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长春市公交医院在线回答新华口碑

2019年06月25日 11:59:26 | 作者:健新闻 | 来源:新华社
China’s carbon dioxide emissions are likely to peak by 2025 — and may even have done so aly — according to a new paper that suggests the country’s economic slowdown and rapid adoption of renewable energy mean previous projections of China’s emissions peak are far too pessimistic. 根据一项新的研究报告,中国的二氧化碳排放很可能在2025年之前达到峰值——甚至有可能已经见顶。该报告称,中国经济放缓以及快速采用可再生能源意味着,此前其排放峰值的预测过于悲观。 “The major problem with current models of China’s emissions is that most of them do not pay attention to change in the structure and growth of China’s economic output,” said Fergus Green of the London School of Economics’ Grantham Research Institute, co-author with Lord Stern of the LSE paper to be published this week in the journal Climate Policy. 伦敦政治经济学院(LSE)格兰瑟姆研究所(Grantham Research Institute)的弗格斯#8226;格林(Fergus Green)表示:“现有研究中国碳排放的模型的主要问题在于,它们大多数没有注意到中国的经济产出的结构和增长的变化。”这份报告由格林与斯特恩勋爵(Lord Stern)共同完成,将于本周发表在《气候政策》(Climate Policy)刊物上。 The study assumes that under a “high growth scenario”, annual economic growth will be just 6 per cent rate for the coming decade — compared with an average of more than 10 per cent in the first decade of this century. 这项研究假设,在“高速增长的前景”下,未来10年中国年度经济增速将仅有6%——相比之下,本世纪头10年的年均增速超过了10%。 With the slowdown accompanied by a government-planned economic transition from carbon-intensive heavy industry to services, the authors expect this structural shift means a decline of at least 4 per cent in the country’s energy intensity over the next decade. 伴随中国政府推进经济转型,从碳密集型重工业转向务业,中国出现了增长放缓。在此背景下,两位作者预期,这种结构性变化意味着中国的能源密集度在未来10年将下降至少4%。 They believe this means primary energy consumption growth will slow to only 1.8 per cent a year or less between now and 2025, compared with an annual rate of more than 8 per cent between 2000 and 2013. 他们认为,这意味着从现在到2025年,一次能源消费增速将放缓至1.8%或更低,相比之下,2000年至2013年期间的年增速超过了8%。 At the same time, China’s energy will increasingly come from non-fossil sources, the report says. The researchers believe the government‘s target to derive 15 per cent of primary energy from non-fossil sources by 2020 “is likely to be significantly beaten”. 与此同时,该报告称,中国的能源将越来越多地来自非化石来源。两位研究人员相信,中国政府的目标——到2020年非化石能源占一次能源比重达到15%——“很可能明显提前实现”。 The study is not the first to suggest carbon cuts are happening aly. Last month the government released figures suggesting emissions from fossil fuels and cement had fallen in 2015, according to analysis from Greenpeace. 这份报告并非第一个预测中国碳排放下降的研究。根据绿色和平组织(Greenpeace)的分析,中国政府上月发布的数据似乎表明,2015年,来自化石燃料与水泥的碳排放已经出现下降。 Sector-specific targets for renewable energy generation are set as absolute outputs, rather than as shares of total energy consumption. This means coal could be squeezed out faster if total energy consumption is lower than expected. China’s energy planning agencies aim to produce 200-300 gigawatts of wind and 150 gigawatts of solar energy by 2020. The US Energy Information Administration estimates that coal consumption stayed flat in 2014, and the National Bureau of Statistics states production fell by 3.3 per cent last year. 可再生能源发电的行业目标被设定为绝对产出,而非作为总能耗的一部分。这意味着,如果总能耗低于预期,煤炭将会被更快地挤出能源结构。中国能源规划机构的目标是,到2020年,使风电产能达到200至300千兆瓦,太阳能发电达到150千兆瓦。据美国能源情报署(Energy Information Administration)估计,2014年中国煤炭消费量未出现增长,而中国国家统计局(NBS)的数据显示,去年中国的煤炭产量下降了3.3%。 