明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年07月17日 20:43:17
A new art market season has begun, and with it another sequence of multimillion-dollar auctions that will amaze and mystify those unacquainted with the inner workings of the art world.新的艺术市场季已经开始,随之而来的是新一轮数百万美元的拍卖会,它们会让那些不熟悉艺术界内幕的人感到震惊和迷惑。Auctions have, for centuries, been a theatrical way to sell art. But over the past two or three years, with the proliferation of high-value guarantees at Sotheby’s and Christie’s flagship contemporary sales — and the complex financial arrangements that go with them — they have become a form of spectacle that even experienced audience members can struggle to fully understand.几百年来,拍卖会一直是一种激动人心的艺术品销售方式。但是,在过去两三年里,随着苏富比拍卖行(Sotheby’s)和佳士得拍卖行(Christie’s)的一流当代艺术拍品大量出现高价保金以及复杂的财务安排,拍卖会变成一种奇观,甚至连有经验的观众也很难完全理解。In London in October and in New York in November, auctioneers will invite bids for certain artworks that have, for all intents and purposes, aly been sold. A flurry of imaginary “chandelier” bidding often leads up to the undisclosed guarantee price being bid, either by an unidentified third-party (who ensured the sale in return for a cut of any “upside”) or by the auction house itself, usually through a staff-member on the phone. This may well be followed by further bidding from unidentified would-be buyers on telephones or in the room, sometimes against further bids from the guarantor, until the hammer finally falls.10月份在伦敦,11月份在纽约,拍卖公司将对某些实际上已经卖出的艺术品进行竞价。莫须有的紧张的“吊灯”叫价(拍卖师在竞价初期假装看到有人出价,实际上拍卖师手指的方向可能只有吊灯——译注)通常会导致叫价达到秘密的担保价(提供担保的是不透露身份的第三方[回报是能获得部分“溢价”]或拍卖公司),这种叫价通常是员工在电话中报出的。之后,不知名的未来买家可能会通过电话或在拍卖现场继续叫价,有时是与担保人竞价,直到拍卖槌最终落下。“The auction houses have created a theatrical experience, heightening the emotion of buying and selling,” Greg B. Davies, head of behavioral and quantitative finance at Barclays Bank, said in a telephone interview. “The insiders are in a privileged position. They are networked. Outsiders can buy access to the assets, but not the knowledge base. This creates a barrier. You’re either in the fold or not.”巴克莱(Barclays Bank)的行为与量化金融主管格雷格·B·戴维斯(Greg B. Davies)在接受电话采访时说,“拍卖公司营造了一种激动人心的体验,拉动买卖情绪。内部人士拥有特权。他们有自己的关系网。局外人能够付钱获得某些信息,但是得不到整个信息库。这就树了一道屏障,把圈内人和局外人隔开。”A painting might sell at a public auction for more than 0 million, and the identities of the seller, the guarantor, the external bidders and the final buyer will remain cloaked in confidentiality. More than four months later, the wider world has yet to gain any definitive idea who sold, guaranteed or bought the 1955 Picasso painting “Les Femmes d’Alger, (Version ‘O’)” which soared to an all-time auction high of 9.4 million at Christie’s on May 11.一件画作可能在公开拍卖会上以一亿多美元成交,但是卖家、担保人、外部竞价人以及最终买家的身份依然不得而知。四个多月后,外部世界仍不知道毕加索(Picasso)1955年画作《阿尔及尔女人(O版)》(Les Femmes d’Alger [Version ‘O’])的卖家、担保人和买家。在5月11日的佳士得拍卖会上,那件作品的成交价飙升至史上最高的1.794亿美元。Back in January, at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, the American economist Nouriel Roubini, who is a collector, ruffled feathers by telling The Financial Times that the art market needed more regulation because it had become routinely susceptible to trading on insider information, money laundering, price manipulation and tax evasion.今年1月,在瑞士达沃斯的世界经济论坛上,美国经济学家兼收藏家努里尔·鲁比尼(Nouriel Roubini)愠怒地对《金融时报》(The Financial Times)说,艺术市场需要更多监管,因为这个行业往往是靠内部信息进行交易,存在洗钱、价格操纵和逃税等行为。The theme was picked up again on Sept. 3 at the 2015 Art Business Conference in London. Robert Hiscox, former chairman of Hiscox Insurance and another prominent collector, told more than 300 delegates that the art trade was the like “the Wild West.” He added that it was the last “unregulated market” and that unregulated markets did not work because “people are too venal.”9月3日,在伦敦的2015年艺术交易行业大会(Art Business Conference)上,这个话题再次被提起。著名收藏家、希斯考克斯保险公司(Hiscox Insurance)的前总裁罗伯特·希斯考克斯(Robert Hiscox)对300多名代表说,艺术品交易就像“疯狂的西部”。他补充说,艺术市场是最后一个“未被监管的市场”,这样的市场难以维持,因为“人们往往见利忘义”。This year, outsiders have been given a peek into the murk at the top of the art world courtesy of the continuing legal dispute between the Russian billionaire Dmitry E. Rybolovlev and the Swiss businessman and dealer Yves Bouvier. Mr. Bouvier is alleged to have made excessive undisclosed profits while compiling a collection of about 40 works by famous artists for Mr. Rybolovlev.今年,透过俄罗斯亿万富翁德米特里·E·雷洛夫列夫(Dmitry E. Rybolovlev)和瑞士商人兼交易商伊夫·布维耶(Yves Bouvier)之间的一系列法律纠纷,圈外人看到了艺术界顶层的黑暗。据称,布维耶为雷洛夫列夫收集了约40件著名艺术家的作品,其间暗自谋取过量收益。Among the transactions, Mr. Rybolovlev said he paid 7.5 million for a Leonardo da Vinci that he subsequently discovered Mr. Bouvier had acquired privately for between and million. In Monaco, Mr. Bouvier is fighting private and public legal actions on charges of fraud and complicity in money laundering, and in France he is under investigation for the alleged theft of two Picasso gouache paintings.雷洛夫列夫说,他付1.275亿美元购买了莱奥纳多·达芬奇(Leonardo da Vinci)的一件作品,后来发现,布维耶私吞了7500万美元至8000万美元。在纳哥,布维耶被指控诈骗,串通洗钱,正在应对私下和公开的法律诉讼;在法国,因为涉嫌参与盗窃毕加索的两幅水粉画,他正在接受调查。These cases would seem to validate the assertion made at the Art Business Conference by Pierre Valentin, a partner in the London law firm Constantine Cannon, that to characterize the art market as unregulated was “complete nonsense,” since legal processes are at least in operation. He told delegates that research by his firm had shown that the British art market, for example, was governed by 167 laws and regulations, “and that figure was going up, not going down.” He did suggest, however, that there should be “targeted” measures to regulate “certain auction practices and certain types of insider dealing.”这些案件似乎实了伦敦律师事务所Constantine Cannon的合伙人皮埃尔·瓦伦丁(Pierre Valentin)在艺术交易行业大会上的说法。他说,称艺术市场缺乏监管“毫无道理”,因为法律诉讼至少正在进行。他对代表们说,他的公司的调查表明,以英国艺术市场为例,有167项法律条文和规章制度在监管这个市场,“而且这个数字在上升,而非下降”。不过,他也提到,应该有一些“针对性的”措施来监管“某些拍卖行为和内幕交易”。All the major auction houses maintain that they are rigorous in upholding ethical business practices at their sales. Mitzi Mina, head of Sotheby’s London media office, said in an e-mail that her auction house “has in place a comprehensive and robust know-your-client program which amongst other things, ensures we are in compliance with the latest anti-money laundering/anti-corruption regulations in place throughout our selling locations.”