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时间:2020年02月26日 12:43:17

No joke: Researchers say we are moving away from personal, real-world pranks and into a world of media-driven jokes and Internet tomfoolery. Does this spell the end of April Fools#39; Day as we know it?绝非儿戏:研究人员表示,我们与切身的、现实生活的恶作剧渐行渐远,正走进充斥着媒体炒作的笑话和网络无聊蠢事的世界。这是否意味着我们所熟知的愚人节的消亡呢?Though pranksters and joke-lovers in many countries now gleefully prepare to dupe friends and loved ones on April Fool#39;s Day, no one knows exactly when or why, or even where, this tradition began.尽管很多国家的恶作剧达人和笑话达人正兴高采烈地准备在愚人节拿爱人和朋友开涮,但没有人知道这种习俗开始的确切时间、原因、甚至地点。The importance of this day of prank-pulling freedom is no laughing matter. It#39;s integral to American culture, a day of funny is important to society, and also helps humans bond. Researchers say our take on comedy is changing, though. And that may mean fewer pranks in the future.愚人节能随便开玩笑,但它的重要性却并非儿戏。它是美国文化不可缺少的一部分,搞笑的一天对社会很重要,有助于增进人们的关系。研究人员表示,我们的喜剧口味正发生变化,这意味着未来的恶作剧会更少。;The usual pranks that we would see 50 years ago are much less common,; Gary Alan Fine, a sociologist at Northwestern University in Illinois, told LiveScience. ;I think we are seeing the decline of interpersonal pranks.;美国伊利诺斯州西北大学的社会学家加里#8226;艾伦#8226;凡恩告诉科学生活网站:“50年前常见的恶作剧现在越来越少了。我认为人与人之间的恶作剧正在减少。”;At one time, prankstering played a bigger role in American society. Some of the prankstering was also very harmful,; Joseph Boskin, a professor emeritus of history at Boston University, told LiveScience.波士顿大学的退休历史教授约瑟夫#8226;斯金告诉该网站:“恶作剧曾经在美国社会中扮演着更重要的角色,有些笑话也很有害。”This type of harmful prank-playing was usually directed toward marginalized sections of society. ;Pranks have played a very big role in this situation, so I#39;m glad that the prankster part of it has declined, but the poking fun at life in general goes on,; Boskin said.社会的边缘人群通常是这种有害的恶作剧的对象。斯金说:“恶作剧在这种情况下影响很大,因此我很高兴见到恶作剧的衰亡,但一般来讲拿生活开涮的习惯还在继续。”The big problem is knowing where to draw the line between playful pranks and meanness on the verge of bullying, Fine said.但凡恩说,最大的问题是知道如何分清幽默的恶作剧和近似于恃强凌弱行为的卑劣做法。;Practical jokes of a certain sort shade into bullying, they shade into meanness and we are very concerned as a society about meanness,; Fine said. ;Finding out what that point is, is difficult for a society.;凡恩说:“某种类型的恶作剧渐渐会变成欺负人,渐渐变成卑鄙行为,我们对充满卑鄙行为的社会心存忧虑。但对社会而言,发现这点很困难。”Because of our conscientiousness and desire to ensure equality, Americans may have drawn that line too far along the spectrum, hedging out playful pranking. And traditional pranking may be left out in the cold, Fine said.由于美国民众怀有确保平等的良知和意愿,在区别这两类时可能存在很大偏颇,将很多幽默的恶作剧排斥在外。这样一来,传统的恶作剧可能就被冷落了。 /201204/176456