There are risks on the path to lower emissions. Provincial governments may be tempted by the short-term growth boons of building new coal plants. Coal plant building accelerated in 2014-15 “despite aly enormous amounts of excess capacity”, says the report. 中国减排的道路上也存在风险。省级政府可能会因贪图短期增长而建设新的燃煤电厂。该报告称,“虽然已经出现大量产能过剩”,但在2014至2015年燃煤电厂建设仍出现加速。 Whether such risks will be realised depends on the political clout of the coal enterprises and local governments dependent on coal. Last week the government estimated that 1.3m coal workers could be laid off due to reforms to shut unprofitable mines. 此类风险会不会成真,取决于煤炭企业以及依赖煤炭的地方政府的政治影响力。上周,中国政府估计,关闭不赚钱煤矿的改革举措将导致130万煤炭工人下岗。 At its annual parliamentary session this weekend, China for the first time announced a cap on its projected energy consumption by 2020. It also set a new target of reducing energy intensity, or the amount of energy consumed per unit of gross dometic product, by 18 per cent in that period. 在周末召开的全国人大会议上,中国首次宣布2020年预期能源消耗上限。中国还设定了将能源密集度(即单位GDP的能耗量)在此期间降低18%的新目标。 Many climate change researchers believe China’s emissions are aly far lower than official estimates. The country surpassed its targets for reducing emissions intensity over the past five years, thanks to the economic slowdown and massive construction of hydropower dams. 许多气候变化研究者认为,中国的碳排放量已经远低于官方估计。过去5年,得益于经济放缓以及大规模建设水电站,中国已超额完成削减碳排放强度的目标。 The world’s largest carbon dioxide emitter said last year its emissions would peak around 2030. It had previously stood firm on not cutting its carbon emissions while its economy was still developing. 世界最大二氧化碳排放国去年表示,其碳排放将在2030年前后达到峰值。中国此前曾坚持在经济发展阶段不进行减排。 /201603/430546Medical insurance programs for China#39;s rural residents and urban unemployed will be merged into a single basic health insurance plan to improve equality and efficiency, according to a notice issued on Tuesday by the State Council.根据国务院周二印发的文件,为改善社会公平,提高医保基金使用效率,我国将整合城镇居民基本医疗保险和新型农村合作医疗两项制度,建立统一的城乡居民基本医疗保险制度。The government will increase subsidies to the basic insurance program, and subscribers will share a greater burden of the total insurance fund, the notice said.该文件称,政府将加大对基本保险计划补助的同时,也将适当提高个人缴费比重。The new policy will become China#39;s largest health insurance program, covering more than 1 billion people.这项新政策将成为中国最大的医疗保险制度,将会覆盖超过10亿的人口。Under the new policy, all subscribers will pay the same premium and enjoy the same reimbursement rate regardless of their residency status, it said.该文件指出,在新的政策下,所有公民都将付相同的保费,并享有相同的偿还率,而不用去考虑他们的户籍身份。The notice also said local governments should formulate plans to carry out the policy before the end of the year.该通知还指出,各地方政府应制定相应的计划,来保在今年年底前这一政策的正式实施。Currently, China has three health insurance policies: one for the urban employed, established in 1998; a new rural cooperative medical plan established in 2003; and a plan for urban unemployed, which begun in 2007.目前,中国共有三种医疗保险政策:一种是1998年建立的城镇职工保险制度;另一种是2003年建立的新型农村合作医疗制度;还有一种就是2007年建立的城镇居民医疗制度。The latter two are highly subsidized by the government, while the policy for the urban employed, paid for by employees and their employers, has the best reimbursement rate.其中,后两者是政府大力补助的,而对于城镇职工保险制度,是由员工和雇主付费用,有着最佳的偿还率。 /201601/422384When a thick cloud of air pollution settled in over London last week, experts warned those with health problems to avoid strenuous exercise. The advice to Londoners essentially boiled down to this: breathe less.