所有大型拍卖公司都坚称自己在拍卖中严格遵守职业道德。苏富比的伦敦媒体主管米齐·米纳(Mitzi Mina)在接受邮件采访时说,该拍卖行“设立了全面有效的客户了解程序,确保遵守所有拍卖地最新的反洗钱、反腐败规定”。Nonetheless, it’s not particularly difficult to dream up ways of making money in the art market in a gray sort of way.不过,想出在艺术市场上用灰色手段赚钱的方法并不太难。Say, for example, I discover a brilliant young artist on Facebook. After a crazy week at my house in the Hamptons, he has made 30 abstract paintings for me, which I’ve bought for a total of ,000. Having posted examples on Instagram, I enter one of these paintings into a contemporary day sale and ask two business associates, who are cut in on the deal, to bid it up to 0,000. After the sale, a benchmark auction price posted on Artnet, and news of the artist’s inclusion in a forthcoming museum show — which happens to be curated by a friend of mine — establishes my new acquaintance as a hot young artist. Over the next six months, we discreetly sell 20 more paintings at auction and privately for an average price of ,000 each.假设,我在Facebook上发现一位有才华的年轻艺术家。他在我汉普顿的家中疯狂创作一周,画了30幅抽象画,我以9万美元全部买下。我在Instagram上发布一些样品,把其中一幅画提交到一场当代艺术品拍卖会上拍卖,让两位商业伙伴半路加入叫价,把拍卖价拉升至15万美元。拍卖结束后,在Artnet上发布基准拍卖价,同时发布新闻,宣告这位艺术家的作品已列入即将举行的物馆展览——展览碰巧是我的一位朋友策划的——这样,我就把这位刚结识的朋友塑造成热门年轻艺术家。在接下来的六个月里,我们在拍卖会上悄悄卖出20多幅画,每件的平均售价为7万美元。This fictional scenario may or may not have parallels with last year’s mania for “flipping” young art at auction. But there’s no escaping the increasing opacity of certain moments at recent public sales. Just what exactly is going on when a dealer tops up the bidding on a young artist in whom he has taken an investment position? And are there conflicts of interest when an auction house shares a financial guarantee with a third party?这个虚构的情节可能与去年“迅速转售”年轻艺术家作品的狂热有雷同之处,也可能不太一样。不过,毋庸置疑的是,最近的公开拍卖出现了越来越多不透明的时刻。交易商既是年轻艺术家的投资人,又在拉高此人作品的叫价,这到底是怎么回事?拍卖公司与第三方共同提供担保的做法是否存在利益冲突?“There is a growing sense that some business practices, particularly at the high end of the auction sector, lack transparency and invite suggestions of insider trading,” Tom Flynn, director of the art market master’s degree program at Kingston University, in London, who moderated a panel at the conference, said in a telephone interview.汤姆·弗林(Tom Flynn)是伦敦金斯顿大学(Kingston University)的艺术市场硕士学位项目主管。他在艺术交易行业大会上主持了一个专题讨论。他在电话采访中说,“人们越来越觉得,有些行业行为缺乏透明度,存在内幕交易的嫌疑,尤其在高端拍卖领域。”Mr. Flynn and Mr. Valentin are among a number of people who think that the auction houses might benefit from some more regulatory attention.弗林和瓦伦丁等人认为,更多监管可能有益于拍卖公司。But this is rather different from the systemic issues that nearly 20 years ago led the ed States Justice Department to began a three-year criminal investigation into auction house collusion. In 2000, Sotheby’s and Christie’s were compelled to pay a combined 2 million to settle claims that they cheated their buyers and sellers. In April 2002, a federal judge sentenced A. Alfred Taubman, Sotheby’s principal owner and former chairman, to a year and a day in prison and fined him .5 million for his role in the price-fixing scheme.不过,这与约20年前的系统性问题大不相同。当时的问题导致美国司法部对拍卖公司的合谋定价进行了为期三年的刑事调查。2000年,苏富比和佳士得被控欺骗买卖双方,被迫联合赔偿5.12亿美元,才得以和解。2002年4月,苏富比的主要所有者兼前总裁A·艾尔弗雷德·陶布曼(A. Alfred Taubman)因参与价格垄断被美国联邦法院判处一年零一天刑期和750万美元罚款。Mr. Taubman died in April, at the age of 91. Emphasizing how times have changed since that collusion scandal, Sotheby’s has secured its former boss’s art collection for sale in November and January, but only after guaranteeing the Taubman estate a minimum price of 0 million to stave off Christie’s, its rival.今年4月,91岁的陶布曼去世。为了击败对手佳士得,得到这位前老板的艺术藏品拍卖权,苏富比提供了5亿美元的最低担保金。拍卖将于11月和明年1月进行。这说明,从那次串通丑闻之后,情况已大有不同。For the moment, most people involved in the art world remain pretty relaxed about the murkiness that awaits them in the forthcoming season.目前,艺术界的大部分人对即将到来的拍卖季的黑暗一面仍保持相当轻松的心态。“The opaqueness is an attraction,” Suzanne Gyorgy, global head of art advisory and finance at Citi Private Bank, said in an interview. “You become part of a game, with insider rules. I would like some more transparency with third-party guarantees. But people don’t want the art market to be regulated, because then all the fun would be taken out of it. Kind of like when Dorothy pulled back the curtain on Oz.”花期私人(Citi Private Bank)的全球艺术咨询和融资主管苏珊娜·捷尔吉(Suzanne Gyorgy)在接受采访时说,“这种不透明性具有吸引力。你按照内部人士的规则参与游戏。我希望第三方保金能更透明。但是人们不想让艺术市场遭到监管,因为那样的话,就没什么乐趣了。就像多萝西(Dorothy,《绿野仙踪》的女主人公——译注)拉开了奥兹国魔法师的帷幕。” /201510/404654

Eating hot dogs, ham and other processed meat can cause colorectal cancer, and eating red meat ;probably; can cause cancer, the World Health Organization#39;s cancer agency reported Monday.世界卫生组织在周一报道,热,火腿和其他加工肉制品可能导致直肠癌,吃红肉有可能导致癌症。Kurt Straif of the International Agency for Cancer Research said the risk of developing colorectal cancer from eating processed meat remains small but rises with the amount consumed. Consuming red meat was linked to colorectal, pancreatic and prostate cancer, but the link was not as strong, the IARC report said.国际癌症研究属Kurt Straif说,因为食用加工肉制品患癌症的风险仍然很低,但是随着食用量的增加,风险会增加。食用红肉可以导致直肠癌,胰腺和前列腺癌,但是研究属称,这一联系并不非常密切。;In view of the large number of people who consume processed meat, the global impact on cancer incidence is of public health importance,; Straif said.Straif说,;大量食用加工肉的人看来,癌症患病率的全球影响和公共健康重要性相关;。The IARC report labeled processed meat a carcinogen — cigarettes are similarly labeled — and said red meat is ;probably carcinogenic to humans.;国际癌症研究属将加工肉制品列为致癌品,和香烟属于同类,并且称,红肉可能对人类来说是致癌物。The North American Meat Institute scoffed at the report, saying it ignored ;numerous; studies showing no link between meat and cancer.北美肉类协会在报告中嘲讽道,研究属忽略了大量表明肉类和癌症之间没有关系的研究。;Red and processed meat are among 940 agents reviewed by IARC and found to pose some level of theoretical #39;hazard,; institute spokeswoman Betsy Booren said. ;Only one substance, a chemical in yoga pants, has been declared by IARC not to cause cancer.;;红肉和加工肉制品是国际癌症研究属发现并且认定为应该归入理论#39;有害#39;的940种物质之一;,机构发言人Betsy Booren说,;只有瑜伽裤种的一种化学成分被认定为无法致癌;。Processed meat was defined as meat transformed through salting, curing, fermentation, smoking ;or other processes to enhance flavor or improve preservation.; The most common processed meats consumed in the U.S. include hot dogs, sausages, bacon, ham, canned meat and beef jerky.