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2019年07月18日 02:50:24|来源:国际在线|编辑:预约社区
Uniforms are a pervasive part of many societies. But in China there seems to be a particular adherence to uniforms. From entering the subway, passing security and stepping onto the train, you will have encountered not one, but multiple uniformed staff. Walking down the street will have meant dodging bright orange street cleaners, food-delivery staff on scooters or identically dressed salon workers receiving their morning briefing. Upon entering your office, you may have passed uniformed security guards on your way to colleagues dressed in suits and ties. They’re inescapable.制是许多社会普遍存在的一部分。但是中国人似乎更钟情于制。当你乘地铁、过安检和坐火车时,你都会看到穿着各种制的工作人员。当你走在街上,随处可以看到穿着明亮橘色制的清洁工,骑着踏板车的送餐员以及接受早训的沙龙务员。当你去办公室时,你会遇见穿着制的保安,以及西装革履的同事。制无处不在。The uniform#39;s place in Chinese society can be traced back through the country#39;s history. As in most places across the world, they have been worn throughout the ages in the military to distinguish between factions and provide protection. Each dynasty favored a different style for its soldiers. Drawings of soldiers from the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770-221 B.C.) show studded boots and uniforms with heavy arm and torso protection, whereas similar depictions from the Sui Dynasty (A.D. 581-618) illustrate draped and layered military wear. Uniforms were often as fierce as the battles their wearers fought in.制在中国社会的地位是有历史可以追溯的。就像在世界其他地方一样,士兵穿制,一是为了区分军事派别,二是为了提供保护。每一个朝代的士兵制的风格都不同,从东周时期手绘士兵的画像可以看出,他们穿着沉重的靴子和制以保护手臂和身体,同样的,从隋朝时期士兵的画像可以看出,他们都披着一层一层的盔甲。制常常是士兵在激烈战斗中最好的保护。Uniforms were also designed to show status and mark levels of authority. In China, the Terracotta Warriors in Xi’an were molded to wear styles commonly found in the Qin Dynasty (221-207 B.C.). Officers#39; ranks were discernible by their dress, with generals wearing a dual long jacket, long pants, thigh protectors, a crest hat and a pair of boots with square tips.制也通常用来显示权威者的地位和阶级。在中国,西安兵马俑的穿着常见于秦朝。通过他们的穿着,可以明显地分辨出军官的军衔,例如,将军都是穿着两层长袍,长裤子,一双长方靴和带着一顶帽子。But at points throughout history, uniforms were deemed fashion items too. Zhongshan suits (Chinese tunic suits, above) were hugely popular among males in 1950s, with women’s clothing based on a similar style. Introduced by Sun Yat-Sen and made famous by Mao Zedong who favored it in public, hence the nickname ‘Mao suit’, the clothing became a form of national dress.然而在历史上,制也曾是时尚物品。中山装在20世纪50年代非常受欢迎,甚至女性的装也是类似的风格。中山装是由孙中山发明的,由于毛泽东非常喜欢在公共场合穿,因此中山装又称“毛装”。自此中山装成为了一种民族饰。In the military, clothing now follows the generic western style of pants, jacket and a hat. The Zhongshan suit has also undergone modernization. With an altered shape and more streamlined look, the once shapeless garment is now fitted and more flattering for the male body. But while it is still a popular choice for Chinese leaders during important events, tunic suits are rarely seen in wider society.军事上,装一般都是遵循西式的风格,长裤、夹克以及帽子。原本没什么型的中山装也经历了现代化,款式上有了改变,更流线型的外观、更合体的剪裁凸显出男性的身材美。尽管在重要场合,中山装仍是中国领导人的首要选择,但是在社会日常生活中很少见。Yet, there are many places where uniforms live on. This is the case in the hospitality industry in particular, explains Catalina Calin, director of Calin Fashion Academy in Beijing.北京Calin时装学院校长Catalina Calin称,仍然有很多地方需要制,尤其是务业。“In Europe, you don#39;t see uniforms that often [compared to China]. Hospitality is the one industry that is still using them because they can project the type of service or professionalism that you are expecting,; she says. ;A uniform is very important for how a client sees you, but it’s also important for how the employee is feeling. The uniform has to be fitted right for the person to feel confident and beautiful.”“与中国相比,欧洲穿制的人不那么常见。