that he believes takeaways could soon be delivered along with a CD.而他非常肯定,音乐和美食之间存在关联,还认为不久之后,外卖将带着CD配送。His latest gastrophysics study involved 700 volunteers who ordered takeaways and listened to songs from six genres.在他最新的胃理学研究中,有700名志愿者被要求听着6个流派的音乐吃外卖。Participants were asked to rate the dishes on a scale of one to ten.随后,他要求参与者按1~10分对食物进行评分。Prof Spence, who runs the University of Oxford#39;s Crossmodal Research Laboratory, found while some foods appeared to have an obvious musical accompaniment, such as Pavarotti#39;s Nessun Dorma with pasta dishes, others proved more of a surprise, such as the connection between chilli and rock#39;n#39;roll.牛津大学跨通道研究实验室主任——斯宾塞教授发现,有些食物的音乐伴奏似乎非常明显,比如帕瓦罗蒂的《今夜无人入睡》搭配意大利面;而其他的搭配更多是令人意外,例如辣椒和摇滚乐之间的关联。;Nobody has looked at spiciness and music before,; he told The Times.“谁也没想到辛辣食物和音乐会有关系”,他向《泰晤士报》记者讲道。;We found that if there is music that is more alerting, more arousing, then people appreciate spicier food more.;“我们发现,音乐更提神、更振奋人心时,食客就会更喜欢偏辣的食物。”Volunteers reported that food tasted four percent spicier when listening to rock tracks than when listening to the jazz of Nina Simone.志愿者们报告称,听摇滚乐时,食物尝起来要比听妮娜#8226;西蒙妮的爵士乐时更辣4%。The likes of Simone and Frank Sinatra, are, however, said to be good with sushi.但是,像西蒙妮与弗兰克#8226;辛纳屈之类的音乐还是与寿司搭配比较好。Hip-hop and RnB were found to have no effect on the enjoyment of different tastes.嘻哈音乐和节奏布鲁斯则对于享受各种美食没有任何效果。Prof Spence, who runs the University of Oxford#39;s Crossmodal Research Laboratory, added: ;It is an exciting area.负责牛津大学跨通道研究实验室的斯宾塞教授补充道:“这太令人兴奋了。”;How soundscapes and music come together with taste to make the whole experience more stimulating, more enjoyable and possibly even more memorable. It is a kind of digital seasoning.;“背景音乐配上美味,使整个就餐过程更刺激、更享受,甚至更令人难忘。这是一种数码调味。”He said Just Eat, the online takeaway-ordering company that commissioned his research, was ;seriously thinking; about providing music with its food.他还提到,曾委托他进行研究的英国订餐网站JUST EAT正“认真考虑”在外卖中配带音乐。Celebrity chef Heston Blumenthal is among restaurateurs who have sought the professor#39;s advice for his award-winning Fat Duck in Bray, Berkshire.许多餐厅老板向教授征求建议,这其中包括著名大厨赫斯顿#8226;布鲁门索。他也为自己在伯克郡布雷市备受赞誉的肥鸭餐厅咨询斯宾塞教授。The academic#39;s other studies have found that people can experience 15 percent more pleasure if music matches the wine.学院其他研究发现,如果音乐配上美酒,食客们体验的快感可以再提高15%。A Cabernet Sauvignon should be paired with Won’t Get Fooled Again by The Who to bring out its depth while a Chardonnay will slide down more easily accompanied by Atomic by Blondie.一杯赤霞珠红葡萄酒应该用“谁人”乐队的《再也不会被愚弄》来配,这样才能品出它的深度;而雪当利白葡萄酒配上金发女郎乐队的《原子能》后,入喉更为顺滑。One major champagne house has aly adopted music, from Bryan Ferry to Tchaikovsky, to accompany its luxury products.一家大型香槟酒坊已经用音乐来为自己奢侈酒品牌伴奏,这些音乐从布莱恩#8226;费瑞到柴可夫斯基都有。Lighting is also said to play a part in the choices people make in cafes and restaurants, with bright lights meaning they are more likely to choose spicier wings and dim lights leading to more mellow choices such as a cappuccino over an espresso.而据说灯光也会影响咖啡厅和餐馆里客人的选择。光线明亮意味着,他们更有可能选择香辣鸡翅;而灯光昏暗时,客人会选择更为香醇柔和的咖啡,例如一杯卡布奇诺,而不会是意大利特浓咖啡。Colour can also have an effect with recent tests in London showing that ambient light can enhance flavour with red wine drunk in red light tasting fruitier.色也会产生影响。近日在伦敦进行的测试表明,周围的光线能够增强风味。红葡萄酒在红色光线下品起来口感更圆润。 /201512/414802

The Jin, founded by Wanyan Aguda (known as Emperor Taizu), was a regime dominated by the Nuzhen people. Its capital was first in the Huining Prefecture (now Baicheng, south of Acheng, Heilongjiang Province), then in Yanjing (now Beijing), and lastly, in Bianjing (present-day Kaifeng, Henan Province). Ruled by nine emperors, and lasted for 120 years. At its height, it had a population of 44. 7 million people and its territory extended as far as the Outer Xing’an Ling Mountain in the north,the Huai River in the south,the coastline in the east, and Shaanxi in the west.金国是中国历史上以女真为主体建立的王朝,先建都会宁府(今黑龙江阿城南白城镇),后迁都燕京(今北京),再迁都至汴京(今河南开封),其创建者是金太祖完颜阿骨打。金共历九帝,前后120年,疆域盛时北达今外兴安岭,南抵淮河,东临于海,西至陕西,人口4470余万。The ancestors of the Nuzhen had first lived in the Changbai Mountains and the Heilongjiang River valley.女真族的祖先很早就生活在长白山和黑龙江流域。The name “Nijzhen” did not appear in historical records until the Five Dynasties period when it was under the control of the Khitan.五代时,女真之名始见于史籍,并受辽契丹所统治。The Nuzhen was in preliminary clan stage at the beginning of the Liao and then it grew quickly with the using of the iron tools and expansion of the population. Towards the end of the Liao, Nuzhen developed strong enough.在辽统治初期,它还处于原始氏族形态,但随着人口的增加与铁器的大量使用,使其快速发展起来,到辽末年,女真族已成为北方一不可小覷的力量。After its Wanyan tribe established a tribal union, all its tribes quickly got unified. In the 4th year of Tianqing(1114), Wanyan Aguda, the leader of the Nuzhens, performed a ritual with his armies on the bank of the Lailiu River (present-day Jianlalin River between Heilongjiang and Jilin) and declared war on the Liao.女真完颜部首领完颜阿骨打,在统一了女真各部后,于辽天庆四年 (1114)九月,率部誓师于涞流河(今黑龙江与吉林省间拉林河)畔,向辽朝的契丹统治者宣战。After his victories in Ningjiang and Chuhedian, Aguda assumed the imperial title in the 5th year of Tianqing(1115). He named his regime the Great Jin and used Shouguo as his reign title.他在取得宁江大捷和出河店之战胜利后,于辽天庆五年(1115)称帝建国,国号大金,年号收国。After winning a decisive victory in the battle of Hubudagang, the Jin carried out its plan to conquer the Liao.金朝建国后,在护步答冈会战中大败辽军,随后展开以辽五京为战略目标的灭辽之战。It attacked and captured five important Liao cities: the “eastern capital”(present-day Liaoyang in Liaoning), the “upper capital”(south of present-day Barin Left Banner in Inner Mongolia), the Mmiddle capitar, (present-day Damingcheng, west of Ningcheng in Inner Mongolia), the uwestern cap-ital” (present-day Datong, Shanxi) and the “southern capital” (present-day Beijing).攻取五京的前后步骤是东京(今辽宁辽阳)、上京(今内蒙古巴林左旗南)、中京(今内蒙古宁城西大名城)、西京(今山西大同)、南京(今北京)。The conquest of these “five capitals” by the Jin regime brought about the immediate fall of the Liao.这五部分的攻取对辽是致命的打击。In 1120, Jin made an agreement with the Northern Song to form a joint attack on the Liao. And in 1125, the Emperor Tianzuo of the Liao was captured and the north part of China was under the control of the Jin.公元1120年,金与宋签定“海上之盟”共同对辽,公元1125年,辽天祚帝被俘,金国完全控制了北方。