上周,当伦敦笼罩在污染严重的空气中时,专家警告存在健康问题的人应避免剧烈运动。伦敦人得到的忠告基本上可归结为:少呼吸。Last week, London mayor Sadiq Khan rolled out a new system of air quality alerts at bus stops, Tube stations and roadsides, warning those who experience symptoms from air pollution to reduce strenuous activity. The mayor also announced a doubling of funding for reducing pollution.上周,伦敦市市长萨迪克.汗推出了新的空气质量警报系统,该系统可在公交车站、地铁站和道路旁警告因空气污染出现病症的人们减少剧烈运动。他还宣布将用于减少污染的资金增加一倍。But he does not have the legal authority to institute a ban, and has demanded the government take urgent action, including a diesel scrappage scheme.但他没有制定一项禁令的法律权力,他已经要求政府采取紧急行动,其中包括柴油车报废计划。Cities around the world are confronting problems similar to London#39;s. Some have been more aggressive than others, but overall, their experience shows that concerted steps to improve air quality do work, and they save lives.世界各地的城市都面临着与伦敦类似的问题。有些城市表现的比其他地区更激进,但总体而言,他们的经验表明,改善空气质量的联合措施有所见效,拯救了生命。Meanwhile, as Paris suffered a similar pollution episode - its worst in a decade - officials swung into action, waiving charges for public transport and restricting the number of cars allowed on roads, alternately barring those with odd and even license plates.与此同时,巴黎也遭遇了近十年来最严重的类似空气污染,政府立即采取行动,取消了公共交通收费,采取单双号限行制度限制在道路上通行的车辆数量。At the same time Paris mayor Anne Hidalgo joined officials from Madrid, Athens and Mexico City in announcing plans to get all diesel vehicles off the roads by 2025.同时,巴黎市市长安娜-伊达尔戈与马德里、雅典以及墨西哥城的官员共同宣布,计划在2025年前禁止所有柴油车上路。Diesel is highly polluting, emitting far greater amounts of dangerous nitrogen dioxide and tiny pollution particles than petrol, and can cause cancer to heart attacks.柴油污染十分严重,其有害二氧化氮及细微污染颗粒的排放量比汽油更大,并可能导致癌症、心脏病。Despite the health damage it wreaks, governments across Europe, including Britain#39;s, have offered motorists tax incentives that effectively encourage the use of diesel, on the assumption – now being questioned - that it produces less planet-warming carbon dioxide than petrol.尽管燃烧柴油会损害健康,但是基于柴油产生的温室气体二氧化碳比汽油更少这一假设,欧洲各国政府,包括英国,还是向司机提供税收优惠政策,以有效鼓励他们使用柴油。如今,这一假设遭到了质疑。Berlin is a notable exception to the story of the diesel disaster gripping much of western Europe. It has cleaned up its own fleet, installing pollution filters on buses and garbage trucks, and imposed tough rules on heavy goods vehicles. A strict emission zone bars older diesel vehicles, and rates of car use, which are aly among the lowest in Germany, have dropped even further in recent years. Public transport is efficient and easy to use, with a two-hour pass costing just EURO2.70 (£2.25).大部分西欧国家都受到了柴油灾难的影响,而柏林却是它们之中明显的例外。柏林已经整顿了该市的车辆,在公交车和垃圾车上安装了污染过滤装置,并对重型货车实施严格的规定。该市有一个限制老式柴油车和汽车使用率的限制排放区,这里已经是德国汽车使用率最低的地区之一,近年来使用率还在进一步降低。公共交通高效且便利,两个小时的通行成本只要2.7欧元。As a result, levels of the tiniest, most dangerous particles, known as ultrafines, fell 70% in just three years, says Axel Friedrich, former head of transport and noise at the federal environmental agency, and an adviser to government and advocacy groups.联邦环境局交通及噪声部前负责人兼政府和游说组织顾问阿克赛尔.弗莱德里奇表示,在短短三年内,超微粒子的水平因此下降了70%,这是一种最细小最危险的污染粒子。Kraków has the worst air in Poland - one of Europe#39;s most polluted countries.克拉科夫是波兰空气最差的地方,而波兰是欧洲污染最严重的国家之一。After a long legal fight, the city is now moving forward with a ban on burning coal for home heating, to take effect in September 2019.