加工肉制品是一种经过腌制,发酵,烟熏或者其他方法来提高口味和延长贮藏期的肉类。在美国常见的加工肉制品包括热,香肠,培根,火腿,罐装肉类和牛肉干。The IARC said it considered more than 800 studies that investigated possible links between a dozen types of cancer with the consumption of red meat or processed meat in many countries and populations with diverse diets.国际癌症研究属称,这一理论的提出,基于在许多国家和拥有不同饮食习惯的民族之间,展开的关于各类癌症和食用红肉以及加工肉制品间可能联系的800多项研究。The experts concluded that each 50 gram portion — about 1.75 ounce, or about two strips of bacon — of processed meat eaten daily increases the risk of colorectal cancer by 18%, the IARC said研究属报道,专家总结称,每天食用每50克,大约1.75盎司,或者大约两条培根的加工肉制品,可以增加直肠癌患病率18%。IARC director Christopher Wild said the findings support current public health recommendations to limit intake of meat but stressed that red meat has nutritional value. He said governments and international regulatory agencies must balance the risks and benefits of eating red meat and processed meat ;to provide the best possible dietary recommendations.;研究属署长Christopher Wild说,这一研究发现持目前公共健康限制肉类摄入的建议,但是他强调道,红肉营养价值很高。他说,政府和国际监管机构必须平衡食用红肉和加工肉制品的利弊,以便提供最好的可能饮食建议。 /201510/406593

Yuan Dynasty元朝The Decline and Fall元朝的衰败及灭亡Despite the act that the Mongolian emperors sought to emulate much of the Chinese style of rule they continued to be regarded by the Chinese as unwelcome invaders and this may well have been the cause of their eventual failure as rulers.尽管蒙古人寻求了各种方法来模仿汉人大部分的统治方式,他们仍被汉人认作不受欢迎的入侵者,这也许是导致作为统治者的他们最终失败的原因。There is evidence of the declining ability of the Mongolian rulers to exercise control.蒙古人控制能力的衰败有迹可循。The court was beset by intrigue which undermined the administration.朝廷被阴谋所困扰,这渐渐破坏了管理。Toghon Temur, the last Yuan ruler relied heavily on his councilors.元朝的最后一任皇帝——妥欢帖木儿过于依赖他的大臣。When he dismissed the Mongolian Toghto his action precipitated the disintegration of the government.当他罢免了蒙古脱脱,他的行为使整个政府迅速分崩离析。The loss of military advantage brought about by the deterioration of the military system through a lack of funding and equipment plus the fact that the military leaders had to turn to agriculture for their survival contributed to the fall of the Yuan.由资金和设备不足带来的军事系统的崩溃使元朝丧失了军事方面的优势,此外,军事长官们为了生计不得不转向农业,这也导致了元朝的覆灭。The garrison system set up to control local disturbances fell into disarray.为了控制地方骚乱而建立的卫戍部队体系陷入一片混乱。Rebellion became increasingly frequent from the 1330’s.从14世纪30年代开始,反叛频发。The most important of these was to become known as the Red Turban Rebellion.其中最著名的是“红巾起义”。Based upon a religious sect, these rebels were to rise up in several places in the Huaihe River region and elsewhere.以宗教派别为基础,叛乱的人在淮河流域和其他一些地区分别揭竿而起。The massive recruitment of labor to re-route the Yellow River was the cause of unrest and while some uprisings were led by religious fervor others were class led as the efforts were directed against landlords and officials.为了重改黄河河道而进行的大面积征集劳力是动荡局面的原因,其中一些起义被宗教热情所引导,另外一些起义军则被领导直接对抗地主和官员。The Yuan allowed these people to raise peasant armies to quell rebellion but a second round of revolt that proved more successful was led by Zhu Yuanzhang, who in 1368 was to become the first Ming emperor.元朝允许这些人建立农民军以镇压叛乱,但由朱元璋领导的第二轮反抗更加成功,他与1368年成为了明朝的开国皇帝。In many respects the Mongolian occupation of China is seen as unproductive but there were important developments in literature and drama.The other important feature concerns the military establishment.从很多方面来说,元朝对于中国的控制占领都是徒劳的,然而在文学和戏剧方面它取得了重要的发展。Prior to the Yuan period the concept of conscription was tantamount.另外一个重要的进步在于军队的建立。元朝之前,征兵的概念是有偿的。This could only work efficiently under a strong and effective central government.征兵制只能存在与强大而有效的中央政府之下。The Tang abandoned this idea and relied upon mercenaries, a practice followed also by the Song.唐朝废除了这一观点并依赖于雇佣兵,宋朝延续了唐朝的这一制度。The Yuan instituted a system of hereditary military families and this was to be continued by the Ming (1368—1644) and Qing (1644— 1911).元朝建立了世袭的军事家族,明朝(1368——1644)和清朝(1644——1911)又延续了元朝的这一制度。The practice played a part in ensuring dynastic strength but it also encouraged despotism.这种制度一方面确保了政权的实力另一方面却加强了专制。Finally,the legal system left a legacy.最终,这种法律体系得以传承。One notable aspect was the imposition of a responsibility upon a wrong doer to provide financial support for his victim in addition to any penalty.一个显著的方面就是做错了事的人在被处以惩罚之外将被征收罚款来为受害者提供经济上的资助。 /201512/412240




  Prevail of Taoism and Buddhism道教与佛教的盛行During the Northern and Southern dynasties, since most emperors believed in it, Buddhism grew rapidly despite the demolition incidents.南北朝期间,尽管存在拆除毁坏,佛教仍然发展迅速。Buddhism found a receptive audience in China, while the influence of Confucianism waned.当儒家思想的影响逐渐减弱时,佛教在中国被群众广为接受。During Northern Wei period, the rulers were the most generous patrons in both the north and south.北魏期间,帝王们是南北朝时期最慷慨的资助者。They took Buddhism as a nationwide religion in order to enforce his dominion.他们将佛教看作国教以加强自己的统治。In the north, large amounts of Buddhist caves and temples were built.在北方,佛教石窟与僧人寺庙被大量建立。Mogao Grottoes in today’s Dunhuang, Yungang Grottoes in Datong and Longmen Grottoes in Luoyang were three flourishing centers of Buddhist culture in its glory.今天敦煌的莫高窟,大同的云冈石窟和洛阳的龙门石窟是佛教灿烂的历史中三大繁盛的中心地区。Buddhist monastic establishment grew rapidly at that time.佛教修道院在那个时候也被迅速建立。By 477 there were reportedly 6478 Buddhist temples and 77258 monks and nuns in the north.据传,到477年,北方出现了6478座寺庙和77528为僧人尼姑。The south was said to have 2846 temples and 82700 clerics some decades later.据称南方在几十年后有2846座寺庙和82700位传教士。Emperor Wu of Liang had even contributed himself to experience as a Buddhist disciple in a temple for three times.凉武王甚至曾三次亲自到寺庙中体验佛教学徒的生活。In Jiankang (present Nanjing city in Jiangsu Province), Buddhist temples added up to 500 with 10000 monks.在建康(今江苏南京),寺庙数量增至500座,其中共有10000名僧人。Women turned to Buddhism as ily as men.女人和男人一样乐意投身于佛教。Originally one philosophy school of dozens schools in the Spring and Autumn Period, Taoism grew up into a religion in the late Eastern Han Dynasty (25—220 AD).道教起初是春秋时期拥有一些学院的哲学学派,东汉(公元25——220年)末年它成为了一种宗教。