读懂美国人的幽默(二) 美国人的笑话有很多都是关于嘲笑不同种族的。美国人怎么开犹太人的玩笑? 问: Why do Jews have such big noses? (为什么犹太人都有大鼻子?)答: Because air is free. (因为空气是免费的)你得知道两个文化点才能明白这个笑话:1. 美国人眼中的犹太人都有个大大的鹰钩鼻。2. 犹太人又精明、又小气。我们很多中国人都有这样一个概念:犹太人是绝顶聪明的。事实上呢?我不知道是不是全部如此,但是我在美国的犹太人的朋友们都是非常聪明的,而且特别有生意头脑。从达芬奇《最后的晚餐》中塑造的犹太人形象开始,犹太人就给人西方人留下了这样的印象:长着一个大大的鹰钩鼻。莎士比亚的《商人》又强化了人们对犹太人“精明、算计、贪婪”的印象。所以在这个笑话里,“空气是免费的”的背后文化含义就是犹太人的精明和小气。 记得有一次一个朋友带我去酒吧喝酒。他告诉我说那里的酒是免费的,于是我高兴得都要跳起来了。他于是对我说:“Are you Jewish or something? (你是犹太人还是怎么着?)”。大家不要轻易开关于别的种族的玩笑,在美国,一般,只有自己开自己种族的玩笑才是安全的,无害的。那你问,那你那个朋友怎么可以开关于犹太人的玩笑。是,我的那个朋友就是个犹太人。^_^好了,考你一个笑话,看你看懂没有: 问: What's "Jewish dilemma?" (什么能够让犹太人进退两难?)答: Free Pork. (免费的猪肉)文化点:1. 犹太人小气 2. 犹太人因为宗教愿意是不应该吃猪肉的。 Get it? 再给大家来一则关于犹太人的笑话:问: What's the difference between Jews and canoes? (犹太人和独木舟的区别在哪里?)答: Canoes tip. (独木舟能倾倒而犹太人不会倾倒) 你一头雾水吧!什么乱七八糟的?在英语里的很多笑话,都用了双关语 (pun). 在英文里,tip不仅表示“倾斜、倾倒”,还表示“给小费”的意思。所以这则笑话又是在指桑骂槐说犹太人小气,不给消费。说到这,给来美国旅游的国人提个醒。在美国餐馆用餐是要给小费的。消费的数量是在用餐结帐数字的 15% 到 20%。大家别忘了。 好了,下面这个笑话是关于犹太妈妈 (Jewish mother) 的。你说,啊?关于犹太人的妈妈还有说法,对! 没错!Q: What did the waiter ask a group of Jewish mothers? (侍应生问了一帮犹太妈妈一个什么问题?)A: "Is anything all right?" (有没有任何事情令您满意的?) 在这个笑话里展示出来的犹太妈妈的形象是斤斤计较,非常不通情理,很难伺候。因为在英文里,侍应生在餐馆招待顾客的时候,问的问题往往是:“Is everything alright?” 一切都还好吧!一般也就是那么一问,不会指望你来真的挑错。但是在这个笑话里,把“everything”变成了“anything”,表示有没有一样事情是你不会挑出错来的?关于 Jewish mother, 还有另外一些说法: 犹太妈妈有点像咱们的中国家长,从儿女出生来到儿女成年、结婚、生子都要亲历亲为,参政议政感极强。她们对儿女婚事的过问、参与程度绝对不会亚于我们的中国家长。这也是美国人对犹太妈妈的一些看法。关于美国黑人的文化背景 在美国,对黑人政治上正确的的说法(politically correct)是African American。(非洲裔美国人)。这么来形容黑人,的确是尊敬他们了,但是少了些亲切感。所以我平常听到的形容黑人的说法是这样的。“That cute black guy, that hot black girl (那个帅气的黑人男孩,那个性感的黑人女孩。)。瞧,在black前面加上“cute” 和“hot”这个两个词,一下子,black就不是什么问题了。但你说,如果我想形容的人既不帅,也不性感怎么办?在中国我们现在不是流行无论管睡都叫靓女吗?美国也可以这么干。好听话不会有人介意的。关于美国人有种族歧视的观念我在这里不想提,以免将错越描越黑。在美国人眼里,黑人通常是擅长各式运动的,尤其是篮球。这和黑人在篮球以及田径上的霸主地位十分不开的。此外对黑人的stereotype还包括黑人,尤其是女孩子很会跳舞。此外,有一个观点是怎么中国人也有的,那就是黑人女孩子的屁股特别的漂亮,又挺又翘又结实。这也是黑人女孩子们自己引以为自豪的。这里我想提几个国人不知道的,但是,我再次重申,不要知道了一点赶快就去向外国友人炫耀,我下面要提到的是黑人们自己都不喜欢听的,觉得这种偏见带有种族歧视成分。 我也不清楚这种说法是怎么来的,但是许多黑人被认为是喜欢吃炸鸡和西瓜。有没有任何事实根据,我也不清楚,但是在有些电影电视里你会看到这样的文化隐喻。黑人们自己并不喜欢这样的说法。我有一个黑人朋友,他告诉我说他曾经到一家类似咱们中国远郊边县的餐馆用餐,他叫了一杯冰水喝,但是侍应生却端来了一个大西瓜。全餐馆的白人都在哈哈大笑。我这个朋友告诉我说那是他一生中所受到的最大的耻辱。黑人也许和你开玩笑,提到他们自己喜欢吃西瓜和炸鸡,但是那不意味着你也可以开同样的玩笑。这就像妈妈可以说自己家的孩子有多么不好,但是别人的妈妈如果说自己孩子的不是,那么这个妈妈心里才叫一个赌气呢。同样的道理,给大家将这些事情的目的是让大家了解,然后能够听得懂,这就够了。要开种族的玩笑,就先拿自己开涮吧!美国人对英国人的“成见” 美国人对英国人的固有印象很多,但是有一点是特别有趣的。美国媒体特别喜欢嘲笑英国人的牙齿,觉得"Brits (British people) have bad teeth (英国人的牙齿都不怎么好)。我也不清楚这种讲法来自何处,我想其实在美国人眼里,只有他们自己的牙齿才是最齐、最白、最完美的。大家一笑而过吧! /200909/83529

Who hasn#39;t logged onto Facebook and pored through an ex#39;s page, looking at old posts and clicking on the photo of the girl or guy who took their place?登陆Facebook上前任的主页,查看那些旧日志和他或她的新欢的照片,这事儿你也干过吧?If a new study is to be believed, the vast majority of people are guilty of post-breakup cyber-snooping.如果一项最近的调查结果可信的话,大多数人会为分手后依然在网上窥视前任的一举一动而有罪恶感。According to a Masters thesis written by a student at University of Western Ontario in Canada, as many as 88 per cent of people - nearly nine of ten - check up on their former boyfriends or girlfriends on the popular social media site, the Toronto Star reported.据《多伦多明星报》报道,来自加拿大西安大略大学的一名学生在她的硕士论文中写道,88%也就是将近90%的人,会在流行的社交媒体上继续关注他们前任男女朋友的动态。Jilted lovers signed on to friends#39; accounts to spy on the person who dumped them. They deleted photos reminding them of happier times, long-forgotten wall posts and scrutinized their potential replacement.