经过长时间的法律斗争,该市目前正在推进燃煤取暖禁令,将于2019年9月生效。New York has also targeted heating systems. After an analysis found that 1% of buildings burning the dirtiest kinds of fuel oil, were producing more soot than all the city#39;s traffic, officials made plans to gradually ban their use and to help landlords convert.纽约也瞄准了供热系统。一项分析发现,有1%的建筑燃烧的是最不清洁的燃油,其产生的烟尘比全市的交通系统更多。纽约市官员们计划逐步禁止使用这种燃油,并帮助房主改建取暖系统。The changeover is aly credited with saving hundreds of lives each year. It#39;s just one piece of New York#39;s air quality strategy, which also aims at slashing greenhouse gas emissions 80% from 2005 levels by 2050, says Mark Chambers, director of the mayor#39;s Office of Sustainability.这种转变每年已经挽救了数百人的生命。市长环保办公室主任马克.钱伯斯称,这只是纽约空气质量战略的一个部分,该市的战略目标是与2005年相比,2050年前将温室气体排放水平削减80%。Los Angeles, the city where American car culture reached its zenith, has also pushed hard to clean up its air.洛杉矶是美国汽车文化最发达的城市,该市也在努力净化空气。;We#39;ve made incredible progress, we can see the mountains in Los Angeles, when those of us who grew up here never could when we were young,; says Joe Lyou, president of California#39;s Coalition for Clean Air.加利福尼亚清洁空气联盟主席Joe Lyou称,“我们已经取得了惊人的进步,我们可以看到洛杉矶的山脉,对于在洛杉矶长大的我们来说,在我们小时候这是绝对不可能的。”The dramatic improvement is the result of the most stringent air quality regulation in America. A statewide crackdown on dirty diesel lorries and a push to expand use of zero-emission vehicles are also a big part of the story.这一巨大的改进是美国最严空气质量监管带来的结果。另外一个重要原因是在全国范围内强制取缔不清洁的柴油卡车以及扩大零排放车辆的使用。In addition to the decades of regulation that have made American cars 99% cleaner than they were 40 years ago, cities like New York and LA have benefitted from American motorists#39; distaste for diesel, which accounts for only about 2% of cars in the US.数十年的监管让美国的车辆比40年前清洁程度提升了99%,此外,纽约、洛杉矶等城市还因为机动车驾驶者不喜欢柴油而受益,使用柴油的机动车的数量大约只占美国车辆的2%。Beijing has used license plate restrictions to limit the number of cars and set out plans to keep the oldest and most polluting vehicles off roads when air is especially bad. More importantly, the government has harnessed public anger over pollution to plough billions of dollars into wind and solar power, becoming the world#39;s biggest investor in renewable energy. Officials have even begun cancelling plans for new coal-fired power stations - a move with repercussions for the health of those living in Chinese cities, and for the planet.北京通过车牌限制来限定汽车数量,并在空气特别糟糕的时候制定计划限制最古老和污染最严重的车辆上路。更重要的是,由于公众对污染的愤怒,中国政府已经将数十亿美元用于风能和太阳能建设,成为世界上最大的可再生能源投资国。政府官员甚至开始取消新建燃煤电站的计划,这会对中国和世界人民的健康带来影响。Last month, Delhi#39;s 20 million people suffered through the worst smog episode in 17 years, according to the Centre for Science and Environment. Officials temporarily shuttered a coal-fired power plant, halted all construction and demolition work and shut down many diesel power generators.根据科学与环境中心的数据,上个月,德里市的2000万居民经历了17年来最严重的雾霾事件。政府官员暂时关闭了一家燃煤电厂,停止所有建设和拆除工作,并关掉了许多柴油发电机。In a sign that Delhi has begun to acknowledge the problem, officials also closed 1,800 schools for three days, as particulate levels soared to 28 times the recommended maximums.德里已经开始认识到空气污染问题的迹象是,因为颗粒物质的水平飙升至推荐最大值的28倍,政府还让1800所学校关闭三天。 /201612/484944PANAMA CITY — On July 8, 2009, the Champagne finally flowed.巴拿马市——2009年7月8日,终于可以畅饮香槟了。