Immediately after conquered the Liao, the Jin then turned against the Northern Song.在消灭辽国以后,金国把矛头直指向宋朝。Ascending the throne, Emperor Taizong (Wanyan Sheng), greatly encouraged by the Liao defeat, swept to attack the Northern Song successfully in the following wars out of the incompetence of rulers of the Song, though the army of Song resisted with all their mighty. And Jin seized Kaifeng, the capital of the Northern Song, captured the Emperors of Hui and Qin and put an end to the Northern Song in 1127.称帝之后,金太宗吴乞买(完颜晟)挟灭辽之威,大举进攻宋朝,虽然宋军民全力反抗,但由于宋统治者的无能,使得金国连连得胜,于金天会五年(1127)攻占了北宋都城开封,虏去徽、钦二帝,使北宋灭亡。Later the Jin waged many wars against the Southern Song, but was fought back by the troops of the Southern Song under the brilliant leaders of Yue Fei and Han Shizhong. The balance of power remained the same on two sides, the Jin and the Southern Song.南宋王朝的建立使得金国继续向南进兵,而南宋的抗金名将岳飞、韩世忠等人对金国的抵抗使得金军实力大降,无力再和南宋交战,形成了南北对峙的局面。While the rival dynasties existed side by side, the Jin succeeded in forcing the Xi Xia to become its subject state and the Southern Song to sue for peace.金在与南宋、西夏并立期间,迫使西夏臣附、南宋屈辱求和,始终维持其霸主地位。However ,the rise of the Mongols posed a threat since they were decided enemies of the Jin.但是,随着蒙古的兴起,金的强国地位受到了威胁。The hatred towards the Jin was deep into the marrow.金蒙世仇,结怨甚深,蒙古人对金“怨人骨髓”。Surrounded as it by the Mongolia to the north, the Western Xia to the west, and the Southern Song to the south, the Jin was in an unfavorable situation.金西北邻蒙古,西邻西夏,南邻南宋,处于西、西北、南三战之地,战略地位有明显的弱势。The best course of action would have been that of uniting with the Xi Xia and the Southern Song against the Mongols—as its alliance with the Xi Xia could prevent the Mongols from marching southward and a good relationship with the Southern Song would exempt it from southern threats.对待三国的战略,金的正确选择是结夏联宋,对抗蒙古。团结西夏,可以从西面牵制蒙古南下。成吉思汗于建国后对金“乃定议致讨,然未敢轻动”,其重要原因是担心攻金时西夏可能构成的侧面威胁。In this way, the Jin could avoid fighting on two fronts and have its strength focused on fighting againt the Mongols.联合南宋,可以免除后顾之忧,避免两面作战,全力对付蒙古。But instead, the Jin abandoned the Xi Xia, attacked the Southern Song and the Mongols, meaning that it had created three enemies for itself. The Jin became isolated and helpless.然而,金朝统治者却错误地选择了绝夏、攻宋、抗蒙的战略,结果三面树敌,自我孤立,致使形势急转直下。When the Mongols attacked the Xi Xia, the Xia asked the Jin for help, but the latter refused to. The Western Xia then surrendered to the Mongols. They joined together to attack the Jin who was now squeezed into a corner.蒙古攻西夏,西夏求援于金,金坐视不救,西夏投附于蒙古,与蒙古联手攻金,金处于西、北两面受敌窘境。To remove threats from the west and the north, the Jin removed its capital from Zhongdu to Bianjing and tried to win o-ver the south for compensating the loss of the north. Accordingly, it left the northern territories open to Mongolian conquest and began to attack the Southern Song but achieved almost nothing.金为减轻压力,从中都迁都汴京,采取弃北图南的战略,进攻南宋,企图挹彼注兹,失之于蒙而获利于宋,于是“南开宋战,西启夏侮,兵力既分,功不补患”。With pincers attacks by the Mongols and the Southern Song, the Jin gradually lost power and its downfall was unavoidable.结果,金北方尽失于蒙,南方受挫于宋,国土日蹙,国力日衰。In 1233, Wokuotai, the Taizong of the Yuan Dynasty took Bianjing, Emperor of Jin, Aizong fled to Caizhou and in the following years, Jin was destroyed by the joint force of the Mongolia and the Southern Song, which brought the Jin to an end.金国于天兴元年(1233),元太宗窝阔台帅军攻下汴京,金哀宗逃至蔡州,次年,蔡州在蒙古军与宋 军联合进攻下被攻破,金国至此宣告灭亡。The Jin’s political, military and economic system changed in its early and late periods.金国的政治、军事及经济制度前后有所变化。During the “tribal union” period, the premier and the union chieftains (clan elder in Nuzhen) shared the power of administering different Nuzhen tribes.After the founding of the Jin Dynasty, the premier and the union chieftains were replaced by four and later five chief executives, to form the highest authority under the emperor.女真部落联盟时采用国相制,国相与部落联盟长都勃极烈分治诸部。After conquering a number of the Liao and the Song territories during Emperor Taizong^ reign, the Jin adopted some of their practices and systems.金太宗时,占领辽、宋之地后,开始采用许多辽、宋制度。Both Emperor Xizong and the Prince of Hailing introduced reforms.金熙宗时,对各项制度作了改革。The Prince Hailing also move the capital to Zhongdu (present Beijing), and standarlized its regemens and carried out further reforms.金海陵王迁都中都(今北京),统一制度,又作了进一步的改革。During the reign of Emperor Shizong, a complete political system was set up.金世宗时,各项制度大体确立。The primary body, the State Council, helped the central government deal with state affairs. Under the State Council, there were “Six Boards”:the Board of Civil Service, the Board of Revenue, the Board of Rites, the Board of War, the Board of Punishments, and the Board of Works.中央设尚书省综理政务,下设吏、户、礼、兵、刑、工六部分掌政务。Local governmerits were divided into four levels.地方设路、府、州、县四级。The military service system was based on that of the Nuzhen, with those of the Qidan, the Bohai, the Xi and the Han integrated.金朝的军事制度是一种多成分的结合体,在原女真军制的基础上,广泛吸收了契丹,渤海、奚、汉等民族的军事制度,而有其自身的特点。Military organization was relatively simple, with emphasis placed on the cavalry and other arms developed at the same time. Its troops were made up of soldiers of many nationalities, either mercenaries or conscripts. Officers enjoyed high status.金朝军事机构较为简化,重视骑兵的作用,也逐步建立和发展其他兵种,军队中民族成分复杂,实行签军和募兵兵役制度,军事职官的地位较高。This system exerted great influence upon that of later dynasties.金朝的军制对后世的军制有一定的影响。The early stage of the Jin was economically backwards with the remaining features of the preliminary tribe.金国在刚刚建立起来的时候,国力非常落后,经济制度还存在着一些原始社会的残余。Since Taizong, Xizong and the King of Hailing, there were drastic changes happened : the Jin transformed from a nomadic tribe to a feudal society with agriculture as the fundamental support, which laid foundation for its further development.自太宗、熙宗、海陵王以来,金国进行了全面的转变,使其从原来的游牧部落变成了一个以农业为主的封建集权制国家,为其今后的发展奠定了基础。The farming, handicrafts and commerce flourished, but different areas achieved varying degrees of social and economic development in Jin. Although some features of traditional Nuzhen culture were inherited by the Jin, it was the Han culture and Liao culture that dominated the Jin society.金时,农业、手工业和商业都得到了发展,但各地区的经济发展存在很大差异,虽然保留和吸收了女真族的某些文化传统,但基本上是继承辽、宋的汉族文化。 /201602/426201