失恋的人们借用朋友的账号暗中监视那些甩掉他们的人。他们会删掉那些让人想起快乐旧时光的照片,重读那些遗忘已久的日志,并且密切关注对方可能的下一任。‘It#39;s so interesting right now, so different from before this technology existed. Once you broke up in the past, it was over,#39; media studies graduate student Veronika Lukacs, 25, told the Star after successfully defending her thesis titled ‘It#39;s Complicated: Romantic breakups and their aftermath on Facebook.#39;“自从社交媒体这项科技出现后,分手后的情况就和过去不同了,变得很有意思。在过去如果你们分手了,就意味着一切都结束了,” 这名25岁的传媒专业研究生瓦伦尼卡-卢卡斯面对《多伦多明星报》采访时这样说。她已经成功结束了自己的论文答辩,她的论文题目为《没那么简单:情侣分手后在社交媒体上的表现》。Lukacs said her analysis of Facebook as it relates to breakups has serious social implications. ‘Nearly everyone is participating in these behaviors, it#39;s very very common,#39; she said.卢卡斯说她之所以会分析Facebook是因为它关系到情侣的分手,而这有着深远的社交影响。“几乎每个人都做过这样的事情,这是一种非常非常普遍的现象”,她说。The student also found that 48 per cent of people remain Facebook friends with their ex after they break up and 74 per cent had tried to keep tabs on their former partner#39;s new flame.卢卡斯还发现,48%的人和前任分手后在Facebook上依然保持好友关系,而74%的人会密切关注前任新欢的动向。Of those who were no longer Facebook friends, 70 per cent admitted using a mutual friend#39;s profile to check on their ex.而对于那些分手后解除了Facebook好友关系的人,当中有70%承认他们会借用某个共同好友的账号来查看前任的主页。#39;At the end of the day, Facebook does present very serious challenges for people getting over a breakup,#39; Lukacs said. #39;It#39;s a much more serious issue than a lot of people think.#39;“最后表明,Facebook确实对人们度过分手时期的痛苦带来了严峻的挑战,”卢卡斯说。“这比很多人想象的更加严峻。”Surveillance of someone on Facebook, or ‘creeping,#39; did not follow the patterns Lukacs had foreshadowed‘I had expected people who were not Facebook friends with their ex-partners would be less distressed.在Facebook上监视或追踪某人的行动,也并不都是按照卢卡斯预料的模式进行。“我原以为那些和前任不再是Facebook好友的人会不那么痛苦。”‘We found the opposite was true. People who had #39;unfriended#39; their partners had higher levels of distress. Based on interviewing people, I#39;m thinking that people who are the most distressed are the ones who delete their partners,#39; she explained.“结果我们发现正好相反。那些和前任解除了好友关系的人反而更加痛苦。根据我们的调查访问,我认为最痛苦的就是那些把前任从好友中删除的人,” 她解释说。Less surprisingly, the rejected partners who were most upset by the split were also the most avid stalkers.不难想象,那些被前任甩掉、而且对于分手最伤心的人,也恰恰是最热衷于在社交媒体上窥探前任举动的人。As part of her study, Lukacs surveyed 107 people over age 18 who had their heart broken in the previous 12 months. Three-quarters of them attended University of Western Ontario.作为研究的一部分,卢卡斯调查了107名年龄在18岁以上,且过去一年里有过心痛的分手经历的人,其中3/4就读于西安大略大学。‘A lot of people who I had interviewed talked about their surveillance behaviour and how they knew it wasn#39;t good for them and yet somehow they were doing it anyway,#39; she said. ‘Rationality didn#39;t play a role for them.#39;“我访问过的许多人都提到了自己在社交媒体上监视前任的行为,他们明白这样做对自己并无益处,但还是忍不住要去做,”卢卡斯说。“理性对他们完全不起作用。”One man Lukacs interviewed confessed that he had hacked into his ex-girlfriend#39;s Facebook account.卢卡斯访问过的一名男子承认,他曾经入侵过前女友的Facebook账户。