After an intense two-year competition, a consortium led by a Spanish company in severe financial distress learned that its rock-bottom bid of .1 billion had won the worldwide competition to build a new set of locks for the historic Panama Canal.在进行了两年的激烈竞争之后,由一家西班牙公司牵头的一个财团获知,其31亿美元的底价投标方案在全球竞标中胜出,将为历史悠久的巴拿马运河修建一系列新的水闸。当时这个财团正处于严重的财务困境中。The unlikely victors toasted their win. Within days, executives of the four-nation consortium, Grupo Unidos por el Canal, flew to Europe to begin planning the project.出人意料的胜利令他们欢呼雀跃。几天之内,这个名为“运河联合集团”(Grupo Unidos por el Canal)的四国财团的高管就飞到欧洲,着手筹划这个项目。Disputes quickly erupted over how to divide responsibilities. Some executives appeared not to fully grasp how little money they had to complete a complex project with a tight deadline and a multicultural team whose members did not always see things the same way.他们很快就因为分工的问题陷入争执。一些高管似乎没有充分意识到,他们需要用很少的钱,在紧迫的期限内完成一个复杂的项目,而且这是一个文化多元的团队,成员们看待事情的方式并不总是相同。Internal arguments soon gave way to bigger problems. There would be work stoppages, porous concrete, a risk of earthquakes and at least .4 billion in disputed costs: more than the budget for the entire project.内部争论很快让位给了更大的问题。他们将遇到工程停滞、混凝土漏水、地震风险,以及至少34亿美元存在争议的成本:比整个项目的预算都高。Seven years later, and nearly two years late, the locks have finally been declared y to accept the new generation of giant ships that carry much of the world’s cargo but cannot fit in the original canal. To mark the occasion, Panama has invited 70 heads of state to watch on Sunday as a Chinese container ship becomes the first commercial vessel to attempt the passage from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific through the larger locks.七年后,在比预定时间晚了近两年之后,巴拿马终于宣布这些水闸准备好迎接新一代巨轮了,这种运载着全世界相当一部分集装箱的轮船是无法通过原来的运河的。为了纪念这个日子,巴拿马邀请70个国家的元首在本周日来观礼,届时,一艘中国货船将成为首艘尝试经过新运河从大西洋进入太平洋的商业船只。For more than 100 years, the canal has been a vital artery nourishing the world economy, a testament to American engineering and one of the signature public works of the 20th century. The new locks, built by Panama without help from other governments, were sold to the nation and the world as a way to ensure that the canal remained as much of a lifeline in the hyperglobalized 21st century as it was in the last.100多年来,这条运河一直是世界经济的重要动脉,是美国工程水平的明,也是20世纪最著名的公共工程之一。巴拿马自己修建了新的水闸,完全不靠其他国家政府的任何帮助,以此来向全国和全世界表明,在21世纪的超全球化进程中,这条运河仍然是像20世纪那样的生命线。But the expanded canal’s future is cloudy at best, its safety, quality of construction and economic viability in doubt, an investigation by The New York Times has found.但是这条拓宽了的运河,其未来充其量也只能说是阴云密布,《纽约时报》的调查发现,它在安全性、建设质量和经济可行性上问题重重。In simple terms, to be successful, the new canal needs enough water, durable concrete and locks big enough to safely accommodate the larger ships. On all three counts, it has failed to meet expectations, according to dozens of interviews with contractors, canal workers, maritime experts and diplomats, as well as a review of public and internal records.简单来说,要想获得成功,新的运河需要足够多的水量,耐久性强的混凝土,而且水闸需要大到足以让大型船只安全通过。但经过采访几十名承包商、运河工人、海事专家和外交官,翻阅公共和内部记录,可以看到它在这三个方面都无法达到预期目标。The low winning bid, billion less than the nearest competitor’s, made “a technically complex mega-project” precarious from the outset, according to a confidential analysis commissioned by the consortium’s insurer. “There is little room in the budget for execution errors or significant inefficiencies,” the analysts, from Hill International, wrote in 2010, adding, “This is a high-risk situation.”