  Drinking Wine Before Bed Could Help You Lose Weight睡前喝葡萄酒可以减肥Looking to shed a few pounds? According to science, some nighttime wine might just be the solution.想要减掉几斤肉?根据科学,晚上喝点酒或许是一种方式。A study out of Washington State University from July 2015 showed that wine and weight loss go hand-in-hand, thanks to a substance called resveratrol. The compound, which is found in red wine, was shown to help convert ;white fat; into ;beige fat.; (The latter is easier to burn off.)华盛顿州立大学2015年7月的一项研究表明,由于一种名为白藜芦醇的物质,葡萄酒和减肥相伴而行。在红酒中发现的这种混合物,被发现可以将“白色的脂肪”转化为“米黄色”的脂肪。(后者更容易燃烧掉。)As far as when it#39;s best to sip on that vino, a separate 2012 study concluded that a late-night glass of wine curbed snacking, which, in turn, aided in weight loss (but, it should be noted that the study involved bees, not humans).关于何时抿一口酒最好,2012年一项单独的研究总结道,深夜一杯葡萄酒抑制了吃零食,从而帮助减肥(但值得注意的是这项研究对象只提到了蜜蜂而不是人类)。So while this news may tempt you to keep a bottle of red on your nightstand, not so fast-doctors are typically wary of recommending that people start drinking wine, since too much alcohol can obviously have harmful effects on the body. It#39;s also worth noting that there are much more efficient (and potentially healthier) ways of reaping the benefits of resveratrol. 因此尽管这条新闻或许会让你想要在床头柜上放一瓶红酒,但别着急——医生本能地谨慎建议人们开始喝葡萄酒,因为太多的酒精很明显会对身体产生坏的影响。另外值得注意的是,获得白藜芦醇的好处有很多其他更加有效的方式。;Many of the beneficial polyphenols are insoluble and get filtered out during the wine production process,; said Professor Min Du of Washington State. Instead, he suggests snacking on blueberries, grapes and strawberries, all of which are natural sources of resveratrol.“很多有益的多酚都是不溶的,因此在葡萄酒酿造过程中被过滤了,”华盛顿州立大学的教授Min Du说。取而代之,他建议吃一些蓝莓,葡萄和草莓,这些都是白藜芦醇的天然来源。译文属原创,,不得转载。 /201603/430231

  Imagine you are visiting a tourist spot and there you are given an opportunity to scoop up thousands of dollars for free. Sounds too good to be true? Not really.试想一下,当你正在游览一景区的时候,突然获得了一个可以免费随便抓钱的机会。这是不是听起来像是做梦?然而真的有这样的事情发生。Authorities of a scenic spot offered five million yuan (0,000) at a blast glass room for 10 tourists to grab as much as they could in one minute in Hangzhou city, East China#39;s Zhejiang province on Tuesday.周二,在中国东部浙江省杭州市的某个景区,景区官方提供了500万(约合75万美元)的现金,供10位游客在鼓风的玻璃房中随意抓取,限时一分钟,能抓多少算多少。Songcheng Group invited 10 tourists to participate in the event about 10 days ago through its official account on messaging app WeChat.在大约10天前,杭州市宋城景区通过官方微信征集了10位游客来参与此活动。A woman surnamed Lu, from Quzhou city in Zhejiang province, was the luckiest one, since she grabbed 18,300 yuan in one minute.来自浙江衢州的陆女士成为了最幸运的游客,她在一分钟内抓到了18300元。;The move is to show our thanks to our tourists,; said the event#39;s organizer.活动主办方表示,这是该景区感恩和回馈游客的一项举措。 /201601/424789。

  “We’ll make a plan.” It’s a phrase you’ll hear often in South Africa, whether you show up at a restaurant without a reservation or are hoping to squeeze three people into a hotel room meant for two. Heralded as one of the world’s most beautiful cities — few destinations can mimic the scale of its mountain-ocean convergence — Cape Town doesn’t need to be as accommodating as it is; it could, in theory, sit pretty on the merits of its natural bounties alone. And yet it remains a singularly inviting place, wowing visitors with its colorful art and architecture (watch out for the Thomas Heatherwick-designed Zeitz Museum of Contemporary Art Africa, to be completed next year), complex history, world-class wines and arguably one of the best culinary landscapes anywhere. How to squeeze all of Cape Town’s highlights, both man- and Mother Nature-made, into one weekend? Don’t worry, we’ll make a plan.“我们会想办法的。”在南非,你会经常听到这句话,无论是你没预订就去了一家餐厅,还是想在酒店的双人间里挤下三个人。开普敦被誉为全球最美的城市之一——没什么地方能媲美那山海相融的壮观——它本可以独立于世,安享大自然的馈赠,大可不必像现在这般随和。但它仍作为这世上为数不多的好客之地,以其色斑斓的艺术品和建筑(可以关注一下非洲塞茨当代艺术物馆[Zeitz Museum of Contemporary Art Africa],由托马斯·赫斯维克[Thomas Heatherwick]设计,将于明年对外开放)、错综复杂的历史、世界一流的葡萄酒,以及公认位居全球前列的美食,不断给游客带来惊喜。如何用一个周末尽情体验开普敦的人文及自然之精华?别担心,我们会想办法的。Friday星期五1. Manna From Heaven | 1:30 p.m.1. 从天而降的恩赐:下午1:30Hemelhuijs (“house of heaven” in Afrikaans) is a worthy introduction to South Africa’s creative food scene du jour, a vibrant restaurant tableau defined by seasonal ingredients forging unexpected unions and presented with flourish. Case in point: pan-fried veal with crab butter, Parmesan, pine nuts and parsley (155 rand, or .25 at 12.75 rand to the dollar); seared tuna with shredded carrots and chiloe pepper-berry vinaigrette (155 rand); and free mosbolletjie b studded with aniseed. Wash it down with a blend of kale, pear and orange juice (45 rand).Hemelhuijs(在南非荷兰语中意为“天堂之屋”)是南非创意美食的入门之选,这家餐厅采取时下流行的“当日菜单”风格——以时令食材搭配出新奇的组合,外加花式摆盘。比如:铁盘煎小牛肉,配蟹黄、帕尔玛干酪、松子及欧芹(155兰特,按12.75兰特兑换1美元计算,约合12.25美元);烤金鱼,配胡萝卜丝及奇洛黑椒浆果油醋汁(155兰特);还有免费的葡萄干甜面包,里面布满了茴芹籽。用餐时可以配一杯由羽衣甘蓝、梨和橙子混合的蔬果汁(45兰特)。 /201511/410441

  5.Obesity Impacts on the Proper Working of the Body5.肥胖影响身体正常运转Ask a child what happens when you are sick or have a disease and the likelihood is that they will say that the disease stops #39;some body part#39; working properly. Heart disease impacts the heart, lung disease the lungs etc. Obesity also impacts on the proper working of the body.当你问小孩子生病会有什么感觉时,他们很可能会说那种不适使“身体某些部位”不能正常工作了。心脏病会影响心脏,肺病会影响肺部,肥胖也会影响身体的正常运转。This impact on the body comes in two separate but connected ways. Firstly the increase in body mass can cause mechanical problems such as osteoarthritis, sleep apnoea and mobility problems. These will often be alleviated if the sufferer loses weight. Secondly the increase in the number of fat cells within the body can be the cause of a range of medical problems such as Heart Disease, Fatty Liver Disease, Infertility, High Blood Pressure etc. Such medical problems may not be easily reversed by a loss of weight.肥胖对身体的影响主要有两个方面,而它们既相互独立又相互联系。第一,体重增加会导致机体问题,如骨关节炎、睡眠呼吸暂停和移动障碍。如果体重下降,那么这些病症也常随之减轻。第二,身体脂肪细胞数量的增加会导致一系列的健康问题,如心脏病、脂肪肝、不和高血压等,而这类健康问题就不会随体重的下降而得到缓解。4.Obesity Works like Type II Diabetes4.肥胖症的作用机理与2型糖尿病类同When a person becomes obese their body starts to produce more of a hormone called Leptin than the bodies of people who are not. Leptin is responsible for telling the body when it is full in the same way that Insulin controls the body#39;s response to Glucose. When a person produces too much Leptin they become resistant to it in the same way that someone with type II diabetes is resistant to Insulin.