At first, it only gain the popularity among civilians and during the Jin Dynasty (265—420) it became a prevalence in the upper society一开始,它只在平民中受到欢迎,晋朝(265——420)时它在上层社会得到广泛流行,and in the succession of Northern Qi and Northern Liang, Taoism gained good graces of the ruler and once play a critical role in court.在之后的北齐和北凉道教得到了当权者的恩惠并一度在朝堂之上扮演重要角色。Taoist activities and ceremonies were held for worship purpose.道教活动和仪式被用来祭拜天神。 /201510/398425If you only got six hours#39; shut eye last night, there is no need to lose sleep over it.如果昨天晚上你睡够了六个小时,那么你真的没有必要再继续睡下去了。Scientists say that despite the widely held belief that we need eight hours of sleep a night, six to seven hours is the natural amount.尽管大多科学家都坚信一天需要睡八个小时,但是六个小时就已经是自然睡眠的足够时间了。Advising short-sleepers to rest easy, the US researchers said: #39;This has important implications for the idea that we need to take sleeping pills because sleep has been reduced from its natural level by the widesp use of electricity, TV, the internet and so on.#39;快速入睡者往往能得到更好的休息。美国的研究者称:这个结论暗示很多人都需要用安眠药,因为大量的使用像电视,网络这样的电器,会让人们的睡眠质量降到自然水平之下。The lead author of a study Ghandi said: #39;There#39;s this expectation that we should all be sleeping for eight or nine hours a night, and if you took away modern technology, people would be sleeping more.一项调查研究的第一作者甘地称:“人们期望每晚应有八至九小时的睡眠时间,且要是撇除现代科技,他们应睡更长时间。#39;But now, for the first time, we are showing that#39;s not true.#39;“然而如今我们是第一次展示这一观念不正确。”Most of those studied slept for less than seven hours a night, with the average amount just six hours and 25 minutes. This is much less than the eight hours often recommended in western societies.大多数被试者一晚的睡眠时间少于七小时,而平均睡眠时间只有六小时二十五分。这比西方社会经常倡导的八小时睡眠少多了。Despite this, the peoples studied were in good health, with lower rates of obesity, better blood pressure and healthier hearts than people in industrialised societies. They were also fitter.除此之外,这些被试身体状态良好。较之身处工业化社会的被试者,这些被试则享有更低的肥胖率、更优的血压状况以及更为健康的心脏。非工业化社会的被试者要更强壮。 /201510/404848Burning of Books and Burying of Scholars焚书坑儒1. Book burning1、焚书According to the Records of the Grand Historian, after the First Emperor of Qin annexed the State of Qi and unified China in 221 , his Chancellor Li Si suggested suppressing the freedom of speech, unifying all thoughts and political opinions.根据《史记》的记载,秦始皇吞并齐国并一统中国之后,他的丞相李斯建议压制演讲的自由,统一思想和政见。This was justified by accusations that the intelligentsia sang false praise and raised dissent through libel.这个建议被指责知识分子阿谀奉承和进行文字诽谤的论点明了它的合理性。Beginning in 213 B.C, all classic works of the Hundred Schools of Thought----except those from his own, the school of philosophy known as Legalism----were subject to burning.公元前213年开始,争鸣的所有典籍,除了他所尊崇的法家学说以外,全部被焚烧。Li Si proposed that all histories in the imperial archives except those written by the Qin historians be burned;李斯建议帝国档案馆里的所有史料,除去秦朝历史学家所撰写的,都应该被烧毁;that the Classic of Poetry, the Classic of History, and works by scholars of different schools be handed into the local authorities for burning;包括《诗经》、《书经》和那些由诸子所写的著作都应被收至中央进行焚烧;that anyone discussing these two particular books be executed;that those using ancient examples to satirize contemporary politics be put to death, along with their families;任何人谈论这两本书都应被处死,任何人用过去的例子来讽刺当朝的政治都应被处死,他们的家人也应被行刑;that authorities who failed to report cases that came to their attention were equally guilty;朝廷中有任何人知情不报同样该被治罪;and that those who had not burned the listed books within 30 days of the decree were to be banished to the north as convicts working on building the Great Wall.那些没有按圣旨在30天内焚烧名单上书籍的人应被发配到北疆和犯人们一起修建长城。The only books to be spared in the destruction were books on medicine, agriculture and divination.在焚书期间唯一得以流传的书籍是有关医药、农业和占卜的。2. Burial of the scholars2、坑儒After being deceived by two alchemists while seeking prolonged life, the First Emperor of Qin ordered more than 460 of them in the capital to be buried alive in the second year of the proscription, though an account given by Wei Hong in the 2nd century added another 700 to the figure.自从在寻找长生不老方法的过程中被两个炼金术士欺骗,秦始皇在放逐他们的第二年就在都城活埋了超过460个儒家学者,不过2世纪时卫宏又为这个数据增加了700个人。The Crown Prince Fusu counseled that, with the country newly unified, and enemies still not pacified, such a harsh measure imposed on those who respect Confucius would cause instability.太子扶苏劝谏说,对于一个刚刚统一的国家,外敌还未平定,对尊崇孔子学说的那些人采取这样严酷的刑法会造成不稳定。However, he was unable to change his father’s mind, and instead was sent to guard the frontier in a de facto exile.但是,他不仅无法改变秦始皇的想法,甚至还被发配至边疆充军。The quick fall of the Qin Dynasty was attributed to this proscription.秦朝如此快速的覆灭就源于这些对于人权的剥夺。Confucianism was revived in the Han Dynasty that followed, and became the official ideology of the Chinese imperial state.儒学思想在之后的汉代复兴并成为了中国封建社会的官方学说。However, many of the other schools of thought disappeared.然而,其他的思想学派却消失了。 /201509/397328

  It might be difficult to get a good night#39;s sleep the night beforea big interview, but we all know it helps.  大型面试前一晚可能很难睡个好觉,但我们都知道睡眠很有帮助。  Now, new research shows that on top of helping peopleperform better, getting more sleep also makes individualsappear more intelligent to teachers and prospective employers.  新的研究表明,充足的睡眠除了帮助人们表现更好之外,还会让老师和未来老板觉着这个人更聪明。  A group of psychologists at the University of St Andrews, Scotland looked at 190 faces, belongingto children and adults.  苏格兰圣安德鲁斯大学的一群心理学家研究了190名儿童和成年人的脸。  They measured how open the eyelids were and how curved the mouths were using face-processing software.  他们用面部处理软件测量了眼睑的宽度和嘴的弯曲程度。  A panel of more than 200 people were then asked to rate the attractiveness and intelligence ofthese faces.  研究人员组建了一个200多人的小组,让他们去评价这些面部是否显得有魅力、是否显得聪明。  The results showed that faces with a subtle frown and dropy eyes were perceived as lessintelligent.  结果表明,那些有细微皱纹的脸和无神的眼睛让人感觉不聪明。  Photographs were also taken of the same participants after a full night#39;s sleep and after a night ofrestricted sleep.  研究人员还给这些参与者拍了一组对比照片,以对比睡一宿好觉和睡不好觉的效果。  When the same individuals had less #39;eyelid-openness#39; and a subtle frown it resulted in a significantdecrease in their perceived intelligence.  同一个人,眼睑不够宽并带有细微皱纹时,他给人聪明的感觉大大降低。 /201603/433448Do you ever feel like you#39;re in over your head and at any moment you#39;re going to burst? You#39;re not alone. As humans, we overthink, overanalyze and dramatize. Lucky for us, we also have the power to take a deep breath, sit back and turn our lives around. It#39;s not easy to stop our negative thoughts from flooding through, especially during hard times, but it#39;s also not impossible. Here are the top 10 ways you can stop your personal insanity:你是否曾有过头脑发胀、随时要崩溃的感觉?其实,并非只有你如此。我们是人,处事总是思虑过度、分析过度,遇事爱夸大其词。但所幸的是,我们还能够去调整自己,回归生活,使之照常运转。虽然我们难以制止心中涌现的消极想法,尤其是身处逆境时,但这并不绝对。下面为大家介绍10种缓解崩溃情绪的方法。10.Meditation10.冥想The practice of meditation has been around for centuries, and for good reason. When you feel like you have 50 different thoughts running through your head every 60 seconds: Meditate. Sit comfortably, close your eyes and repeat a simple mantra. Keep it short and sweet, especially when you#39;re feeling stressed. For example, you can repeat #39;relax#39; or #39;breathe#39;, or even just start counting. You#39;re literally training your mind to sustain single-pointed concentration, which helps you prioritize your thoughts… and life.在几个世纪前,人们已经开始冥想,也实了冥想是有好处的。当你觉得每分钟有50种不同的想法在你的脑海里横冲直撞时:试下冥想。你只需调整出舒适的坐姿,然后闭上双眼,反复默念简单的祷语。当你感到紧张的时候,就更要注意保持祷语简洁性与愉悦性。例如,你可以反复默念“放轻松”或“深呼吸”,或者只是数数。冥想能让你把注意力集中在一个点上,这会助你理顺思路,从而更好地规划生活。9.Move Your Body9.运动Whether you like vigorous exercise or something more low-key, your body craves movement. It#39;s easy to practice at home; these 4 yoga poses to help you relax are easily accessible for anyone. Exercise with strong breath control and a little bit of sweat helps you release tension while embracing positivity and self-worth.不管你是喜欢剧烈运动还是休闲运动,你的身体都渴望运动。其实,在家里锻炼也是很方便的。这四个简单易学的瑜伽姿势可助你放松身体。运动时,深呼吸控制法和少量出汗都可助你缓解紧张的情绪、提高积极性以及提升自我价值。8.Be Honest With Yourself8.对自己坦诚Be true to yourself. This sounds obvious and simple, doesn#39;t it? It#39;s one of the hardest things to do. We#39;re always influenced by the people and media around us; it#39;s easy to lose yourself in the chaos. At the end of the day, always come back to what you want to do and don#39;t be scared to veer away from the crowd. It#39;s ok to become a little selfish, you#39;re the one that lives with your decisions, after all.做真实的自己,这听起来似乎很简单,不是吗?但是,做起来就非常困难。我们往往会受周围的人和媒体的影响,容易在混乱中迷失自我。而往往是在一天结束的时候,你才会回归到自己真正想要做的事情上。这时,不要为远离大众而感到害怕,即使这么做会显得有些自私也不要紧,毕竟你是有理想、有目标的年轻人。7.Clear Your Clutter7.整理杂物Are your magazines stacking up and trinkets suddenly taking over your countertops? Having clutter around the house can bring clutter into your life. Clearing and refreshing your space is a great way to start fresh; here are 6 simple ways you can renovate your kitchen space that are inexpensive space savers and re-vamps. Try to keep things off the floor and your draws from overflowing, this simple strategy can really shift into your life.你的杂志是否已经堆得很高了?你的小饰品是否已经占据了整个桌面?屋里的杂物放任不管也会使你的生活变得杂乱无章。从整理你的房间做起,开启新生活,也不失为一个好办法。这里有六个简单且经济实惠的方法能让你的厨房焕然一新。你可以试一下把东西搬离地面,同时不要把抽屉塞太满。这些简单的小策略都可以让你的生活变得更加有条理。6.Nourishment6.补充营养You are what you eat! Honestly… the saying is true. When you eat foods that not only fulfill your hunger but nourish your body, it makes you feel good physically and mentally. Having a fresh juice rather than can of soda gives a feeling of accomplishment, like you have control over your diet and your life.俗话说:“人如其食。”这是有道理的。你吃的食物不仅满足了你的温饱需求,还滋养了你的身体,令你身心健康。喝一杯新鲜的果汁所带来的满足感远胜于苏打罐头,这种感觉就像是你已经完全控制了你的饮食与生活。翻译:Humen 审校:阿饭 来源:前十网 /201601/420652

  LUCKNOW, India — That’s Mishty Yadav on the right. At 28 months, she looked huge in her mother’s arms, as if she spent nights on a gold throne dipping cookies into buffalo milk.印度勒克瑙——右边的是米什蒂·亚达夫(Mishty Yadav)。她28个月大,在母亲怀里看起来体格硕大,仿佛夜里都是坐在黄金宝座上吃着饼干蘸牛奶。But it turns out the reason she caught my eye was because, in contrast to so many children, Mishty is healthy. And here in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, where the majority of children under the age of five are malnourished and stunted, what looks normal starts to change.不过,后来我发现,她之所以引起了我的关注,是因为她很健康,与太多的孩子不一样。这里是印度北方邦,多数五岁以下的婴幼儿营养不良、发育迟缓。什么叫做正常,也就有了变化。In rural villages like this one a normal child looks like 5-year-old Shanvi Yadav, there on the left — very small and very thin.在这样的乡村里,“正常”孩子长得像左边的五岁大的莎薇·亚达夫(Shanvi Yadav)一样——又瘦又小。So Mishty is barely half Shanvi’s age but may weigh even more than her. They live about 100 feet from each other, but their opportunities to grow up healthy, both physically and mentally, are vastly different. When I met them and spoke to their families, I was struck by how early child-rearing practices were likely to result in dramatically different life trajectories for the two kids. When most mothers in these villages care for their children, they do so based on traditional practices. And tradition, even when misinformed, can be hard to go against.因此,尽管米什蒂刚到莎薇一半的年纪,体重却可能比她还大。她们住的地方相距大约百尺,身心健康成长的几率却有着天壤之别。当我认识她们并与其家人谈话之后,我深有感触:早期育儿实践很可能会让这两个孩子走上截然不同的生活轨迹。这些乡村里的母亲养育孩子的时候,多数人遵循的是传统做法。而传统,即便是谬误,也会很难抗拒。When Nicholas Kristof asked one mother in Jalim Kheda whether or not she was giving water to her month-old infant, she said she was not. Only breast milk. Hearing this, her mother-in-law and neighbors started scolding her for not giving the child water. Many villagers provide infants with water when it is hot to cool them off.在贾里姆凯达,纪思道(Nicholas Kristof)询问了一位母亲是否给她一个月大的婴儿喂水。是否定的,她只喂母乳。听闻此言,她的婆婆和邻居开始训斥她没有让孩子喝水。天热的时候,许多村民会用给婴儿喂水的办法来给他们降温。“Anything the baby is taking that is not breast milk [such as water] is replacing breast milk,” says Shawn Baker, head of nutrition for the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. “And breast milk has been designed over several million years of evolution to be the perfect nutrition. It’s perfectly synchronized to the infant’s needs.”“婴儿摄入的任何除母乳之外的东西(比如水),都是在挤占母乳的空间,”比尔及梅林达·盖茨基金会(Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation)的营养议题总监肖恩·贝克(Shawn Baker)说。“经过几百万年的进化,母乳是最佳营养品。它与婴儿的需求完美契合。”As peer pressure weighed on the mother, she finally gave in and said she would start giving her baby water. The influence of tradition is strong, and in many cases, unhealthy. A nutritionist with us hurriedly told the mom that she was on the right path and not to give water.周围的压力落到了这位母亲身上,她最终投降,表示自己会开始给孩子喂水。传统的影响力是强大的,在很多情况下却并不健康。