中标价格很低,比第二低的竞标对手低10亿美元。该财团的保险公司委托开展的一份机密分析显示,这样的低价使得“一个技术上很复杂的巨型项目”从一开始就岌岌可危。“预算中几乎没有为执行错误或效率严重偏低留下任何余地,”希尔国际(Hill International)的分析师在2010年写道,“这样的情况风险很高。”Among the biggest risks is the concrete that lines the walls of the six mammoth locks punctuating the path between the seas.最大的风险之一在于水闸的墙使用的混凝土,两大洋之间共有六道这样的巨型水闸。Then there is the lock design. Tugboat captains say they cannot safely escort the larger ships because the locks are too small with too little margin for error, especially in windy conditions and tricky currents. In fact, in a feasibility study obtained by The Times, the Panama Canal Authority had earlier concluded that the tugs needed significantly more room.然后是水闸的设计。一些拖轮船长说,他们无法安全地护送更大的船,因为水闸太小,几乎没有留下出错的余地,尤其是在风大、水流险恶的情况下。事实上,在《纽约时报》看到可行性研究报告之前,巴拿马运河(Panama Canal Authority)早前就曾得出结论,拖轮需要远远更大的空间。The tugboats themselves are a problem, especially the 14 new boats purchased from a Spanish company. To maneuver safely, they must be precisely controlled, but according to captains, they are so unstable that they operate best going backward, something that cannot be done while towing ships through the canal.拖轮本身也是一个问题,尤其是从一家西班牙公司购买的14艘新船。要想安全行驶,就必须精确控制拖轮,但船长们说,这些船太不稳定,最好的做法以倒退的方式航行,而它们需要拖着船只通过运河,是无法这样退行的。“The Spanish tugs are perfectly awful,” said Iván de la Guardia, the head of the tugboat captains’ union. Confidential documents obtained by The Times show that the canal authority bought the tugboats for 8 million from a company later represented by the son of Jorge L. Quijano, the canal’s administrator.“西班牙的拖轮非常糟糕,”拖轮船长工会的负责人伊万·德拉瓜迪亚(Iván de la Guardia)说。《纽约时报》获得的机密文件显示,运河以1.58亿美元的价格购买了这些拖轮,运河管理者豪尔赫·L·基哈诺(Jorge L. Quijano)的儿子后来成了那家销售拖轮的公司的代表。The new locks exist for one reason: so that huge “neo-Panamax” ships can move far greater quantities of cargo through the canal. For them to do that, the waterway must remain deep enough so that fully laden ships do not hit bottom. But canal officials discounted warnings that they needed new sources of water, and during a recent drought, shippers had to significantly lighten their loads.新水闸存在的目的是让巨大的“新巴拿马型”船只运载远远更多的货物通过运河。要做到这一点,水道就必须足够深,不至于让满载货物的船只触及河底。但是需要新水源的警告没有被运河官员听取,在近期的一次干旱中,船主不得不大量减轻船只的负载量。At the center of the story is the Panama Canal Authority, which oversaw the design of the new locks and chose the winning bidder. In a small country dominated by an old-money elite, where the very lifeblood is the canal, the authority is a power center unto itself, a government within a government.处在这件事的中心的是巴拿马运河,监督新水闸的设计的是它,选择中标人的也是它。在一个由老钱权贵统治、以这条运河为命脉的小国,运河本身就是一个权力中心,一个政府中的政府。The Old and the New新与旧Grand in scale and beautifully imagined, the original Panama Canal is an engineering marvel. Ships glide through on a 50-mile water bridge. The lock gates, some weighing more than 700 tons, are watertight and buoyant, so finely balanced that should the power fail, a single person can manually open and close them.原来的巴拿马运河规模宏大,设计风格瑰丽,堪称工程学上的一个奇迹。船只要沿着50英里长(约合80公里)的水桥滑行。水闸的闸门有些超过了700吨,不会漏水,又有浮力,实现了极佳的平衡。就算停电,也只要一个人就可以手工操作打开和关上闸门。Three locks raise the ships 85 feet to Gatun Lake, which supplies water for the canal and drinking water for much of the country. Three more locks lower them back to sea level. All of the locks are filled and emptied by gravity, without pumps.三道水闸令船只升高85英尺(约合25米),行至加通湖。