‘He never thought he was the kind of person who would do that. He was really embarrassed,#39; she said, adding that it is a good idea to change the Facebook password after a breakup.“他之前从不认为自己会是做这种事的人。他对此深感羞愧,”卢卡斯说。她还建议在分手后应该修改Facebook的账户密码。While deleting an ex from your friends list may seem like a viable solution to the problem, Lukacs said it is not entirely effective. In addition, it is generally considered rude to ‘unfriend#39; someone on Facebook, so many people are hesitant to sever that last tie.尽管把前任从你的好友名单中删除似乎是一个可行的解决办法,但卢卡斯认为这并不真的有效。此外,由于在Facebook上解除与某人的好友关系通常被视为不礼貌的,许多人因此而犹豫,并不愿切断这个和前任最后的联系。 /201208/195024

When Lord Browne left his role as BP chief executive, amid rumours about his sexuality, he said it “was simply unacceptable to be gay in business”. 当布朗勋爵(Lord Browne)因个人性取向的传言而辞去英国石油(BP)首席执行官职位时,他表示,“同性恋是肯定不会被商界接纳的”。 The remark was made in 2007. But is the workplace of 2012 any more gay friendly? 他说这番话的时间是2007年。但是,2012年的职场对同性恋者是否更宽容一些呢? Attitudes do seem to be changing in the corporate world, with 86 per cent of Fortune 500 firms now banning discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. In the UK, leading companies are included among the 2012 Workplace Equality Index of Britain’s most gay friendly employers produced by Stonewall, the campaigning organisation. 商界的态度看来确实已开始变化,现在86%的《财富》500强公司禁止以性取向为由的歧视行为。在英国,在同性恋维权组织“石墙”(Stonewall)制作的2012年“工作场所平等指数”(Workplace Equality Index)中,一些顶级公司进入了英国最宽容同性恋的雇主榜单。 There is a legal imperative too: the 2010 Equality Act brought existing equalities legislation together and introduced “the public sector equality duty”, requiring public bodies to deal with inequalities experienced by staff and customers. 态度转变也是法律的要求。英国2010年《平等法》(Equality Act)统合了现有的平等法规,并规定了“公共部门平等责任”,要求公共机构处理员工和顾客遭遇的不平等经历。 According to Colleen Humphrey, Stonewall’s director of workplace diversity: “It’s hard to believe but 10 years ago it was perfectly legal for an employer to dismiss gay staff just because of their sexual orientation. That only changed in 2003, when Stonewall helped secure protection for gay people in law. “石墙”工作场所多元化总监科琳#8226;汉弗莱(Colleen Humphrey)表示:“很难相信,就在10年之前,雇主纯粹以性取向为由解雇同性恋员工还是完全合法的。这一状况直到2003年才开始改变,当时“石墙”帮助把保护同性恋员工的内容写进了法律。 “Stonewall later established the Diversity Champions programme – Britain’s employers’ forum on sexual orientation. We know from working with more than 600 diversity champions in every sector that people perform better when they can be themselves...Today, a fifth of the UK’s workforce is employed by diversity champions.” “后来,‘石墙’启动了多元化冠军项目,这是英国雇主的性取向论坛。我们从自己与各行各业600多家多元化冠军公司的合作中发现,当员工能够做真实的自己时,他们的表现会更好。如今,多元化冠军公司雇佣的员工人数占英国劳动力队伍的五分之一。” However, recent comments by Lord Browne reveal there is still much more to be done for business to accommodate the needs of Britain’s 1.7m lesbian, gay and bisexual employees. Speaking at the launch of a lesbian and gay, bisexual and transgender network set up by Arup, he said business is still less tolerant than other areas of life and called for “concrete targets” to measure progress. 