从事务业的人仍然穿制,因为这可以投射出你所期望的务和专业”,她还说,“制是客户如何看待你的一个标准,但员工的感觉也很重要,合身的制穿在身上能够展现自信和美丽”。Calin believes there will be more emphasis on uniforms#39;appearance in the future: ;Chinese ladies are starting to become more conscious of their appearance and beauty. This flows through to the places they work, which have to fit their needs,; she says, citing staff the New World Hotel’s Yin on 12 bar as an example of progression. ;They wear short black skirts, rock-style shoes and dark make-up. This brings a very cool image to the bar.;Calin认为,未来将会更加重视制的外观,她说“中国女性越来越在意自己的外表。她们工作的地方也需满足她们的这一需求”。以New World Hotel酒吧的员工为例,“她们穿黑色短裙,摇滚风的鞋子,画着烟熏妆,这带给人一种非常酷的印象”。But China#39;s love affair with uniforms stretches far beyond hospitality. While there is no single explanation for this, it may reflect a more inherently collectivist culture, where self-identity is shaped by group memberships. In the workplace, or in schools, people feel a stronger sense of self if they are able to define themselves as part of a group.但是在中国,不仅仅是务业钟情于制,虽然对此没有单一的解释,但是这可能反应了一种内在的集体文化,自我认同往往体现在集体关系中。在工作场所或者学校,如果能够成为集体中的一部分,那么他们就有很强的自我认同感。On the streets of Beijing, the way people feel about wearing uniforms varies wildly. Outside Ginza Mall we find Xing (above), a safety officer from Shanxi, wearing a dark blue-black shirt, pants and hat. ;I feel like a soldier when I wear my uniform,; he declares, demonstrating an army-like pose. “It makes me feel like I#39;m part of a team. I like all of it.;在北京的街头,人们对穿制的感受参差不齐。在银座购物中心外面,我们采访了邢,一个来自山西的保安,他穿着一套藏青色的保安(如上图所示)。“当我穿上制时,我感觉自己像一个战士,”他说,同时站了一个军姿,“这让我感觉我是这个团队的一员,我非常喜欢这一切。”But not all are so positive about their work clothes. Zhao (below left), a 55-year-old former architect from Zhangjiakou, has been a cleaner around Dongzhimen for half a year. Like most cleaners, he is given two uniforms (one for winter and a lighter one for summer). Currently, he is wearing an orange jacket and pants and a pair of worn-out gray gloves, while carrying a straw broom and bucket in hand.然而并不是所有的人都喜欢他们的工作,来自张家口的55岁的赵(下图左),之前是一个建筑师,现在在东直门做清洁工已经半年了。像大多数清洁工一样,他有两套工作(一套是冬天的,一套是夏天的)。目前,他穿着一套橙色的装,带着一副破烂的灰色手套,手里拿着扫帚和桶。;I don#39;t like the color. If I could change my uniform I#39;d change the color because the orange doesn#39;t look very attractive. The uniform isn#39;t comfortable. It#39;s checked regularly though so we can#39;t change it in any way,; says Zhao, who says that cleaners all wear their own shoes but that their employers provide washing powder.他说,“我不喜欢这个颜色。如果我能改变我的工作,我会改变这个颜色,因为橙色不大好看。而且这个工作也不舒,因为会定期检查,所以我们没法改变它”,他还说,清洁工都是穿自己的鞋子,但是雇主会提供洗衣粉。In fact, cleaners#39; uniforms in Beijing differ according to location. One cleaner at Tiananmen Square, Liu (above right), 51, wears a royal-blue suit with yellow accents as he rides in a small electric cart with a bucket picking up trash. ;My uniform is comfortable and I think the blue looks good,; he says.事实上,工作区域不同,北京清洁工的制也是不同的。刘(上图右)今年51岁,是天安门广场的一个清洁工,穿着一件宝蓝色制,前胸是一抹醒目的黄色,他骑着一辆小型电动车,后面是一个捡垃圾的铲斗。他说,“我的制很舒,我觉得蓝色很好看。”His uniform is in stark contrast to Zhao#39;s bright orange. The latter#39;s dress may be down to practical considerations, such as the heavy traffic in Dongzhimen and the need for greater visibility. But in the restaurant world, the style of uniform is largely dependent on the establishment#39;s level of service and cuisine. High-end restaurants feature more of a classic style (shirt, pants) than those found in fast-food restaurants, for instance, which favor casual wear in the form of polos and tracksuits.他的蓝色制与赵的橙色制形成鲜明对比。后者可能出于实际穿衣的考虑,例如,东直门的交通繁忙,需要更大的关注度。但是在餐饮业,制的风格很大程度上取决于务和烹饪的水平。高级餐厅比快餐厅的制风格更经典,通常是衬衫和长裤,而快餐厅会穿休闲装,比如马球衫和运动。