一个人变得过于肥胖后,身体相较于正常人而言会产生更多称之为瘦蛋白(Leptin)的激素。这是一种传达身体饱腹程度的激素,就像胰岛素传达体内葡萄糖含量一样。当瘦蛋白过多,人会对其产生免疫作用,就跟二型糖尿病患者对胰岛素产生抗体一样。As a person puts on weight their body secretes more Leptin – they are then no longer able to tell when they have eaten enough and so their body allows them to over-eat. Type II Diabetes is treated as a disease whether or not a person develops it as a result of genetic predisposition or as a result of a particular lifestyle. If this is true for Type II Diabetes then why not for obesity?随着人们体重上升,身体分泌出更多瘦蛋白,既而无法得知自己的饱腹水平,这样一来就会过度饮食。不论二型糖尿病的病因是先天而来或是生活方式所致,人们都将其视作一种疾病来对待。所以,既然二型糖尿病受到了这种待遇,肥胖症又有何不可呢?3.The Body Adapts To a Specific #39;Set Point#39;3.肥胖影响“体重固定值”Most people will have a stable #39;set point weight#39; – the weight to which their body defaults. The scales may go up or down but they generally sit at or around this point. As a person puts on weight the body becomes used to a new normal – the set point changes and creeps up. When a person tries to lose weight the body will default back to its set point – it #39;defends#39; the weight. This is why diets are often inefficient unless the person concerned is able to make a wholesale lifestyle change. Even then the body will often try to revert back if the person #39;slips#39;. Not unlike an alcoholic who is never cured a person who does manage to lose weight is not able to give up on their new regime at any time.大多数人都有一个稳定的“体重固定值”,这是身体默认的。平时的体重或高或低于这个数值,但通常都与其相差无几。人的体重上升后,身体会适应一个新常态,这个固定值会缓慢上升。而当人们试图减掉几斤时,身体就自动想要回到那个“固定值”,捍卫原来的体重量。这也就解释了为什么饮食调节对于减肥不太有效,除非减肥者可以颠覆原有的生活方式。不过即使是这样,一旦减肥者稍有懈怠,身体就试图故态复萌。恰恰就如一个不可治愈的酗酒者一样,认真想要减肥的人也无法随心所欲地抛弃自己的饮食起居习惯。2.Obesity Meets the Definition of #39;Disease#39;2.肥胖符合疾病的定义There is no single definition of disease but Webster#39;s dictionary defines it as #39;An alteration of the state of the body or some of its organs, interrupting or disturbing the performance of the vital functions and causing or threatening pain and weakness; malady; affection; illness; sickness; disorder…#39;疾病的定义并不是单一的,其中《韦氏词典》是这样解释的:一种身体和某些器官的变化;有碍于身体重要功能的发挥;导致疼痛、虚弱;身体失调;心情烦躁;身体不适;呕吐;机能紊乱。Obesity meets this definition in all respects. It alters the body– not only by increasing the size of the person suffering from the disease but by affecting the way in which the body produces or metabolises substances; by altering how efficiently some of the organs work or how well the person affected can move. It can cause the sufferer pain, discomfort, embarrassment. It exacerbates other underlying problems and is often, in its causes and effects beyond the control of the sufferer. Obesity has an effect on the physical and mental wellbeing of the sufferer and causes sickness or even death.肥胖完全符合疾病的定义。它不但能改变人们的身体,使患者的体型变大,还能影响体内物质的新陈代谢,影响器官的高效运作和患者的行动能力。肥胖会使人难受,局促不安和尴尬。它也会引发潜在的疾病。通常情况下,患者无法控制其因果,影响患者身心健康,甚至造成疾病或是死亡等后果。1.Obesity Is Like Alcoholism or Depression – Once Seen As Lifestyle Conditions but Now Accepted As a Disease1.肥胖就像酒瘾和忧郁——过去被认为是生活方式,现在被列入疾病范畴One hundred years ago alcoholics were given very little support. Not much was known about the psychology, physiology and mechanics of addiction and it was seen as a lifestyle problem – an addiction gone wrong. In years gone by people suffering from mental health problems were stigmatised, marginalised and told to sort themselves out. In these, more enlightened times, we look back at such attitudes with horror and compassion. People suffering from alcoholism or mental health problems have access to a wide range of support networks and treatments to assist them in dealing with their disease.一百年前,酒鬼是得不到任何帮助的。当时,人们对心理学、生理学以及酒瘾都不太了解,都认为酒瘾属于生活方式问题——形成了错误嗜好。过去,患有精神疾病是可耻的、被排斥的。在如今开明的时代,人们回想曾针对那些精神疾病患者的态度时,难免感到恐惧,并为患者感到十分同情。现在,无论是精神病患者还是醉汉都能获得广泛的持和治疗以摆脱困扰。There is no reason to view obesity in a different light. Even if obesity in a particular person is connected to lifestyle instead of genetic issues there is no reason not to treat it as a disease. Alcohol or cigarettes are optional – we do not need them to survive. All people need to eat; even those who are obese. It is difficult to change a relationship with something that is a fundamental constant in life. You can say no to a glass of wine or beer every day for the rest of your life – you cannot say no to breakfast, lunch and supper. Obesity, as opposed to just being a little overweight, is a condition that is often beyond the means of the sufferer to fix without assistance. It is a disease that has been with us as long as people have been on the planet. Obesity can be inherited from family – if your parents are obese the strong likelihood is that you will be too. While obesity can cause or exacerbate many other health conditions such as heart disease or diabetes it can also be caused by underlying health problems. Once an obese person#39;s body gets used to the weight it will work against attempts to lose it – our bodies are designed to #39;defend#39; the highest weight we reach. Obese bodies become resistant to the hormone that tells us when we are full, in much the same way that a person can become resistant to insulin. Obesity limits life and the sufferer will most likely need medical assistance to deal with the problem. If Alcoholism, Lung Cancer, Cirrhosis, Depression are all diseases then so is Obesity. Obesity is a growing problem worldwide it is a complex issue with many underlying causes that require complex, multi-party solutions. If obesity is considered a lifestyle choice, it can be palmed off as the personal responsibility of the sufferer. If it is a disease with a social and economic impact it becomes a wider problem. The medical establishment can legitimately look for new and innovative ways to treat this disease. Governments will have to make conditions favorable for investment in treatment and ensure that it is accessible and affordable for all. They will promote healthy living; make sure that the urban environment is exercise friendly. Society needs to stop victim blaming and stigmatizing sufferers. Categorizing obesity as a disease is the first step in making these solutions possible and available to all.