与我们同行的一名营养专家匆忙告诉她,她是对的,别给孩子喝水。One of the best ways to break out of the cycle of misinformation is through education. That’s what Nisha Yadav, who earned a bachelor’s degree, credits for knowing how to raise Mishty.打破这种谬误的一种最佳办法是教育。米什蒂的母亲尼莎·亚达夫(Nisha Yadav)拥有学士学位。正是因为教育,她懂得如何抚养自己的孩子。When Nisha was pregnant with Mishty, she went to a private clinic to receive prenatal care. Every day she took iron and folic acid tablets as well as multivitamins. Iron tablets are key during pregnancy to prevent the mother from becoming anemic.当尼莎怀着米什蒂的时候,她去了一家私人诊所来接受产前护理。每天她都要吃铁片和叶酸片,以及多种维生素。铁片是预防母亲在怀期间贫血的关键。Mishty was born at a private hospital in Lucknow and started breast-feeding shortly after. Exclusive breast-feeding lasted six months, upon which complementary feeding was introduced. Nisha breast-fed for the recommended two years before stopping.米什蒂在勒克瑙的一家私人医院出生,并且很快就开始了母乳喂养。纯母乳喂养持续了六个月,然后添加了辅食。尼莎根据推荐让母乳喂养持续了两年,最后才断奶。Just down the road is a different story.就在路的另一端,则是不一样的故事。Babli Yadav, Shanvi’s mother, was taken out of school after eighth grade to help earn for the household. When Babli was pregnant, she was given iron and folic acid tablets but she didn’t take them because they made her feel nauseous.莎薇的妈妈芭布里·亚达夫(Babli Yadav)在八年级后被迫辍学弥补家用。当芭布里怀的时候,她收到了铁片和叶酸片,但是没有吃,因为这些让她感到恶心。Shanvi was born at home and breast-feeding didn’t begin until day 10. There is a myth that the mother’s milk should not be given during the first few days.莎薇是在家里出生的,直到第10天才开始母乳喂养。当地有个错误观念,认为母亲在刚生下孩子的那几天是不能母乳喂养的。“There’s a very strong tradition of giving honey or giving something before being given the breast,” says Baker. “But the early milk is incredibly rich in maternal antibodies. Everything the mother has been protected against is being transferred to protect the infant.”“这里有一个很强的传统,在母乳喂养之前,要先给孩子蜂蜜或者其他的东西,”贝克说。“但初乳有着非常丰富的母源抗体。所有保护母亲的东西都会转移到婴儿身上。”When Babli transitioned to breast-feeding, it was irregular, and eventually stopped after one year. Babli says their diet is poor.当芭布里转为母乳喂养后,也不是很经常,并且最终在一年之后就停止了。芭布里说他们的饮食很差。You can see the physical manifestation of malnutrition in the photo. But physical health is not the only concern. Studies show that cognitive development is severely hampered in malnourished children. They drop out of school earlier and are at a greater risk of dying.你可以从照片中看到营养不良的切实表现。不过,身体健康并不是唯一的问题。研究表明,营养不良儿童的认知能力发育会受到严重阻碍。他们辍学较早,死亡的风险也更大。On this trip I have been fascinated by the tension between factual knowledge and tradition. It has given me an appreciation for how difficult health interventions can be. Simply transmitting knowledge is very unlikely to change behavior. But looking at these two kids, you see the stakes.在这次旅行中,事实知识和传统之间的冲突深深地吸引了我。这让我了解到健康干预可能会有多么的困难。单纯地传播知识好像并不能改变习惯。但看着这两个孩子,你就会看到其中的利害关系。 /201510/404196



  Once, they were known as unmentionables, and it only mattered that they were clean. You never knew, after all, when you might be knocked down by a bus.曾经,人们羞于谈论它,对它的唯一要求就是干净——因为你不知道自己什么时候会被公交车撞倒。“When we were young, you would never show your underwear,” the designer Tommy Hilfiger said recently, referring to an era when Dwight D. Eisenhower was president. “Now, if you don’t show your underwear, you’re just not cool.”前不久,时装设计师汤米·希尔费格(Tommy Hilfiger)说:“我们年轻时,永远不会给别人看你的内裤。”他指的是德怀特·D·艾森豪威尔(Dwight D. Eisenhower)当总统的那个时期。“现在,如果你不展示自己的内裤,别人会认为你不够酷。”Mr. Hilfiger was marking one of those shifts in the culture that lurch along with a tectonic jolt. For generations, American men who were raised wearing generic boxers or Jockeys purchased in three-packs expended little thought or time or post-tax income on the foundation garments worn beneath their outerwear. The whole point of skivvies seemed to be encapsulated in the name given to the category under which they were sold: intimates.希尔费格谈到的是社会文化中突然发生的重大变化之一。无数代美国男人都是穿着没有牌子的三条装平角裤或乔基三角裤(Jockey)长大的,他们几乎没有在里面穿的基础内衣上花过什么心思、时间或税后收入。以前,男士内衣这个概念似乎是包含在贴身内衣这个更大的销售门类下面的。That was before Justin Bieber, of course, before sexting and saggers and artfully lighted, half-clad Snapchat selfies. It was before baldly erotic s of Rafael Nadal popped up on smartphones or monitors in advertisements depicting one of the world’s top tennis players doing a locker-room striptease in Mr. Hilfiger’s new line of sexy boxer briefs — images that even five years ago may have been flagged as NSFW.当然,那是在贾斯汀·比伯(Justin Bieber)之前,是在发送性感短信和穿低腰裤露出内裤之前,是巧妙打光的半裸自拍照出现在Snapchat上之前。那是在拉斐尔·纳达尔(Rafael Nadal)非常魅惑的更衣室脱衣挑逗视频突然出现在智能手机或电脑显示器上之前。那个视频是这位顶级网球运动员为希尔费格新的性感平角紧身内裤系列拍摄的广告。这样的视频就算在五年前还会被列为“少儿不宜”。It was also before a trend (most likely inaugurated by Calvin Klein in the prehistory of Marky Mark) that gained considerable momentum over the last dozen years, that of offering so-called premium underwear for men. “Underwear is where jeans were 20 years ago,” Mr. Hilfiger said. “It’s the new denim.”那也是在给男人们提供所谓的优质内裤这股潮流(它很可能是马克·沃尔伯格[Marky Mark]早期为卡尔文·克莱恩[Calvin Klein]拍摄的广告引领起来的)兴起之前。近十多年,这股潮流势头大涨。希尔费格说:“如今的内裤就像20年前的牛仔裤。它是新的牛仔裤。”Proof of that assertion can be found on The Underwear Expert, a startlingly comprehensive website dedicated to researching, testing, reviewing and even curating for sale underpants culled from the nearly 600 labels now crowding the field.你可以在The Underwear Expert网站找到这一论断的据。这家网站专门研究、测试、评价甚至策划销售内裤,内容十分全面。那些内裤是从目前挤满市场的近600个品牌中挑选出来的。“The options out there are what make men’s underwear a really interesting category,” said Michael Kleinmann, the site’s founder. “It’s not just three packs from Walmart or something out of the back of a catalog anymore.”该网站的创始人迈克尔·克莱因曼(Michael Kleinmann)说:“现在市场上的男士内裤品牌非常多,它变成了一个非常有趣的门类。它不再只是沃尔玛(Walmart)的三条装内裤,也不再只是从属于某个门类。”Jostling for a position in the retailing “white space” of an apparel category little altered for decades are niche labels like Sunspel, Handvaerk, Hanro, Tani, Zimmerli, Naked, Under and Les Lunes.几十年来,这个装门类几乎没有什么变化。现在,很多专门的内裤品牌在争夺这个零售“空白地带”,比如Sunspel,Handvaerk,Hanro,Tani,Zimmerli,Naked,Under,以及Les Lunes。Priced in a broad range from .99 (the figure at which men’s underpants are considered “premium”) to the 0 the French luxury-goods house Hermès charges for a pair of woven boxers are briefs whose virtues are sometimes described in terms better suited to the aerospace than the apparel industry.