Zhang (above left), a server at the popular Guijie restaurant Culiang Renjia, wears a floral-printed top-and-pant combination with simple black shoes and pigtailed hair. Apart from a faint resemblance to pajamas, the uniform is visually appealing, and it fits the restaurant#39;s theme of nostalgia.张(上图左),是簋街粗粮人家餐厅的务员,穿着一套印花套装,一双简单的黑布鞋,梳着麻花辫。除了有点像睡衣这点不足外,这套制看起来很有吸引力,这非常符合餐厅怀旧的风格。;I like my uniform because it#39;s unique and looks nice,” she says. ;It#39;s very comfortable.;“我非常喜欢我的制,因为它看起来很独特,很不错”,她说,“而且它很舒”。As in most countries, uniform wearing begins from a young age in China. A student at Beijing No. 55 Middle School, 12-year old Fu (below), wears the mandatory tracksuit school uniform in blue, white and red. The tracksuit-style uniform has been worn by schoolchildren for more than two decades.像许多国家一样,中国人也是从很小的年纪开始穿制的。附(下图),北京第55中学的学生,今年12岁了,身着学校强制性统一的蓝白红相间的校。学生穿运动风格的校已经20多年了。;Foreigners at my school don#39;t have to wear the uniform. I#39;d rather not have to wear it either because I don#39;t think it looks very good. I think other countries#39; school uniforms look much better.;“外国学生在我们学校不用穿校。我也不想穿,因为我觉得我们的校不好看,我觉得其他国家的校要好看得多。”She tells us that her school has three uniforms (though all are variations on the tracksuit), which cost RMB480 altogether. The tracksuits were designed – like many school uniforms – to prevent comparisons between students#39; appearances and to eliminate worries over clothing choice. The style fulfills these criteria, but at what cost? As one online commentator bluntly assessed: ;They are the ugliest in the world.;他告诉我们,学校共发了三套校(都是运动风格的),一共480元。像许多校一样,运动风格的设计是为了防止学生之间攀比,也是为了消除学生选择穿什么衣的忧虑。校满足这些要求,但是代价是什么呢?一位在线者直言不讳地评价:“这些校是全世界最丑的。”This particular comment came after US First Lady Michelle Obama visited a Beijing high school in 2014 and photos from the trip were splashed across social media. Commentators pointed out that the tracksuit is practical and wear-resistant, though many expressed that other designs can fulfill the same goals.这个特别的是在美国第一夫人米歇尔2014年访问北京一所高中时发表的,她的行程照片被刊登在社交媒体上。者指出运动很实用,耐磨,但是很多人同时表示其他设计也能达到这一要求。For students, as with adults, uniforms can increase the wearer#39;s confidence. Some believe that more stylish school wear may help students perform better (or feel happier, at least). In April 2013, the Henan Provincial Experimental School in Zhengzhou decided to let students design their own uniforms. The results were met with praise from parents and the public, and delight from students.学生和成年人一样,穿制可以增加他们的信心。一些人表示穿时髦的校可以帮助学生表现得更好(至少他们会感到更开心)。2013年4月,河南省郑州市实验学校决定让学生自己设计校,这一决定受到家长和公众的一致好评,学生也从中得到了乐趣。;Students have their own sense of aesthetics at their age,; the school#39;s Student Affairs Director, Feng Yan, told CCTV.“这个年龄段的学生有他们自己的审美观”,该校的教务处主任冯艳告诉央视。Such experiments are not necessarily a sign of relaxing attitudes toward uniforms in contemporary China. Despite a growing sense of individualism among younger generations, uniforms#39; historic, cultural and practical role may see them widely retained across the country – and across industries. But while dressing in the same way may be, in some respects, the antithesis of fashion, uniforms are also subject to change over time. If these changes can accommodate both function and form, their place in society may be safe for some time to come.这一实验并不是指当代中国对制有了一定放松的态度。尽管年轻一代有着越来越强烈的个人主义观念,但制的历史性、文化性和实用性在全国各地广泛地保留着,而且是跨行业。在某些方面,穿着一样的衣可能是站在时尚的对立面,但制也在随着时间的改变而改变。如果这些改变能够同时兼顾功能和形式,那么制在社会中仍将保持它的地位。 /201511/409788Teenagers around the world can rejoice with the news that their brain deserves the blame when parents#39; orders go ignored while they tap on their smartphones.在专注玩手机的时候,我们的大脑会自动“屏蔽”掉父母的唠叨——世界各地的青少年听到这个消息一定都会高兴地跳起来吧。A new scientific study from the University College London has found that humans may be rendered temporarily deaf when they#39;re simultaneously focusing on something visual.伦敦大学学院最新的研究发现,人们在专注于眼前事物时,可能会出现短暂性的失聪症状。