所以,我们没有理由特殊对待肥胖。即使某些人的肥胖是因为生活方式问题而不是遗传问题,但我们没有理由把肥胖排除在疾病之外。人们可以自由选择是否抽烟喝酒,但所有人都需要吃饭,肥胖的人也不例外。改变我们和基本生活需求的关系是非常困难的。你可以在你的余生每天少喝一杯酒,但是你却没法不吃早饭、中饭或者是晚饭。肥胖跟略微超重不一样,如果没有人帮助,将会是患者无法解决的问题。只要人们还居住在星球上,这个疾病就会一直存在。肥胖也可能从家族遗传——如果你的父母肥胖,极有可能你也会肥胖。在肥胖会导致心脏病、糖尿病之类的疾病的同时,潜在的健康问题也会引发肥胖。一旦一个人长期处于肥胖状态,他便会习惯这种状态,他的身体会自动阻碍他减肥——因为人们的身体天生就有“偏袒高体重”的倾向。肥胖的人对传达腹饱程度的荷尔蒙已形成了抵抗性,就跟糖尿病患者对胰岛素的反应一样。肥胖限制了我们的生活,肥胖的人也需要医疗帮助才能解决这个问题。如果酒瘾、肺癌、肝硬化和抑郁症都属于疾病,那么肥胖也应该是一种病。在全球,肥胖已经是一个日益严重的问题。肥胖是一个复杂的问题,由很多潜在因素引发,解决方法复杂多样。如果肥胖被认为是一种生活方式上的选择,那么这就是患者个人的责任。而如果肥胖是一种影响经济社会发展的疾病,那么它涉及的范围就更广泛了。如此一来,医疗机构就可以研究各种新颖方法来治疗肥胖了。政府必须为治疗肥胖创造一个良好的投资环境,以确保所有人都能接受治疗并负担得起治疗费用。政府还要倡导健康生活,保城市环境有利于人们做运动以锻炼身体。同时社会也要开始停止对患者的责怪和耻笑。为了让这些解决方案行之有效,首要任务就是把肥胖归到疾病这一类。审校:哈利 来源:前十网 /201601/420502One summer about 85 years ago in a small Alabama town, a scrappy tomboy named Nelle met her new next door neighbor, Tru, a bookish, dapper dresser with a high-pitched voice and a mischievous streak.大约是85年前的一个夏季,在美国阿拉巴马州的一个小城,争强好胜的假小子妮尔(Nelle)在镇上迎来了新来的邻居杜鲁。杜鲁穿着讲究,嗓音尖细,爱看书,是个会恶作剧的捣蛋鬼。They made an unlikely pair. She often went barefoot in overalls while he dressed so fastidiously that a teacher said he stood out like a bird of paradise in a flock of crows. But both were oddballs who took refuge in detective novels, and they quickly bonded over their mutual love of Sherlock Holmes and the Rover Boys, spending long afternoons ing mysteries in their treehouse sanctuary. To entertain themselves, they started writing their own stories on her father’s Underwood typewriter, taking turns as one of them narrated while the other typed.两人成为了不可思议的组合。妮尔经常光着脚,穿着背带裤。而杜鲁打扮得细致入微,以至于他的老师形容道,杜鲁像是一群乌鸦中的极乐鸟,突出夺目。两人性格都很古怪,都爱一头扎在侦探小说里。出于对《福尔斯探案集》(Sherlock Holmes)和《月球车男孩》(the Rover Boys)的共同喜爱,他们的关系迅速升温: 在树屋中度过许多个漫长的下午,阅读推理小说,并在妮尔父亲的安德伍德打字机上自己写故事,一人讲述,一人打字,往复交换,自我。They grew up to be two of the South’s greatest writers — Harper Lee and Truman Capote — and their lives and work were intertwined long after that first summer. Ms. Lee drew on their friendship in her portrait of the characters Scout and Dill in “To Kill a Mockingbird” and in her newly released novel, “Go Set a Watchman.” Mr. Capote based the brash, sharp-tongued tomboy Idabel Thompkins in his debut novel, “Other Voices, Other Rooms,” on Nelle. They worked together on Mr. Capote’s true crime book “In Cold Blood,” then drifted apart after Mr. Capote failed to credit her properly.长大后,他们成为了南部最优秀的两名作家——哈珀·李和杜鲁门·卡波特。在那个夏天后,各自的生活和工作也仍长久地交织在一起。哈珀在小说《杀死一只知更鸟》(To Kill a Mockingbird)中塑造了斯库特(Scout)和迪尔(Dill),借用了她与卡波特之间的友情。此外,她也将这段关系运用在最新出版的小说《设立守望者》(Go Set a Watchman)中。卡波特则在首部小说《别的声音,别的房间》(Other Voices, Other Rooms)中塑造了盛气凌人、伶牙俐齿的假小子形象伊达贝尔·汤姆金斯(Idabel Thompkins)。在卡波特的真实犯罪小说《冷血》中,两人也有合作,但由于卡波特没有为哈珀的贡献给予充分说明,两人的关系疏远。Their broken friendship has been restored — in fiction, at least — in a forthcoming middle-grade novel, “Tru amp; Nelle,” by Greg Neri. Though Ms. Lee and Mr. Capote have each individually been the subject of numerous biographies, documentaries and feature films, “Tru amp; Nelle” is the first book to focus primarily on their childhood bond.这段破碎的友谊已经修复,至少是在小说中——格雷格·内里(Greg Neri)撰写了面向8到12岁孩子的小说《杜鲁与妮尔》,这本书即将出版。李和卡波特分别充当过无数传记、纪录片和电影的主角,但《杜鲁与妮尔》是第一部重点关注他们童年时期联系的书。“It was just kind of sitting there, and I couldn’t believe no one had taken it on,” said Mr. Neri, author of six books for teenagers, including “Ghetto Cowboy.” “Both she and Truman used their real lives as fodder for their fiction, and I figured if they did it, maybe I could do it too.”“它就在那,我不敢相信竟然从来没有人发现它,”内里讲道。内里的作品包括《贫民区中的牛仔》(Ghetto Cowboy),此外还写过五本其他的青少年读物。“她和杜鲁门将真实的生活作为小说素材,我对这种做法进行确认和研究,然后觉得或许我也可以这样做。”“Tru amp; Nelle,” which is to be released next spring, will follow the release this year of previously unpublished works of fiction by both Mr. Capote, who died in 1984, and Ms. Lee, 89, who remains in Monroeville, Ala., her hometown, in an assisted living facility.《杜鲁与妮尔》将在明年春天出版,在那之前,卡波特和哈珀·李一些未出版过的作品今年将会出版。卡波特去世于1984年。哈珀·李今年89岁,住在家乡阿拉巴马州门罗维尔(Monroeville)的一家养老院。Last month, HarperCollins released “Go Set a Watchman,” a novel Ms. Lee wrote and set aside nearly 60 years ago. In October, Random House will publish a collection of lost short stories that Mr. Capote wrote when he was a teenager and young man. Both books shed new light on these authors’ creative development, their coming of age and their ties to the South.哈珀柯林斯出版社(Harper Collins)上月出版了《设立守望者》,哈·珀李在60年前写了这本书,只不过写完后就把它放到了一边。十月,兰登书屋(Random House)将出版卡波特的遗作短篇小说集,这些作品写于卡波特的少年和成人时期。两本书都可以展现作者的成长轨迹,思路发展历程,以及他们的南部情结。“They used the same town and people and events, but used them differently and saw them differently,” Mr. Neri said.“他们使用了相同的小镇、故事和人物,只不过运用手法不同,看待的角度也不同,”内里说。“Go Set a Watchman,” which takes place 20 years after “Mockingbird” when Scout is an adult, is punctuated by flashbacks to her childhood adventures with her brother, Jem, and her best friend, Dill, the Capote figure: “He was a short, square-built, cotton-headed individual with the face of an angel and the cunning of a stoat,” Ms. Lee wrote. “He was a year older than she, but she was a head taller.”《设立守望者》的故事发生在《杀死一只知更鸟》的20年后,成年的斯库特脑海里不时重现童年时和哥哥杰姆(Jem)以及最好的朋友迪尔在一起的奇遇。迪尔就是那个卡波特式的人物:“他个头矮小,宽阔坚实,有着天使一般的面容和鼬鼠一般的机智,”李写道。“他比她年长一岁,但她比他高出一头。”In one scene of “Watchman” that parallels an actual childhood incident, Dill, Scout and Jem put on a mock Baptist revival, culminating with a baptism in the fish pond. To their mortification, their antics are interrupted by dinner guests, the minister and his wife. In reality, Nelle, Truman and his cousin put on a mock carnival sideshow on a similar occasion, shocking the visitors, an episode woven into Mr. Neri’s book.《设立守望者》中还有一个场景与童年时期李和卡波特实际遇到的事件相似。迪尔、斯库特和杰姆模仿了一场培灵会,最后在鱼塘中举行洗礼,但他们的古怪举动被来访的神父和神父的妻子打断。现实生活中,妮尔、杜鲁门和杜鲁门的表(堂)兄在相似的场合也曾模仿狂欢节的表演,震惊来宾。这个故事被内里编写进了《杜鲁与妮尔》中。The forthcoming collection by Mr. Capote also features stories set in a small Southern town like Monroeville, where they both lived as children. Peter Haag, owner of Kein amp; Aber, which publishes Mr. Capote in German, stumbled upon them while doing research in the Capote archive at the New York Public Library. Some pieces had appeared in school magazines, but most had never been published. A few were printed last year in German in a German magazine.