男士内裤的定价范围很广,从24.99美元(这个价位的男士内裤被认为是“优质的”)到470美元。后者是法国奢侈品公司爱马仕(Hermès)给一条编织平角内裤的定价。形容这些内裤优点的用语更像是来自航空航天业,而非装业。Relative newcomers like Mack Weldon and the Eighth now offer well-constructed though low-key products pitched online to a prosperous imaginary Everyman. Indie labels like Bear Skn, started in 2014 with ,000 in seed money raised on Kickstarter, offers premium underwear in sizes as large as 4XL because, as Jody Koenig, a founder of the label, explained, “There was nothing out there for bigger guys to make them feel sexy or hot.”Mack Weldon和Eighth等比较新的品牌现在供应裁剪精致而低调的产品,在网上的营销定位是想象中的富裕的普通人。Bear Skn是2014年通过在Kickstarter筹集的5.6万美元创立的独立品牌,它提供最大为4XL的优质内裤,因为就像它的创始人乔迪·凯尼格(Jody Koenig)说的:“市场上没有给大体格男人准备的性感内裤”。Some, like Marco Morante, the designer of Marco Marco, a label whose gender-various fashion shows were a surprise hit of the recent Los Angeles Fashion Week, happened into the category almost accidentally after viewers of “RuPaul’s Drag Race,” where Mr. Morante was doing costume design, started clamoring for the briefs he designed for the show’s pneumatic Pit Crew hunks.Marco Marco的设计师马尔科·莫兰特(Marco Morante)是偶然进入这个门类的。在担任《鲁保罗变装皇后秀》(RuPaul’s Drag Race)的装设计师期间,他为健壮性感的修理工设计的内裤得到观众赞扬,从而进入这个领域。前不久,该品牌的多性别时装秀成为洛杉矶时装周(Los Angeles Fashion Week)上的黑马。“We’ve kind of done everything we can do in women’s fashion,” Mr. Morante said. “Men’s is a blank slate because we’re working with concepts that are 50 years old or more.”莫兰特说:“在女装方面,我们几乎什么都试过了。而男装是个白板,我们采用的仍是50年前的概念。”Technological advances have resulted in briefs that now seem less designed than engineered to aerate, separate, wick, deodorize and adjust body temperature or battle microbes with antibacterial silver filament added to their weaves.现在的内裤更多的不在于样式设计,而在于技术创新,比如透气、干爽、吸汗、除臭、调节体温,或者通过在织物中加入抗菌银丝而达到抗菌效果。That men now increasingly purchase underwear for themselves, rather than relying as in the past on women to make their unglamorous utilitarian purchases, “kind of shows were we are as a country,” Mr. Kleinmann said.克莱因曼说,现在越来越多的男人自己挑选内裤,而不是像过去那样,由女人来购买那些单调实用的内裤,“间接地反映出我们国家的现状。”At the very least, it demonstrates changes in the way men shop. “Guys are shopping differently now, much more like women,” said Marshal Cohen, chief retailing analyst at the NPD Group, a market research company in New York. “The women’s market is not growing in the intimates business,” he added. Women, on the other hand, now account for the majority of electronics purchases.这至少反映出男人购物习惯的变化。纽约市场调查公司恩帛源集团(NPD Group)的首席零售分析师马歇尔·科恩(Marshal Cohen)说:“男人们现在的购物方式更像女人。而女装市场的内衣部分没有增长。”从另一方面讲,女人现在是网购的主体。“In the past, 75 percent of underwear purchases were women buying for men,” Mr. Cohen said. “Now, that’s more like 25 percent. In the past, the most significant decision a guy had to make was prints or solids, boxers or briefs.” The proliferation of new labels, he said, had spurred a solid sales uptick in a market that reached .7 billion in 2014.科恩说:“过去,75%的男士内裤是女人买给男人的;现在,这个比例大约是25%。过去,男人们只需要决定要印花还是纯色,要平角裤还是三角裤。”他说,大量新品牌的出现刺激了销售的不断增长,2014年男士内裤的总销售额达27亿美元。“Guys are now very comfortable being part of the fashion equation,” Mr. Cohen said. “Every part of what we wear has now become a part of image-building. That includes shoes, your socks, your pants and your underwear.”科恩说:“现在,男人们非常愿意成为时尚界的一部分。现在我们的所有饰都成为形象塑造的一部分,包括鞋子、袜子、裤子和内裤。”When the rapper and entrepreneur Curtis Jackson III, perhaps better known as 50 Cent, was casting about for ways to augment a portfolio that included investments in vodka, energy drinks and an equity stake in Vitaminwater, he set his sights on premium underwear.说唱歌手、企业家柯蒂斯·杰克逊三世(Curtis Jackson III,他的艺名50美分[50 Cent]更为人所知)在考虑扩大投资(他已经投资了伏特加和能量饮料,并拥有Vitaminwater的股权)时,把目光投向了优质内裤。Teaming up with Frigo, a premium underwear brand developed by Mathias Ingvarsson, the Swedish entrepreneur who helped transform Tempur-Pedic from a no-name mattress brand into a global powerhouse, Mr. Jackson last December helped close an million licensing deal for a brand apparently pitched at the so-called urban market. (Fellow investors include Carmelo Anthony of the New York Knicks and the music producer Timothy Mosley, known as Timbaland.)去年12月,杰克逊和优质内裤品牌Frigo签订了8000万美元的授权协议(其他投资人包括纽约尼克斯队[New York Knicks]的卡尔梅洛·安东尼[Carmelo Anthony]和音乐制作人蒂莫西·莫斯利[Timothy Mosley,艺名Timbaland])。Frigo显然是针对所谓的城市市场,它是瑞典企业家马赛厄斯·英瓦松(Mathias Ingvarsson)开发的。英瓦松曾帮助把泰普尔(Tempur-Pedic)从一个不知名的床垫品牌变成一个全球知名企业。“It’s about men being more conscious of themselves and feeling like they deserve more,” said Mr. Jackson, who added that, until not long ago, his underwear of choice was basic white Jockeys. “My grandmother always said, ‘If you wear white underwear, your underwear will tell you when to change it.’”杰克逊说:“现在男人们更在意自己,感觉自己应该得到更多。”他补充说,不久之前,他的内裤都还是白色基本款乔基裤,“我奶奶总是说,‘如果你穿白色内裤,它会告诉你什么时候该换了’”。The marketing of Frigo tends to favor innovation over style as a way to lure consumers to a product that costs up to 0 a pair. Like the patented AussieBum Wonderjock, or the SAXX Vibe “articulated contour pouch,” or 2UNDR’s “Joey Pouch,” or the “keyhole comfort pouch” made by the label MyPakage, Frigo briefs also feature a patented interior pouch designed to lift and display a man’s anatomical endowment to maximum benefit. Perhaps not coincidentally, the Frigo pouch was devised by an inventor who once won a contest to design a Tempur-Pedic pillow.Frigo的市场营销是通过强调技术创新(而非时尚)来吸引顾客购买售价高达100美元一条的内裤。就像澳洲雄风(AussieBum)拥有专利技术的Wonderjock,或SAXX牌内裤Vibe版“展现轮廓的小袋”,或2UNDR的“幼兽袋”,或MyPakage的“锁孔舒适袋”,Frigo的三角裤也有专利内袋,设计目的是提升并令男子性征得以最佳展现。设计Frigo内袋的发明家曾赢得了一场设计泰普尔枕头的竞赛,这也许不是巧合。Packaged masculinity is nothing new, according to Edwina Ehrman, a curator of textiles and fashion at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, where “Undressed: A Brief History of Underwear” is slated to open in the spring. “Think about the codpiece,” said Ms. Ehrman, referring to the genital-enhancing pouches favored by European gentlemen of the Renaissance, some of which resemble the pommel of saddle or else a bike seat. “It was absolutely kind of out there, this really extraordinary display of masculine power and virility, decorated with bows and ribbons and flourishes.”