Research found that the 13 volunteers experienced #39;inattentional deafness#39; to the normal-volume sounds playing in the background as their visual tasks became increasingly difficult.研究人员对13名志愿者进行了实验,发现他们在面对不断深入的视觉任务时,会经历“无意失聪”,即对正常音量的背景音置若罔闻。#39;We found that when volunteers were performing the demanding visual task, they were unable to hear sounds that they would normally hear,#39; study co-author Maria Chait said in a statement.该研究的联合作者玛丽亚·柴特称:“我们发现,在志愿者专注于需要集中精力的视觉任务时,他们会听不到他们平常原本能听到的声音。”#39;The brain scans showed that people were not only ignoring or filtering out the sounds, they were not actually hearing them in the first place.#39;“通过对志愿者大脑的扫描我们还发现,他们不是有意忽略或者选择过滤掉那些声音,而是确实没有听到。”The findings, published in the Journal of Neuroscience, suggest that the visual and auditory processing centers that make sense of the sights and sounds that surround us share limited resources.这篇发表在《神经科学》期刊上的研究成果表明,视觉与听觉的处理中心共享有限的资源空间,而这决定了人们能够看到和听到的东西。Inattentional deafness is a common every day experience and the study explains why, according to UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience Professor Nilli Lavie, a co-author of the study.伦敦大学学院认知神经学研究所教授、此次研究的联合作者尼丽·莱薇表示,“无意失聪”是生活中常见的现象,而他们的研究对其原因给出了合理的解释。#39;If you try to talk to someone focusing on a book, game, or television program and don#39;t receive a response, they aren#39;t necessarily ignoring you, they simply might not hear you!#39; she said.莱薇说:“如果你想和一个正专注于读书、打游戏或者看电视的人说话,可他并不理会你,你别在意,因为他不是故意忽视你,而是他根本就没听见你在说什么。”#39;This could also explain why you might not hear your bus or train stop being announced if you#39;re concentrating on your phone, book, or newspaper.#39;“这也就解释了为什么你在专注于低头刷手机或者看书读报时,会听不到汽车、火车报站的声音。”Loud sounds - like ambulance sirens - will still be able to break through, but some situations could become potentially dangerous when the quieter ones go unheard, according to Medical Daily.《医药日报》指出,人们能对诸如救护车的警笛这样的高分贝声音还是会有所反应,但在某些低分贝情况下,这种失聪会为人们的安全埋下隐患。#39;This has more serious implications in situations such as the operating theater, when a surgeon concentrating on their work might not hear the equipment beeping,#39; Lavie said.对此莱薇表示:“某些情况下,无意失聪可能会带来严重的后果。比如在手术室里,当医生们专注于手术操作时,他们可能无法听到仪器的提示音。”#39;It also applies to drivers concentrating on complex directions as well as cyclists and motorists who are focusing intently on something such as an advert or even simply an interesting-looking passerby.#39;“同样,在司机专注于观察复杂的导航,自行车和托车手专注于路边的广告或仅仅是模样奇特的行人时,他们也很难留意到耳边的声音。” /201603/429743

Fingerprint identification is now required for applicants who wish to get married or divorced in China, according to the amended Marriage Registration Regulations.根据新修订的《婚姻登记工作规范》指出,在我国申请结婚和离婚需经指纹认。Weddings and divorces are handled by the Municipal Civil Affairs Bureau. Applicants for either process have to go in person to their local office and fill out application forms, and fingerprints will now be taken as a means of identification.结婚和离婚相关流程是由市属民政局负责处理的。这两项流程的申请者都必须亲自去当地的办公室并填写申请表。即日起指纹将会作为识别身份的一种手段。To marry, a bride and groom must have their marriage vows witnessed by a marriage registrar.在结婚这一流程当中,新郎和新娘必须要在婚姻登记员的监督下宣读他们的婚姻誓言。The regulations also stipulate that a marriage registration office should not be located together with businesses that provide wedding photography, wedding services, or medical care.规范还明确,婚姻登记处应该与提供婚纱摄影、婚庆务、医疗务的经营务场地分开。Also in the regulations, marriage registration offices should not increase their charges or add any additional fees without authorization.此外,该规范还指出,婚姻登记处不应增加费用或擅自添加任何额外的费用。The government has also introduced many new convenience measures, such as online booking and telephone counseling services.此外,政府也推出了许多新的便利措施,比如在线预约和电话咨询务。Independent places, including registration waiting rooms, marriage registration areas, divorce registration offices, and archives are also being set up as a way to help protect the privacy of applicants, it was added.该规范还补充道,包括候登大厅、婚姻登记办公室、离婚登记办公室和档案室在内的众多独立场所正在设立中,此举是为了保护申请人的隐私。 /201602/426416