即将出版的卡波特小说集也有一些场景设立在南部小镇门罗维尔,李和卡波特的童年都在那里度过。出版家彼得·哈格(Peter Haag)在纽约公共图书馆做卡波特资料研究时,看到这些故事时停住了。一些文章在校园杂志中出现过,但大部分从未发表。另外有一些的德文译本去年发表在德国的几本杂志上。彼得·哈格拥有Kein amp; Aber出版社,该出版社此前出版了卡波特作品的德文译本。“The stories provide ample evidence that Capote had found his own voice by a very early age and, at the same time, had to work hard to develop it,” David Ebershoff, who is editing the book of stories for Random House, said in an email.“这些故事充分明,卡波特很早就找到了自己的风格。并且不得不勤奋写作,使这种风格得以发展,”兰登书屋即将出版的那本小说集的编辑戴维·艾伯豪夫(David Ebershoff)在一封邮件中说道。Born a year and a half apart, the young Harper and Truman both had active imaginations and distant mothers. Neither of them fit in especially well in a small Southern community.李和卡波特出生的日期相隔一年半,年少的二人都具有非常活跃的想像力,与母亲关系疏远,都不适应南方的小地方的生活。“Nelle was too rough for the girls, and Truman was scared of the boys, so he just tagged on to her and she was his protector,” a family friend, Charles Ray Skinner, recalled in “Mockingbird,” Charles J. Shields’s biography of Ms. Lee. When schoolyard bullies ganged up on Truman, who was small for his age, Nelle, who was younger, got in fistfights to protect him.“对女孩们来说,妮尔过于强硬,而杜鲁门则害怕男孩们。杜鲁门投向了妮尔,而妮尔成为了他的保护者,”与李一家相熟的朋友查尔斯·雷·斯金纳(Charles Ray Skinner)在查尔斯·J·希尔兹(Charles J. Shields)所著传记《知更鸟:哈珀·李的肖像》(Mockingbird)中回忆道。杜鲁门在同龄人中非常弱小,学校的恶霸在操场合起来欺负杜鲁门,年龄更小的妮尔就会用拳头保护他。Ms. Lee, who stopped giving formal interviews in the 1960s, once described feeling bound to Mr. Capote by “a common anguish” and said of her childhood, “We lived in our imagination most of the time.” Mr. Capote recalled in an interview that the two often felt like “apart people.”李在60年代停止接受正式的采访。她曾经形容她与卡波特被一种“共通的痛苦”连结在一起,谈到童年时,她说,“我们大部分时间都活在想像中。”卡波特在一次采访中回忆道,他们两个经常觉得自己“与众不同”。Mr. Neri came up with the idea for a novel about their friendship in February 2014, when he was watching “Capote,” a biopic starring Philip Seymour Hoffman, and remembered the past that the two writers shared as children. As a longtime fan of the work of the authors, Mr. Capote in particular, Mr. Neri wondered why no one had written a book about their childhood.内里想到要写这样一本小说是在2014年2月,当时他正在看由菲利普·塞默·霍夫曼(Philip Seymour Hoffman)主演的《卡波特》,回想起了这两个作者小时候的共同经历。作为两人的长期追随者,特别是卡波特的书迷,内里感到奇怪,为什么没有一个人就他们的童年写一本书。He started researching their lives, ing biographies and interviews. Some of the richest material came from Jennings Faulk Carter, Mr. Capote’s cousin and a frequent co-conspirator during Tru and Nelle’s escapades. Mr. Carter gave a detailed oral history to Marianne Moates Weber for her book, “Truman Capote’s Southern Years.” “These stories were amazing — they were colorful and outrageous and funny and tragic,” Mr. Neri said in a telephone interview from Tampa, Fla., where he lives. “Tru amp; Nelle” hews closely to history. It opens with their first encounter one summer in Monroeville, when Nelle was 6 and Truman 7, and ends with a dramatic scene with hooded Ku Klux Klan members arriving at a Halloween party that Truman was hosting. According to an account given by Mr. Capote’s cousin, Klan members came because they heard African-American guests had been invited to the costume party, and left after Nelle’s father, A. C. Lee, confronted them.内里开始研究李和卡波特的生活,阅读他们传记和采访。詹宁斯·福克·卡特(Jennings Faulk Carter)提供了最丰富的资料,他是卡波特的表(堂)兄,也是杜鲁和妮尔童年历险的同谋小伙伴。卡特为玛丽安娜·莫特·韦伯(Marianne Moates Weber)的《杜鲁门·卡波特的南方岁月》(Truman Capote#39;s Southern Years)做了详细的口述。“这些故事棒极了——他们非常有色,有趣并且带点悲剧性”,内里在佛罗里达坦帕(Tampa)接受电话采访时这样说道,目前他居住在坦帕。《杜鲁和妮尔》非常接近于历史,以妮尔和杜鲁门六七岁时在门罗维尔的相遇开端,以3K党成员来到卡波特举办的万圣节聚会的戏剧性场面结尾。根据卡特的讲述,3K党成员之所以前来,是因为他们听说非裔美国人被邀请来化装舞会。妮尔的父亲A.C.李(A. C. Lee)和他们展开对峙,而后3K党成员离开。The novel ends on a bittersweet note, when Truman leaves for New York not long after the Halloween party, when he is about 8 years old. The real story was much messier, though.小说收尾的情节喜忧参半。万圣节聚会后不久,8岁的杜鲁门去了纽约,尽管真实的故事比这更复杂一点。Mr. Capote continued to visit Monroeville in summer. He published his first novel in his early 20s. Ms. Lee, encouraged by his success, moved to New York to write when she was 23, despite her family’s misgivings.卡波特依旧在夏天探访门罗维尔。20几岁时,他发表了第一本小说。李被他的成功而鼓励,在23岁时搬到纽约进行写作,尽管她的家里为她担心。But their friendship was strained by bitterness and rivalry. Mr. Capote envied the success of “Mockingbird,” which won the Pulitzer Prize. Rumors sp alleging that he had written “Mockingbird” for Ms. Lee. She was stung when Mr. Capote relegated her to the acknowledgments of “In Cold Blood,” after she helped to research it and contributed 150 pages of typed notes. Toward the end of his life, Mr. Capote drank and used drugs heavily, alienating many of his friends, including Ms. Lee. He died of liver disease at the age of 59. “Drugs and alcohol did not cause his insanity, they were the result of it,” Ms. Lee wrote to an acquaintance.他们友谊被不安和竞争的痛苦所损害。《杀死一只知更鸟》赢得普林策奖,获得成功,卡波特因此感到嫉妒。传言四起,是卡波特为李写了这本书。而卡波特在《冷血》的致谢中并未提及哈珀;此前,李帮助他做研究,打印了150页的笔记。卡波特在人生末尾过量饮酒和吸毒,疏远了包括李在内的许多朋友,59岁时因肝病去世。“他的疯狂不是药品和酒精造成的,药品和酒精只是这种疯狂的结果,”李在给一位熟人的信中写道。Literary influence is hard to measure, and it’s impossible to say how Harper Lee and Truman Capote might have developed creatively in isolation, had they not spurred each other on as young writers.文学上的成就难以衡量,如今人们已经很难想像,哈珀·李和杜鲁门·卡波特如果没有在年轻时相互鼓励,后来会各自发展成什么样。Mr. Neri offers a theory toward the end of his novel, when Tru proposes a pact: “ ‘I’ll make you a deal: I’ll write, but only if you promise to write as well. Then we can mail each other our stories,’ he said, hopeful.”内里在小说接近末尾时提供了一个解释,杜鲁提出了一个约定:“‘说定了,我会继续写作,但前提是你答应也会写作。之后我们可以把自己的故事发送给对方,’他说道,对未来充满憧憬。” /201509/399840