然而,布朗勋爵近来的话表明,商界还应采取更多的措施,照顾英国170万女同性恋、男同性恋和双性恋员工的需求。在工程顾问公司奥雅纳(Arup)设立的LGBT(女同性恋者、男同性恋者、双性恋者与跨性别者)网络的发起仪式上,布朗表示,商界的宽容度仍比不上其他社会领域,并呼吁设定衡量进展的“具体目标”。 Also highlighting continuing concern is Trouble at Work, a book by Ralph Fevre, Amanda Robinson and Trevor Jones of Cardiff School of Social Sciences and Duncan Lewis of Plymouth Business School, and published by Bloomsbury Academic. It reveals how lesbian, gay and bisexual employees are much more likely to report ill-treatment, particularly from managers. 《工作中的麻烦》(Trouble at Work)一书也道出了继续存在的担忧。该书作者为卡迪夫社会科学学院(Cardiff School of Social Sciences)的拉尔夫#8226;费夫尔(Ralph Fevre)、阿曼达#8226;罗宾逊(Amanda Robinson)和特蕾弗#8226;琼斯(Trevor Jones),以及普利茅斯商学院(Plymouth Business School)的邓肯#8226;刘易斯(Duncan Lewis),由布鲁姆斯伯里学术出版公司(Bloomsbury Academic)出版。该书表示,同性恋和双性恋员工受到不公平对待(尤其是来自管理人员的不公平对待)的可能性比其他人大得多。 They experience humiliation, intimidation and hints that they should quit. In the largest study of its kind, LGBT employees were shown to be 12 times more likely than straight colleagues to be given hints to leave and four times more likely to be threatened. Gay or bisexual employees were also five times more likely to report violence at work compared with heterosexual colleagues, and the figures show an escalating pattern of ill treatment. 他们会遭遇侮辱、恐吓以及他们应当辞职的暗示。这方面最大规模的调查显示,LGBT员工比普通员工得到辞职暗示的可能性高12倍,受到威胁的可能性高4倍。与异性恋员工相比,同性恋或双性恋员工报告在工作中遭遇暴力的可能性也要高5倍,同时数字显示,他们受到的不公平对待不断升级。 Working in a non gay-friendly business environment can leave employees feeling isolated because they can’t be themselves. 在对同性恋不够宽容的公司环境里工作,可能让员工感到孤立,因为他们不能做真实的自己。 Stonewall research found that lesbian, gay and bisexual staff who worked in such environments found it difficult to develop working relationships with colleagues, with their confidence and creativity suffering. The effort of self-censoring their behaviour was draining. “石墙”研究表明,在这样的环境里工作的女同性恋、男同性恋和双性恋员工发现,他们很难和同事发展工作关系,信心和创造力也受到影响。自我审查自身行为的努力,白白耗费着他们的精力。 Critically, companies failing to foster a comfortable environment for gay staff, are missing out. Liz Bingham, managing partner for people at Ernst amp; Young, observes that in the past seven years, the diversity agenda has moved from a “nice to do” space into “hard edged business rationale”. 关键在于,未能给同性恋员工营造宽松环境的公司,正在坐失良机。安永(Ernst amp; Young)管理合伙人利斯#8226;宾汉(Liz Bingham)认为,过去7年,多元化议程已从“不妨做的好事”变成“商业的硬道理”。 She says: “Due to the current economic environment, the only way firms can grow is to increase market share so you need the best people – the most talented heterosexual and gay employees alike will be deterred by an environment in which staff can’t truly be themselves. And fishing in a narrow pool of straight white men means you limit the chance to bring in amazing talent. 她表示:“鉴于当前的经济环境,公司实现增长的唯一方式是扩大市场份额,所以就需要网罗顶尖人才——无论是双性恋还是同性恋员工,只要工作环境不能让他们做真实的自己,都会在这样的环境面前却步。眼光狭隘地盯在异性恋白人男性身上,意味着你招募到杰出人才的可能性很小。 “I speak personally as a lesbian,” says Ms Bingham. “The acceleration in my personal development has been striking since coming out. I have a responsibility to model this in the business, creating an environment where everyone can succeed. “我本人是一名女同性恋者,”宾汉表示,“我‘出柜’后,个人发展的加速是非常惊人的。我有责任在企业里以此为借鉴,营造人人都能成功的环境。 “There’s a powerful business case for getting it right. Authenticity is very important, whether dealing with clients or leading teams; they want to see a leader they can trust. We are also increasingly asked to demonstrate our diversity credentials, especially in the US.”. “妥善把握是非常符合商业利益的。真切非常重要,无论与客户打交道还是带领团队时都是如此;他们希望看到一位自己能够信任的领导者。我们越来越多地被要求展现自己的多样性,尤其是在美国。” Top of the Stonewall Index, Ernst amp; Young can now measure the business case after conducting global research around the correlation of employee engagement and the performance of business units. There was a clear link between those businesses with high engagement scores and the best profitability. 领衔“石墙”指数的安永(Ernst amp; Young)在对员工投入度与业务部门业绩之间的关联进行全球调查后,现在能够衡量多元化的商业必要性。对企业来说,在员工投入度上得到高分与盈利能力最强之间存在着明显的关联。 Law firm Simmons amp; Simmons LLP was another award winner. Partner David Stone is co-chair of the firm’s LGBT network. He agrees being gay friendly is a social and business imperative, with banks and financial institutions especially keen to see this in suppliers. Good practice helps attract the best lawyers and support staff – and retain them. 西盟斯律师事务所(Simmons amp; Simmons LLP)是另一家获奖单位。合伙人戴维#8226;斯通(David Stone)是公司LGBT网络的联合主席。他同意,对同性恋表现出宽容态度,已成为社会和商业层面的必做之事,和金融机构尤其希望看到供应商做到这一点。良好的公司实践能够吸引最优秀的律师和辅助员工,并且把他们留住。 Fostering a more gay friendly environment means having chief executive or board level accountability for policy and linking the equality and diversity strategy to the company’s aims and values. Policies should be audited to ensure they take lesbian, gay and bisexual factors into account and incidents must be monitored. 营造对同性恋更宽容的环境意味着,必须让首席执行官和董事会承担政策责任,并且把平等及多元化战略与公司的目标和价值观联系起来。政策应当接受审核,以确保它们纳入同性恋和双性恋因素。相关事件必须得到监控。 Having gay staff as visible role models and senior lead champions also helps – as does engaging “straight allies” to support equality, often with “reverse mentoring” programmes, which can see junior staff coaching more senior colleagues. 让同性恋员工成为看得见的榜样和高级管理人员也很有帮助,与“异性恋盟友”联合持平等也是一样——往往通过“逆向辅导”方式,让职位较低的员工辅导更资深的员工。 Gay networks also offer a social and business function and help gauge reaction to policy. Education workshops and engagement programmes with clients are also effective as is involving gay partners. Companies must offer guidance on challenging homophobic behaviour. 同性恋网络也提供社会和商业功能,并有助于衡量政策引发的反应。教育研讨会和客户参与项目也很有效,让同性恋合作伙伴参与也是一样。在挑战厌恶同性恋的行为方面,企业必须提供指引。 Staff need to be supported globally, too: as being gay is illegal in more than 70 countries, and with different legislative frameworks abroad, postings overseas need careful management. 员工也需要在全球范围内得到持:目前同性恋在70多个国家是非法的;由于国外有着不同的法律框架,向海外派遣人员需要谨慎的管理。 IBM is another company that prides itself on its record of diversity. In 1997, it provided full domestic benefits to lesbians and gays. Fred Balboni, IBM’s global leader for business analytics and optimisation, stresses that diversity is “deep in the DNA of IBM because it creates innovation”. IBM是另一家为自己的多元化记录感到自豪的企业。