Qin Shi Huang longed for longevity, so he sent his ministers to go on quests seeking for an elixir of immortality.秦始皇想长生不老,于是派人去寻找可以让人长生不老的仙丹。However, death claimed him before he could find success on that matter.可是还没等找到仙丹,他的末日就到了。In 210 B. C. , the First Emperor died unexpectedly on his inspection tour.公元前210年,秦始皇在巡游途中突然驾崩。The eunuch Zhao Gao and chancellor Li Si conspired to forge the emperor ’ s will,declaring that the emperor ordered Fusu, the crown prince, to commit suicide, and his younger brother Hu Hai, the emperor#39;s favorite, to succeed to the throne.太监赵高和丞相李斯合谋篡改遗诏,声称秦始皇命太子扶苏自尽,由其弟胡亥继位。Therefore, Hu Hai was installed as the Second Emperor.后胡亥登基,即秦二世。With the worsened exploitation and oppression, the contradictions were intensified, and a large-scale peasant uprising was on the verge of breaking out.随着剥削和压迫的加重,社会矛盾更加激化,大规模的农民起义已经到一触即发的地步。在农民酝酿反秦的时候,六国旧贵族残余势力也在伺机进行分裂活动。When peasants were fermenting rebellion, the remaining aristocratic forces of the former six states were also waiting for their chances to carry out splitting activees.陈胜、吴广大泽乡起义:公元前209年,秦二世继位仅10个月爆发了陈胜、吴广领导的农民起义。The uprising led by Chen Sheng and Wu Guang in Daze Township:In 209 B. C. , when the Second Emperor got into the throne only 10 months, the Peasant Uprising led by Chen Sheng and Wu Guang broke out .7月,一队开赴渔阳(今北京密云)戍边士卒900人,遇雨停留 在大泽乡(今安徽宿县境),不能如期赶到戍地。In July, a band of 900 conscripted peasants heading for Yuyang ( modern Miyun County, Beijing) for guard duties were delayed by heavy rain in Daze Township (part of Suxian County in Anhui Province), and it was impossible for them to arrive on time.秦法规定,戍卒误期当斩。According to the law of Qin, those who failed to report should be executed.他们面临着死刑的威胁。于是,在陈胜、吴广的领导下,在大泽乡举起了中国历史上第一次大规模农民起义的旗帜。Faced with the menace of death, they raised the first banner of a large-scale peasant insurrection at the head of Chen Sheng and Wu Guang. The insurgent army captured Daze Township and Qi County successively.他们先后攻占大泽乡、蕲县,在攻下楚的故都陈县(今 河南淮阳)时,已有战士数万人。When they took Chen County, the old capital of the state Chu( present Huaiyang, Henan), the number of the forces had reached up to tens of thousands. Consequently, they established the first revolutionary regime of peasants—Zhangchu, and Chen Sheng was made the king, and Chen County the capital.起义军推举陈胜为王,在陈县建立了中国历史上的第一个农民政权——张楚政权。The rebellious forces quickly grew into a large army with several hundred thousands of soldiers. They broke up into three forces to attack Qin.起义军的队伍迅速壮大到几十万人,分三路攻秦。When the branch led by Zhou Wen besieged Xianyang, the capital of Qin, the Second Emperor became panic-stricken and mustered his troops in various parts of the country to launch a counter defence.当周文率领的队伍攻至秦的首都咸阳城下时,秦二世惊慌失措,速调集各地军队镇压起义军。Being lack of military training and war experience, the branch was defeated by the overwhelming Qin army.由于缺乏训练,没有作战经验,加之寡不敌众,义军被秦军击溃。Meanwhile, because of the split in its own side, Wu Guang was killed by his subordinates, and Chen Sheng was also assassinated.与此同时,由于内部发生分裂,吴广被其属下杀死,而陈胜也遭暗杀。Thus, the insurgence led by Chen Sheng and Wu Guang failed.至此,陈 胜、吴广领导的农民起义失败。The Battle of Julu : On the uprising of Chen Sheng, Xiang Liang and his nephew Xiang Yu rose up in Wu Zhong (modern Suzhou, Jiangsu Province), together with Liu Bang in Pei (present Pei County in Jiangsu Province).项羽巨鹿之战:陈胜起义后,项梁、项羽和刘邦相继在吴中(今江苏苏州)、沛县聚众起义。The old nobles of the six states also took opportunity to rebel, attempting to revive their countries.六国旧贵族也乘机起兵,企图恢复旧国。