  Uniforms are a pervasive part of many societies. But in China there seems to be a particular adherence to uniforms. From entering the subway, passing security and stepping onto the train, you will have encountered not one, but multiple uniformed staff. Walking down the street will have meant dodging bright orange street cleaners, food-delivery staff on scooters or identically dressed salon workers receiving their morning briefing. Upon entering your office, you may have passed uniformed security guards on your way to colleagues dressed in suits and ties. They’re inescapable.制是许多社会普遍存在的一部分。但是中国人似乎更钟情于制。当你乘地铁、过安检和坐火车时,你都会看到穿着各种制的工作人员。当你走在街上,随处可以看到穿着明亮橘色制的清洁工,骑着踏板车的送餐员以及接受早训的沙龙务员。当你去办公室时,你会遇见穿着制的保安,以及西装革履的同事。制无处不在。The uniform#39;s place in Chinese society can be traced back through the country#39;s history. As in most places across the world, they have been worn throughout the ages in the military to distinguish between factions and provide protection. Each dynasty favored a different style for its soldiers. Drawings of soldiers from the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770-221 B.C.) show studded boots and uniforms with heavy arm and torso protection, whereas similar depictions from the Sui Dynasty (A.D. 581-618) illustrate draped and layered military wear. Uniforms were often as fierce as the battles their wearers fought in.制在中国社会的地位是有历史可以追溯的。就像在世界其他地方一样,士兵穿制,一是为了区分军事派别,二是为了提供保护。每一个朝代的士兵制的风格都不同,从东周时期手绘士兵的画像可以看出,他们穿着沉重的靴子和制以保护手臂和身体,同样的,从隋朝时期士兵的画像可以看出,他们都披着一层一层的盔甲。制常常是士兵在激烈战斗中最好的保护。Uniforms were also designed to show status and mark levels of authority. In China, the Terracotta Warriors in Xi’an were molded to wear styles commonly found in the Qin Dynasty (221-207 B.C.). Officers#39; ranks were discernible by their dress, with generals wearing a dual long jacket, long pants, thigh protectors, a crest hat and a pair of boots with square tips.制也通常用来显示权威者的地位和阶级。在中国,西安兵马俑的穿着常见于秦朝。通过他们的穿着,可以明显地分辨出军官的军衔,例如,将军都是穿着两层长袍,长裤子,一双长方靴和带着一顶帽子。But at points throughout history, uniforms were deemed fashion items too. Zhongshan suits (Chinese tunic suits, above) were hugely popular among males in 1950s, with women’s clothing based on a similar style. Introduced by Sun Yat-Sen and made famous by Mao Zedong who favored it in public, hence the nickname ‘Mao suit’, the clothing became a form of national dress.然而在历史上,制也曾是时尚物品。中山装在20世纪50年代非常受欢迎,甚至女性的装也是类似的风格。中山装是由孙中山发明的,由于毛泽东非常喜欢在公共场合穿,因此中山装又称“毛装”。自此中山装成为了一种民族饰。In the military, clothing now follows the generic western style of pants, jacket and a hat. The Zhongshan suit has also undergone modernization. With an altered shape and more streamlined look, the once shapeless garment is now fitted and more flattering for the male body. But while it is still a popular choice for Chinese leaders during important events, tunic suits are rarely seen in wider society.军事上,装一般都是遵循西式的风格,长裤、夹克以及帽子。原本没什么型的中山装也经历了现代化,款式上有了改变,更流线型的外观、更合体的剪裁凸显出男性的身材美。尽管在重要场合,中山装仍是中国领导人的首要选择,但是在社会日常生活中很少见。Yet, there are many places where uniforms live on. This is the case in the hospitality industry in particular, explains Catalina Calin, director of Calin Fashion Academy in Beijing.北京Calin时装学院校长Catalina Calin称,仍然有很多地方需要制,尤其是务业。“In Europe, you don#39;t see uniforms that often [compared to China]. Hospitality is the one industry that is still using them because they can project the type of service or professionalism that you are expecting,; she says. ;A uniform is very important for how a client sees you, but it’s also important for how the employee is feeling. The uniform has to be fitted right for the person to feel confident and beautiful.”“与中国相比,欧洲穿制的人不那么常见。从事务业的人仍然穿制,因为这可以投射出你所期望的务和专业”,她还说,“制是客户如何看待你的一个标准,但员工的感觉也很重要,合身的制穿在身上能够展现自信和美丽”。Calin believes there will be more emphasis on uniforms#39;appearance in the future: ;Chinese ladies are starting to become more conscious of their appearance and beauty. This flows through to the places they work, which have to fit their needs,; she says, citing staff the New World Hotel’s Yin on 12 bar as an example of progression. ;They wear short black skirts, rock-style shoes and dark make-up. This brings a very cool image to the bar.;Calin认为,未来将会更加重视制的外观,她说“中国女性越来越在意自己的外表。她们工作的地方也需满足她们的这一需求”。以New World Hotel酒吧的员工为例,“她们穿黑色短裙,摇滚风的鞋子,画着烟熏妆,这带给人一种非常酷的印象”。But China#39;s love affair with uniforms stretches far beyond hospitality. While there is no single explanation for this, it may reflect a more inherently collectivist culture, where self-identity is shaped by group memberships. In the workplace, or in schools, people feel a stronger sense of self if they are able to define themselves as part of a group.但是在中国,不仅仅是务业钟情于制,虽然对此没有单一的解释,但是这可能反应了一种内在的集体文化,自我认同往往体现在集体关系中。在工作场所或者学校,如果能够成为集体中的一部分,那么他们就有很强的自我认同感。On the streets of Beijing, the way people feel about wearing uniforms varies wildly. Outside Ginza Mall we find Xing (above), a safety officer from Shanxi, wearing a dark blue-black shirt, pants and hat. ;I feel like a soldier when I wear my uniform,; he declares, demonstrating an army-like pose. “It makes me feel like I#39;m part of a team. I like all of it.;在北京的街头,人们对穿制的感受参差不齐。在银座购物中心外面,我们采访了邢,一个来自山西的保安,他穿着一套藏青色的保安(如上图所示)。“当我穿上制时,我感觉自己像一个战士,”他说,同时站了一个军姿,“这让我感觉我是这个团队的一员,我非常喜欢这一切。”But not all are so positive about their work clothes. Zhao (below left), a 55-year-old former architect from Zhangjiakou, has been a cleaner around Dongzhimen for half a year. Like most cleaners, he is given two uniforms (one for winter and a lighter one for summer). Currently, he is wearing an orange jacket and pants and a pair of worn-out gray gloves, while carrying a straw broom and bucket in hand.然而并不是所有的人都喜欢他们的工作,来自张家口的55岁的赵(下图左),之前是一个建筑师,现在在东直门做清洁工已经半年了。像大多数清洁工一样,他有两套工作(一套是冬天的,一套是夏天的)。目前,他穿着一套橙色的装,带着一副破烂的灰色手套,手里拿着扫帚和桶。;I don#39;t like the color. If I could change my uniform I#39;d change the color because the orange doesn#39;t look very attractive. The uniform isn#39;t comfortable. It#39;s checked regularly though so we can#39;t change it in any way,; says Zhao, who says that cleaners all wear their own shoes but that their employers provide washing powder.他说,“我不喜欢这个颜色。如果我能改变我的工作,我会改变这个颜色,因为橙色不大好看。而且这个工作也不舒,因为会定期检查,所以我们没法改变它”,他还说,清洁工都是穿自己的鞋子,但是雇主会提供洗衣粉。In fact, cleaners#39; uniforms in Beijing differ according to location. One cleaner at Tiananmen Square, Liu (above right), 51, wears a royal-blue suit with yellow accents as he rides in a small electric cart with a bucket picking up trash. ;My uniform is comfortable and I think the blue looks good,; he says.事实上,工作区域不同,北京清洁工的制也是不同的。刘(上图右)今年51岁,是天安门广场的一个清洁工,穿着一件宝蓝色制,前胸是一抹醒目的黄色,他骑着一辆小型电动车,后面是一个捡垃圾的铲斗。他说,“我的制很舒,我觉得蓝色很好看。”His uniform is in stark contrast to Zhao#39;s bright orange. The latter#39;s dress may be down to practical considerations, such as the heavy traffic in Dongzhimen and the need for greater visibility. But in the restaurant world, the style of uniform is largely dependent on the establishment#39;s level of service and cuisine. High-end restaurants feature more of a classic style (shirt, pants) than those found in fast-food restaurants, for instance, which favor casual wear in the form of polos and tracksuits.