伦敦维多利亚与艾伯特物馆(Victoria and Albert Museum)即将在明年春季举办“脱下衣:内裤简史”展(Undressed: A Brief History of Underwear)。该物馆的纺织品和时装策展人埃德温娜·埃尔曼(Edwina Ehrman)说,装饰男子性征不是什么新鲜事,“你想想下体盖片”——她指的是文艺复兴时期受到欧洲绅士青睐的提升阳具的小袋,有的形似马鞍前鞍桥,有的形似自行车座——“展示男性力量和特质的方式以前肯定有,比如装饰蝴蝶结、丝带和花饰”。Even the anatomical disclosures so routinely worked into the sexting era have historical antecedents, she said. “At the end of the 18th century, there were these incredibly skin-tight buckskin breeches that men wore that show absolutely every curve,” Ms. Ehrman said.埃尔曼说,甚至连发送性感短信年代经常出现的性征暴露也有历史渊源,“在18世纪末,男人们喜欢穿那种不可思议的紧身鹿皮马裤,所有的线条都暴露无遗”。What has changed, she said, is how the boom in premium underwear parallels another phenomenon rooted squarely in 21st-century solipsism. “Every aspect of how you present yourself is now important,” she said, to the merchandising of one’s individual brand.她说,与那时不同的是,优质内裤的兴旺与另一个完全植根于21世纪唯我论的现象齐头并进。她说,“如今你外在形象的各个方面”对个人品牌塑造“都很重要”。Seated in their garment district showroom last week, the designers Parke Lutter and Ronen Jehezkel awaited the arrival of a group of young hopefuls auditioning for an event to celebrate the debut of a collection of high-end Parke amp; Ronen underwear.上周,设计师帕克·卢特尔(Parke Lutter)和罗嫩·杰赫科尔(Ronen Jehezkel)坐在装区他们的展厅里,准备从一批年轻有志者中挑选合适的模特,参加帕克amp;罗嫩(Parke amp; Ronen )一个高端内裤系列的发布活动。The designers, who, starting in 1997, carved out a solid niche in a once fusty and now booming category, men’s swimwear, overcame their initial hesitance to enter a field dominated by designers like Mr. Hilfiger when customers expressed their desire for underwear, Mr. Lutter said, “that fit well, was made from good materials, was clean and athletic but sexy.”从1997年,这两位设计师在曾经死气沉沉而今十分兴旺的男装市场中开拓了一个重要的细分市场:男士泳衣。当顾客们表达出对内裤的需求时,他们克最初的犹豫,进入这个由希尔费格等设计师主导的领域。卢特尔说:顾客们想要“裁剪合体、面料优良、简洁动感且性感”的内裤。What persuaded them was the resounding chorus of friends who referred to the duo’s frankly sexy runway presentations as “the Victoria’s Secret show for men,” along with the recognition that their client base — as represented by the young models slouching outside the showroom — had undergone a generational shift.朋友们对这个二人组合非常性感的内衣秀大加赞赏,称它是“维多利亚的秘密(Victoria’s Secret)内衣秀的男士版”,这更是让他们下定了决心。另外一个原因是,他们发现,客户群已经经历了代次变迁,目前的客户代表是展厅外的那些懒洋洋的年轻模特们。More than two decades after the term “metrosexual” was coined as a catchall for a new breed of consumer, men have eased into their role as the object of other people’s gaze. “Social media really put the skin out there,” said Seth Wilkerson, a 24-year-old model who was at the Parke and Ronen audition, and the designers ily seconded the opinion.20多年前,“都市型男”(metrosexual)这个词被造出来,形容新一代顾客。如今,男人们已经慢慢习惯成为他人注视的对象。24岁的模特塞思·威尔克森(Seth Wilkerson)来参加帕克和罗嫩的模特挑选。他说:“社交媒体真的让人们开始公开暴露自己的身体。”两位设计师十分赞同他的观点。“Look, you could put the sexy pictures on the web and do it in your three-pack BVDs,” Mr. Jehezkel said. “But let’s face it, you’re not going to get as many likes.”杰赫科尔说:“你知道,你可以把自己穿着三条装内裤的性感照片放在网上。不过,说实话,那样你得到的赞就少多了。” /201512/414877

  In the 20th year of Kaihuang(600), Emperor Wen deposed Heir-Prince Yang Yong and conferred that title upon his second son Yang Guang who plotted with Yuwen Shu and Yang Su and their clique to usurp the throne.开皇二十年,文帝废太子杨勇,另立次子杨广。杨广素与宇文述、杨素勾结,建立党羽,阴谋夺位。In the 4th year of Renshou (604), Emperor Wen died unexpectedly and Yang Guang became Emperor Yang.仁寿四年(604),文帝暴死,杨广继位,是为隋炀帝。The new Emperor was rather cruel. He was famous for ferocity. He killed his four brothers while he only had five and finally killed his father to become the Emperor.隋炀帝的残暴在历史上也很有名,兄弟五人被他先后杀死了四个,最后杀掉父亲登上了血腥的皇帝之位。Being an emperor, Emperor Yang abused his power, maltreated his officials and lavished the court’s resources.炀帝得志后骄恣无忌,滥用人力财力,挥霍无度。He conscripted large numbers of labourers to work on the Grand Canal and the Great Wall. He built an extremely luxurious “Eastern Capital” with two million labourers working on it for a year. He sent mas-sive force to attack Korea three times, resulting in countless casualties but yielding no success. He traveled about the country and made three inspection tours to Jiangdu.他大规模征发民工,修建南北大运河及长城;大规模兴建东都,穷极华丽,一年间每月役使民工达200万人;又大规模征调军队,三次出征高丽,但均告失利;巡游全国,三下江都。All these made his people extremely miserable and exhausted the state.连年征战加上炀帝暴政致使隋朝的国力大大削弱,人民苦不堪言。In the countryside, many people escaped from military service and forced labor. Refugees were found everywhere.农村中逃避军役和劳役的人越来越多,流民遍地。The people could not bear his tyranny, Emperor Yang finally was murdered in JingDu and the Sui Dynasty perished.由于其横征暴敛,激起民怨沸腾,终于自食恶果被绞死于江都,脩朝宣告灭亡。In the 7th year of Daye(611), a peasant uprising led by Wang Bo broke out in Shandong, which was followed by many others all over the country. Yang Xuan-gan,an aristocrat, also rose in revolt, which was a sign of split within the ruling class.大业七年(611),在山东首先爆发了王薄领导的农民起义,接着各地农民起义风起云涌,贵族出身的杨玄感也起兵反隋,统治阶级内部出现大分裂。During the battle with the Sui army, the rebellious peasants gradually fell into three main forces:the Wagang Army in the central of the country led by Li Mi, the Xia Army in the north led by Dou Jiande and the Wu Army in the south led by Du Fuwei.起义军在与隋军不断的战斗中,分并离合,形成了三较强大的力量,即中部李密领导的瓦岗军,北部窦建德领导的夏军和南部杜伏威领导的吴军。In the 13th year of Daye( 617),the Wagang Army attacked the Eastern Capital. At that time, Emperor Yang was journeying south to Jiangdu, with Tong the Prince of Yue staying to defend the Eastern Capital.大业十三年(617),瓦岗军进逼东都,这时炀帝已南下江都,以越王侗留守东都。Li Yuan the governor of Taiyuan,Shanxi,took the opportunity to lead an army into Chang’an and installed You the Prince of Dai as emperor while making himself the Chief Minister.山西太原留守李渊乘机举兵进人长安,立代王侑为帝,自为大丞相。In the 14th year of Daye (618), Yuwen Huaji in Jiangdu staged a mutiny and hanged Emperor Yang.大业十四年(618)三月,宇文化及在江都发动兵变,缢杀炀帝。Upon hearing the news, Li Yuan immediately proclaimed himself emperor in Chang,an and established the Tang Dynasty.李渊闻讯,当即在长安自立为帝,建立唐朝。Almost immediately, the powerful lords rose one after another.这时各地豪强也纷纷独立,形成群雄并起的局面。In the next few years,the Tang army wiped out the peasant as well as local separatist forces. The whole country was once a-gain unified.此后三四年间,农民起义军和地方割据武装都纷纷被唐朝消灭,唐朝继承隋朝,统一了中国。 /201601/421842

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