After the death of Chen Sheng, Xiang Liang made the grandson of King Huai of Chu, Mi Xin, the Prince of Chu for the sake of commending the public in 208 B. C.在陈胜死后,项梁于前208年立楚怀王之孙芈心为楚王,以为号召。At that time, Xiangs became two important leaders of the peasants.项梁,项羽叔侄成为当时农民起义军的领袖。When Qin general ,Zhang Han launched a sudden attack on Xiang Liang at Dingtao (in modern Shandong Province), Xiang Liang was killed in the battle, and the insurrectionary army suffered an utter defeat.可就在这时,秦将章邯突袭项梁军于定陶(今属山东),项梁战死,起义军大败。After the success, Zhang Han led his troops northward to attack the state of Zhao.定陶之战后,章邯移师北上,攻打赵国。The Prince Xie of Zhao was compelled to abandon the capital Handan (in modern city of Handan in Hebei), and retreated to Julu (in modern Xingtai, Hebei).赵王歇被迫放弃都城邯郸(现河北省邯郸市),退守巨鹿(今河北邢台)。Zhang Han followed up the victory with a hot pursuit, ordering the general Wang Li, his assistant, to besiege the city.章邯乘胜追击,命王离围困巨鹿(今邢台)。King of Zhao sent for reinforcements throughout the country.赵主派人向各地求援。Prince of Chu, sent Xiang Yu as the second-in-command to Song Yi in an ex-peditory force to relieve Zhao.楚怀王命宋义为上将、项羽为次将率兵北上救赵。After arriving at Anyang (in modern Henan Province) ,Song Yi didnM proceed any further for forty-six days fear of Qin.大军抵达安阳后宋义即畏缩不前,一连驻扎了46天。Xiang Yu persuaded him to move, collaborating with the Zhao army to conquer the Qin forces at one stroke.项羽劝他迅速进兵,同赵军里应外合,一举击败秦军。However, Song intended to save strength, waiting for Qin and Zhao forces to wear out each other,so refused Xiang’s proposal.宋义却想保存实力,乘秦、赵相斗,坐收渔利,故拒绝了项羽的建议。Xiang took extreme measures and assassinated Song later. The other generals offered SongJ s command to him, and Prince Huai of Chu was forced to retroactively approve it.后项羽杀宋义,诸将拥戴其为将军。楚怀王见事已如此,便命项羽率军救赵。The relief forces sent by other rebel principalities built fortresses and fortifications ,but dared not engage in warfare with Qin army, while Xiang Yu was an exception ,who decided to fight it out with Qin.各路反秦义军来救援赵者都筑垒壁守,不敢与秦军接战。唯有项羽决心与秦军决一雌雄。At first, he shut off the supply lines of Qin forces, and cut off the connection between Wang Li and Zhang Han.他先切断秦军运粮的甬道,分割王、章两军的联系。Then, he led his troops cross the river, having all the boats and cooking vessels destroyed and ordered his soldiers to carry enough grain rations for only three days to make it clear that no one could return unless they won.后亲自率楚军渡 河,并下令全军破釜沉舟,规定每人只带三日口粮,以显示与秦军决一死战尚决心。He directed his forces to launch successive attacks on Qin. After nine engagements, the imperial army was routed, Wang Li was captured, and Zhang Han fled south. The siege of Julu was released eventually.项羽指挥楚军连续作战,九战九捷,大破秦军,王离被虏,章邯南逃,解巨鹿之围。This victory virtually annihilated the military strength of the Qin Dynasty, turned the war situations and created a favorable condition for overthrowing the reactive rule of Qin.这场大战的胜利,基本上消灭了秦王朝赖以存在的军队,扭转了整个战局,为最后推翻秦王朝的反动统治创造了极有利的条件。When the Qin army besieged Julu, Prince Huai of Chu made an agreement with Xiang Yu and Liu Bang that whoever got to Guanzhong first would be made the King of Guanzhong.秦军围攻巨鹿时,楚怀王与项羽、刘邦约定,谁先人关灭秦,谁为“关中王”。When Xiang Yu was engaged in the battle of Julu, Liu Bang in command of another expeditory force attacked Qin from the west.在项羽救巨鹿时,刘邦奉命由西击秦。In a year’s devious march, his troops took wuguan Pass, gateway to the heartland of the Qin regime, threatening the capital city of Xlanyang in August 207 B. C.经过一年的迂回进军,于公元前207年八月,攻人武关,直逼咸阳。It was during this period that the fight between factions started within the Qin ruling clique.当时秦的统治集团内部发生了火并。Initially, Li Si, the prime minister, died at the hand of Zhao Gao and the Second Emperor.起初是赵高与秦二世勾结,杀掉李斯。Shortly, Zhao Gao forced Huhai to commit suicide and replaced him with his nephew, Ziying. The title of Emperor was abolished and what Ziying assumed was “King of Qin”.