他的蓝色制与赵的橙色制形成鲜明对比。后者可能出于实际穿衣的考虑,例如,东直门的交通繁忙,需要更大的关注度。但是在餐饮业,制的风格很大程度上取决于务和烹饪的水平。高级餐厅比快餐厅的制风格更经典,通常是衬衫和长裤,而快餐厅会穿休闲装,比如马球衫和运动。Zhang (above left), a server at the popular Guijie restaurant Culiang Renjia, wears a floral-printed top-and-pant combination with simple black shoes and pigtailed hair. Apart from a faint resemblance to pajamas, the uniform is visually appealing, and it fits the restaurant#39;s theme of nostalgia.张(上图左),是簋街粗粮人家餐厅的务员,穿着一套印花套装,一双简单的黑布鞋,梳着麻花辫。除了有点像睡衣这点不足外,这套制看起来很有吸引力,这非常符合餐厅怀旧的风格。;I like my uniform because it#39;s unique and looks nice,” she says. ;It#39;s very comfortable.;“我非常喜欢我的制,因为它看起来很独特,很不错”,她说,“而且它很舒”。As in most countries, uniform wearing begins from a young age in China. A student at Beijing No. 55 Middle School, 12-year old Fu (below), wears the mandatory tracksuit school uniform in blue, white and red. The tracksuit-style uniform has been worn by schoolchildren for more than two decades.像许多国家一样,中国人也是从很小的年纪开始穿制的。附(下图),北京第55中学的学生,今年12岁了,身着学校强制性统一的蓝白红相间的校。学生穿运动风格的校已经20多年了。;Foreigners at my school don#39;t have to wear the uniform. I#39;d rather not have to wear it either because I don#39;t think it looks very good. I think other countries#39; school uniforms look much better.;“外国学生在我们学校不用穿校。我也不想穿,因为我觉得我们的校不好看,我觉得其他国家的校要好看得多。”She tells us that her school has three uniforms (though all are variations on the tracksuit), which cost RMB480 altogether. The tracksuits were designed – like many school uniforms – to prevent comparisons between students#39; appearances and to eliminate worries over clothing choice. The style fulfills these criteria, but at what cost? As one online commentator bluntly assessed: ;They are the ugliest in the world.;他告诉我们,学校共发了三套校(都是运动风格的),一共480元。像许多校一样,运动风格的设计是为了防止学生之间攀比,也是为了消除学生选择穿什么衣的忧虑。校满足这些要求,但是代价是什么呢?一位在线者直言不讳地评价:“这些校是全世界最丑的。”This particular comment came after US First Lady Michelle Obama visited a Beijing high school in 2014 and photos from the trip were splashed across social media. Commentators pointed out that the tracksuit is practical and wear-resistant, though many expressed that other designs can fulfill the same goals.这个特别的是在美国第一夫人米歇尔2014年访问北京一所高中时发表的,她的行程照片被刊登在社交媒体上。者指出运动很实用,耐磨,但是很多人同时表示其他设计也能达到这一要求。For students, as with adults, uniforms can increase the wearer#39;s confidence. Some believe that more stylish school wear may help students perform better (or feel happier, at least). In April 2013, the Henan Provincial Experimental School in Zhengzhou decided to let students design their own uniforms. The results were met with praise from parents and the public, and delight from students.学生和成年人一样,穿制可以增加他们的信心。一些人表示穿时髦的校可以帮助学生表现得更好(至少他们会感到更开心)。2013年4月,河南省郑州市实验学校决定让学生自己设计校,这一决定受到家长和公众的一致好评,学生也从中得到了乐趣。;Students have their own sense of aesthetics at their age,; the school#39;s Student Affairs Director, Feng Yan, told CCTV.“这个年龄段的学生有他们自己的审美观”,该校的教务处主任冯艳告诉央视。Such experiments are not necessarily a sign of relaxing attitudes toward uniforms in contemporary China. Despite a growing sense of individualism among younger generations, uniforms#39; historic, cultural and practical role may see them widely retained across the country – and across industries. But while dressing in the same way may be, in some respects, the antithesis of fashion, uniforms are also subject to change over time. If these changes can accommodate both function and form, their place in society may be safe for some time to come.这一实验并不是指当代中国对制有了一定放松的态度。尽管年轻一代有着越来越强烈的个人主义观念,但制的历史性、文化性和实用性在全国各地广泛地保留着,而且是跨行业。在某些方面,穿着一样的衣可能是站在时尚的对立面,但制也在随着时间的改变而改变。如果这些改变能够同时兼顾功能和形式,那么制在社会中仍将保持它的地位。 /201511/409788

  

  

  Zhao Youqin (1271~1335) was a Chinese astronomer, mathematician, and Daoist who calculated the value of π, constructed astronomical instruments, conducted experiments with a camera obscura, and compiled an influential astronomical compendium.赵友钦(1271~1335 ),天文学家、数学家、道士。赵友钦算出了圆周率的值,建造了天文仪器,做了小孔成像实验并编了一本有影响的天文学纲要。Zhao was one of the patriarchs of the northern branch of the Quanzhen (;Complete Perfection;) sect of Daoism.赵友钦是全真教北宗掌门人之一。His astronomical treatise Gexiang xinshu (;New Writing on the Symbol of Alteration;) presents his cosmological theory featurfing a flat Earth inside a spherical Heaven, his explanation of the lunar and solar eclipses, and his experiments with a camera obscura to establish the relationship between the luminosity of an image of a source of light and the distance of the source from the pinhole.赵友钦的天文学论文《革象新书》展示了他的宇宙理论(他认为天圆地方)、他对日月食的解释以及确定光源与小孔的距离与所成之像的亮度之间的关系的试验。The book also describes his methods of remote surveying with gnomons to measure the distance from the Earth to the Sun, the Moon, and the stars, as well as his procedure for evaluating π using inscribed regular polygons of 4, 8, …, 16,384 sides.这本书还描述了赵友钦用日晷测量地球与太阳、月亮和星星之间的距离的方法以及使用正多边形估算圆周率的程序。Following Liu Hui(flourished c. 263), this is the second extant Chinese procedure for the evaluation of π.这是刘徽之后,我国现存的第二个估算圆周率的程序。Zhao stated that his goal was to confirm the value 355 / 113 obtained by Zu Chongzhi (429~500), yet his calculations may have allowed him to prove the validity of the better evaluation 3.1415926lt;πlt;3. 1415927, also obtained by Zu.赵友钦说他的目标是确祖冲之的355/113,但是他的计算却明祖冲之估算的另一个值3. 1415926 lt; π lt;3.1415927是正确的。The second extant book of Zhao, Xian Fo tongyuan (;On the Common Origins of [the Teachings of] Transcendentals and Buddhas;), is devoted to the so-called ;Inner Alchemy,; an esoteric discipline focusing on the attainment of immortality via respiratory and meditative practices.赵友钦现存的第二本书是《仙佛同源》。这是一本“内丹”名著。内丹是一个抽象的学科,它集中处理通过呼吸和冥想练习达到长生不老的问题。He designed several astronomical instruments; he used one of these to measure the difference in right ascension between two celestial bodies and another one to find the angular distance from the celestial north pole to a given star.赵友钦设计了一些天文仪器;他用其中一个仪器测量两个天体的赤经差,用另一个仪器测北极与某颗星的角距离。 /201603/431563

  

  

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