后者为运河供水,也是巴拿马许多区域的饮用水来源。另外三道水闸将船只降低,再度回到海平面。所有的水闸都通过重力蓄水和排水,不需要水泵。Over the decades, the canal made Panama, with few natural resources, a key square on the economic chessboard.过去几十年,因为这座运河的存在,自然资源稀缺的巴拿马得以成为全球经济棋盘上关键的一格。Then China’s economic ascent ushered in a new era. Ships became bigger. The more cargo they carried, the lower the cost. By 2000, ships were being built that could not pass through the canal. Fearing that its waterway might end up like the long-outdated Erie Canal, the canal authority set out to build a bigger one.之后,中国经济崛起引领一个新时代到来。船体变得更大。单艘船运载的货物越多,总成本就越低。至2000年,建造中的船只已经大到无法通过这条运河。因为担心这条航道落得和早已过时的伊利运河(Erie Canal)一样,运河打算建一条更大的运河。Just as it was about to solicit bids, the canal authority received some frightening news in November 2007. Jonathan Harris, a geologist working for the authority, reported that Panama’s earthquake risk was far greater than previously believed. By his assessment, the area is vulnerable to earthquakes of up to 8.0 magnitude, according to a diplomatic cable released by WikiLeaks.就在即将开始招标之际,运河于2007年11月听到了一些骇人的消息。为工作的地质学家乔纳森·哈里斯(Jonathan Harris)提出,巴拿马发生地震的风险比此前想象的要大得多。维基解密(WikiLeaks)公开的一封外交电报显示,乔纳森估计这一地区有可能发生高达8级的地震。Even so, three consortiums — including one led by Bechtel, a U.S. company with an international reputation for taking on big, difficult projects — pursued the contract. The financially weakest consortium was led by a Spanish company, Sacyr Vallehermoso, which U.S. officials called “nearly bankrupt” in one cable and “technically bankrupt” in another.尽管如此,依然有三家财团——包括由柏克德(Bechtel)领导的一个,这家美国公司在国际上拥有承担有难度的大型项目的声誉——开始争取这个合同。其中财力最弱的是由西班牙公司萨维(Sacyr Vallehermoso)领导的财团。美国官员在一封电报中称这家公司“几近破产”,在另一封中表示它“严格说来已经破产”。Sacyr’s consortium included a Panamanian company owned by the family of the canal administrator at the time, Alberto Alemán Zubieta. The company, Constructora Urbana, in which Alemán himself previously owned stock, had aly done millions of dollars in business with the canal. The other two members were Impregilo, a large Italian contractor, and Jan De Nul, a Belgian company that specializes in dredging and excavation.萨维领导的财团包括由当时的运河局长阿尔贝托·阿莱曼·苏维塔(Alberto Alemán Zubieta)的家族拥有的一家巴拿马公司。这家名为城镇建造(Constructora Urbana)的公司此前已经与运河做了数百万美元的生意。阿莱曼本人原先也持有公司的股票。财团另外两个成员是意大利大型承包公司英波基洛(Impregilo)和专做疏浚和挖掘工程的比利时公司Jan De Nul。In March 2009, after 15 months of contentious negotiations, the three consortiums submitted their sealed bids. The one with the best price and design would win.到了2009年3月,经过15个月激烈的谈判,三家财团提交了各自的密封投标书。报价和设计最优的一个将会胜出。That July, the result was a shocker: The underdog Sacyr group had won.当年7月,出来的结果让人吃惊:一直不被看好的萨维集团中标。Bechtel and U.S. diplomats were incredulous. Sacyr could not even “pour the concrete” for that amount, a Bechtel representative told the embassy, according to a diplomatic cable.柏克德公司和美国外交官感到难以置信。在一封外交电报中,柏克德的一名代表告诉美国驻巴拿马大使馆,萨维甚至无法“浇铸”那么多的“混凝土”。While Sacyr’s low offer meant Panama received a bargain on price, some viewed it as too good to be true.尽管萨维的低报价意味着巴拿马可以获得价格上的优惠,但一些人认为这个报价看起来太美好,不大可能实现。A few days after Christmas in 2009, at lunch with Barbara J. Stephenson, the U.S. ambassador, Panama’s vice president, Juan Carlos Varela, confided his fears. He elaborated later: “You don’t mess around with something as important as the canal. When one of the bidders makes a bid that is a billion dollars below the next competitor, then something is seriously wrong,” he said, according to a diplomatic cable.2009年圣诞节过去几天后,在与美国大使芭芭拉·J·斯蒂芬森(Barbara J. Stephenson)共进午餐时,巴拿马副总统胡安·卡洛斯·巴雷拉(Juan Carlos Varela)吐露了他的担忧。一封外交电报显示,他随后进行了详细解释:“对于运河这么重要的东西,是不能乱来的。其中一名竞标者提出比其他竞标者低10亿美元的报价,这是非常不对劲的。” /201606/451121