不久,赵高又杀掉秦二世,取消皇帝称号,另立二世之侄子婴为秦王。Before long, Ziying killed Zhao Gao and surendered to Liu Bang when Liu arrived at Bashang (now the east of Xi#39;an Shaanxi) in October 207 , thus the Qin Dynasty came to an end.子婴又杀赵高。10月刘邦军至霸上(今陕西西安市东),子婴投降,秦亡。Liu Bang proclaimed himself the King of Guanzhong and won acclaim by instituting three regulations :Let those who kill be executed, those who inflict be injured or rob others be punished.刘邦宣布自己为“关中王”,同时约法三章:“杀人者死,伤人及盗抵罪”,深得秦人拥护。The Qin Dynasty was short-lived, but particularly important.秦朝是短暂的朝代,但又是极重要的朝代。The First Emperor (Qin Shi Huang) was a tyrant, whereas he also made great contribution to the development of Chinese history.秦始皇是暴虐的皇帝,但又是对历史有巨大贡献的皇帝。In a word, Qin devastated culture, yet it was a pioneer in certain aspects.秦是文化的摧残者,但在某些方面又是先进者。The war between Chu and Han: Xiang Yu was furious at the news of Liu Bang’s entrance to Guanzhong. In December, he arrived at Hangu Pass with an army of 400 000. Only having 100 000 men, Liu Bang was forced to sue for peace.楚汉战争:项羽听说刘邦已先入关,大怒,也率军于同年12月入函谷关。这时,项羽有士卒40万人,刘邦只有10万人,刘邦被迫求和。After overbearing Liu Bang, Xiang Yu entered Xianyang where he killed Ziying, burnt palaces, slaughtered and plundered wantonly.项羽入咸阳,杀子婴, 烧秦宫,大肆杀掠。Then, he proclaimed himself the Hegemonic King of Western Chu and made Pengcheng the capita! of his domain. He also granted fiefdoms to eighteen princes.后自立为西楚霸王,建都彭城(今江苏铜山县),封十八王。With regard to Liu Bang, he gave him the title of Prince of Han with a fief covering Hanzhong, and Bashu.刘邦为汉王,居巴蜀汉中。The allocations of Xiang Yu aggravated the separatist vassal regime. Qi soon rose in revolt, and the tangled warfare among vassals broke out again.项羽的这一做法使诸侯割据的局面更为恶化。不久齐国首先发难,诸侯混战再次爆发。Liu Bang availed this opportunity to take possession of Guanzhong, then marched east from it, and unfolded a fight against Xiang Yu, contending for supremacy.刘邦乘机迅速占领关中,又东向出关,与项羽展开争夺天下的斗争。From 206 B. C. to 202 B. C. , Liu Bang and Xiang Yu were at war for many times.公元前206年至前202年,刘邦与项羽多次交战。Suffering from a series of defeat, Liu Bang became strong gradually. Then the two men reached an agreement that Honggou Canal (modern Jialu River in Henan) be made the demarcation line, with the territory on the east going to Chu and on the west to Han.经过一系列失败后,刘邦的势力逐渐强 大起来,于是二人达成协议“中分天下”,以鸿沟(今河南贾鲁河)为界,河东属于楚,河西属于汉。In December 202 B. C. , Liu Bang joined forces with Han Xin at Gaixia( modern Guzhen, in Anhui) and surrounded Xiang Yu.公元前202年12月,刘邦、韩信在垓下(今安徽固镇)会师,包围了项羽。However, he managed to collect eight hundred cavalrymen and fight his way to Wujiang (in modern Hexian County, Anhui Province), where he committed suicide.项羽率800骑兵突围,逃至乌江(今和县境)自杀。With his chief rival wiped out, Liu Bang unified China and built his dynasty—the Western Han.刘邦统一中国,建立西汉王朝。He ascended the throne to become known as Emperor Gao Zu of the Han Dynasty.刘邦即汉高祖。The peasant uprising at the end of the Qin Dynasty is the first rebellion countrywide in Chinese history, which not only pulled down the ruthless ruling clique of Qin, but pushed forward the social development as well.秦末农民大起义是我国历史上第一次全国范围的农民大起义,推翻了贪婪残暴的秦统治集团,使社会得以前进。The battle between Chund Han was originated from it.而楚汉之战则是由秦末农民战争直接演化而来的。Though the peasant revolution succeeded in overthrowing the rule of the Qin Dynasty, the former leaders, Liu Bang and Xiang Yu transformed into rivals contending for sovereignty.农民战争虽然胜利地推翻了秦朝,但曾经是农民战争领袖的刘邦和项羽,却逐步转化为封建统治权的角逐者。Apart from his great achievements that were actually the base for the foundation of the Han empire , the First Emperor was blamed to heave burned books and buried alive Confucian scholars.秦始皇创立的伟业虽为汉朝的建立奠定了基础,但他亦背负着焚书坑儒的罪名。