1997年,IBM就对同性恋提供全面家庭津贴。IBM全球商业分析和优化主管弗雷德#8226;巴尔尼(Fred Balboni)强调,多元化“深入IBM的基因之中,因为它有助于带来创新。” He says: “Populations of the world are very diverse so it is important to stay close to our clients, to look and act like them. LGBT is a subset of a broader diversity agenda as it creates innovation. It’s also good for social justice, so right for our people.” 他表示:“世界人口多种多样,因此,与客户保持密切关系、与他们言行一致很重要。LGBT是一项全面多元化议程的子集,因为它能够带来创新。而且这也有利于社会正义,因此对我们来说是正确的。” IBM’s “Eagle” – employee network groups in the local community – started in the US about 15 years ago and now operate in 25 countries. The company’s “About You” indicator enables employees to identify themselves formally as LGBT workers. This then enables HR staff to track equal pay and career advancement. 15年前,IBM在美国发起的“鹰”计划——当地社区的雇员网络团体,现在已经扩展到25个国家。公司的“关于你”指标,让雇员能够正式确认自己是LGBT员工。这样,人力资源部员工就可以追踪他们是否获得了平等薪酬和职业晋升。 Dianah Worman, diversity adviser at the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, reminds employers that once staff are “out” they cannot go back. Employers can raise expectations for gay staff but people will grow disillusioned if nothing is delivered. 英国特许人事和发展协会(Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development)的多元化顾问戴安娜#8226;沃曼(Dianah Worman)提醒雇主,一旦员工“出柜”,他们就没有回头路可走了。雇主能够提高同性恋员工的预期,但如果什么都没有兑现,人们会大失所望。 She thinks champions and other initiatives work well but personal responsibility must also be cultivated and line managers equipped to look at the issues in a broader context. Rigid cultures of any kind can be daunting so people need both to feel respected and respect their colleagues. 她认为,冠军和其他倡议效果良好,但也必须培养个人责任,部门经理必须学会在更广阔的背景下看待这些问题。任何僵化的文化都会让人望而生畏,因此人们既要感觉得到了尊重,也要尊重自己的同事。 Stonewall’s Diversity Champions programme offers specialist resources for organisations seeking to become an employer of choice for LGB talent. A starting point is asking staff what they want – for example via anonymous surveys – building in a question on sexual orientation. “石墙”的多元化冠军计划为寻求成为LGBT人才首选雇主的组织提供专业资源。一个起点是询问员工他们想要什么——例如通过匿名调查——其中植入一个关于性取向的问题。 But for some employees, gay friendly policies cannot mask the fact that problems remain. According to one senior media professional: “The idea of a diversity champion fills me with d. If I knew that a company was not gay friendly then I probably wouldn’t go and work there – not because I would be concerned that people wouldn’t respect me, but because I wouldn’t want to work somewhere that doesn’t display the kind of tolerance and equality that I believe should run through all of society. I recognise that it doesn’t, but it is up to me to make my own choices and stand up for myself.” 但对某些雇员而言,对同性恋友好的政策,不能掩盖问题仍然存在的事实。一位资深媒体专业人士表示:“多元化冠军的构想让我充满担忧。如果我知道一家公司对同性恋不友好,那么我很可能不会去那里工作,不是因为我担心人们不会尊重我,而是因为我不想在不愿展现宽容和平等的地方工作。我相信,这种宽容和平等应该充满社会每个角落。我知道现在的社会还没有走到这一步,但我有权做出自己的选择,勇敢地站起来。” /201207/190956


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