A health official in Northwest China#39;s Gansu Province confirmed last Wednesday that the province#39;s controversial draft family planning regulation promises cash rewards to eligible couples who decide not to have a second child.上周三,中国西北部甘肃省的一名健康官员实,该省颇具争议的计划生育条例草案承诺给那些不生二胎、符合条件的夫妇现金奖励。However, it does not aim to discourage couples from having babies, but rather is left over from the previous policy, Liu Caihong, an official with the Health and Family Planning Commission of Gansu, told the Global Times.不过,甘肃计生委一名名叫刘虹的工作人员告诉《环球时报》称,此举并不是为了阻止夫妻生孩子,而是先前的遗留政策。According to the draft regulation, rural couples who had only one child and voluntarily gave up having more children before January 1 could be granted a cash reward of no less than 1,000 yuan (4).根据这份草案的规定,在今年1月1日前,农村只有一个孩子并且自愿放弃养育更多孩子的夫妻,将被奖励不少于1000元的人民币(折合154美元)。Liu said that the controversy arose because some people failed to note the time restriction in the clause. ;The cash reward policy was made before China shifted to a two-child policy on January 1, and this clause in the regulation applies to those previously eligible couples who have not applied for the reward,; Liu added.刘虹表示,此举之所以引发了争议,是因为一些人没有注意到条款中的时间限制。刘虹补充说道:“这一现金政策是在中国1月1日实施二胎政策之前发布的,这一条款适用于那些在此之前没有申请奖励、符合条件的夫妇。”The official noted that couples who decided not to have a second child after January 1 cannot apply for the cash reward.这名官员强调,今年1月1日以后,决定不要第二个孩子的夫妻就不能申请现金奖励。But netizens and demographers who opposed the clause said that it aimed to encourage people to have fewer children.但是反对这一条例的网民和人口学家称,这一草案会鼓励人们少要孩子。China#39;s family planning policy, which was introduced in the 1970s, limited most urban couples to having one child. The country began allowing all couples to have a second child on January 1 of this year to tackle the challenges of an aging population.Huang Wenzheng, a former Harvard University assistant professor and expert on demographics, said that the reward policy is no longer conducive to China#39;s promotion of a relaxed family planning policy.20世纪80年代,中国出台计划生育政策,限制大部分农村夫妇只要一个孩子。今年1月1日,国家开始允许所有夫妻生二胎,以应对老龄化的挑战。前哈佛大学助理教授、人口学专家黄文政表示,在中国宽松度提高的计划生育政策面前,应不再实行奖励政策。;Under the country#39;s new policy, the government should reward those who decide to have two children,; Huang said, adding that the government should develop more measures that will encourage people to have more children in light of China#39;s aging population.黄文政说道:“在国家新政策下,政府应该奖励那些生二胎的人。”此外,他还补充道,政府应该采取更多的措施,在考虑到老龄化的情况下,鼓励人们生更多的孩子。Gansu is not alone in rewarding couples who decide not to have a second child with cash. Media have reported that provinces including Hunan and Shaanxi came up with the same policy in 2014. In the Yanta district of Xi#39;an, Shaanxi, a total of 240,000 yuan in cash rewards was allocated in August 2014 to 198 couples who gave up having a second child, news portal yicai.com reported.甘肃并不是唯一一个奖励独生子夫妇现金的省份。据媒体报道,包括湖南和陕西省在内的省份,2014年都提出了相同的政策。根据新闻门户第一财经网报道,2014年,在陕西西安雁塔地区,共计24万元的人民币奖励被发放给了198对放弃二胎的夫妇。 /201604/436255

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