The only books that were not forbidden are writings about medicine, herbs, divining and agriculture, however, arts and thinking were still going on under the First Emperor and prepared for the great flourishing of literature and philosophy in the Han Dynasty.尽管只有有关医学、草药、占卜和农业的书籍被保存了下来,但在秦始皇统治时期,艺术和思想文化仍在继续发展,为汉时的文学与哲学的极大繁荣做好了准备。Although the practical policy of the Qin rulers was legist, thus severe, bureaucratic and austere, the inscriptions in the steles the First Emperor had erected,also show that Confucian thinking like filial p卜 ety, humanity and righteousness of the ruler was still there.秦朝的统治者以法家思想治国,实行专制、严厉的统治政策,然而秦始皇所立石碑的碑文却反映出忠孝仁义等儒家思想。The emperor himself was very interested in Daoist practices to prolong his life or to gain immortality. He sent out an expedition to search for the islands of immortality called Penglai.秦始皇对道教有极大的兴趣,修道以求长生不老,还曾派人去寻找蓬莱仙岛。After the proclamation as the First Emperor, he changed the official colors to black according to the theory of the Five Elementsand their cosmic influence.秦始皇称帝后便按五行之术将官方使用的颜色改为黑色。Meteors, flood and drought were a heavenly hint to him as well as it had been to the former Zhou kings.像周王一样,他认为流星、洪水以及旱灾均是上天的旨意。A comprehensive anthology of philosophical thinking around 250 is the Lushi Chunqiu , compiled by the chancellor Lu Buwei.公元前250年,吕不韦著《呂氏春秋》,这是一部内容广泛的哲学著作。 /201511/411322

Qing Dynasty清朝The First Opium War第一次鸦片战争Roughly between the Congress of Vienna and the Franco-Prussian War, Britain reaped the benefits of being the world’s sole modern, industrial nation.大约在维也纳会议和普法战争之间,英国抓住机会成为了世界上唯一现代化和工业化的国家。Following the defeat of Napoleon, Britain was the “workshop of the world”, meaning that its finished goods were no longer produced so efficiently and cheaply that they could often undersell comparable, locally manufactured goods in almost any other market.打败拿破仑后,英国成为了“世界工厂”,这意味着它们生产的商品不再高效和低廉,也使它们的产品无法再像以前一样比其他地区本地生产的同样商品更具价格优势。If political conditions in a particular overseas markets were stable enough, Britain could develop its economy through free trade alone without having to resort to formal rule or mercantilism.如果海外市场的政治格局足够稳定,英国就可以不用采取形式规则或商业主义,而是仅仅通过与他国进行自由贸易来发展经济。Britain was even supplying half the needs in manufactured goods of such nations as Germany, France, Belgium, and the ed States.英国甚至为德国、法国、比利时和美国提供了它们所需的一半以上的制造品。As these other newly industrial powers, the ed States, and Japan after the Meiji Restoration began industrializing at a rapid rate, however, Britain’s comparative advantage in trade of any finished good began diminishing.自从新兴的工业国家,如美国以及明治维新后的日本开始高速工业化后,英国在成品贸易方面的优势开始减弱。Sovereign areas aly hospitable to informal empire largely avoided formal rule during the shift to New Imperialism.大英帝国的主权领土大部分在转向新型工业化的过程中拒绝形式规则。China, for instance, was not a backward country unable to secure the prerequisite stability and security for western-style commerce, but a highly advanced empire unwilling to admit western (often drug-pushing) commerce, which may explain the West’s contentment with informal “Spheres of Influences”.比如,中国并不是一个无法维持稳定和西式贸易安全的落后国家而是一个不愿意承认西式贸易(通常是贩毒)的高度发达的国家,它将西方的满足感解读为“区域影响力”。China, unlike tropical Africa, was a securable market without formal control.与非洲不同,中国是一个还没有得到官方控制的触手可得的市场。Following the First Opium War, British commerce, and later capital invested by other newly industrializing powers, was securable with a smaller degree of formal control than in Southeast Asia, West Africa, and the Pacific.第一次鸦片战争过后,英国的贸易以及其他新兴工业国家对其投资的资本只能小幅度地通过官方控制东南亚、西非和太平洋地区获得。But in many respects, China was a colony and a large-scale receptacle of Western capital investments.但是从许多方面来说,中国是一个殖民地并能大幅度的接收西方的资本投资。Western powers did intervene military there to quell domestic chaos, such as the horrific Taiping Rebellion and the anti-imperialist Boxer Rebellion.西方列强对中国进行军事干预来镇压国内的动乱,如可怕的太平起义和反帝国主义义和团运动。For example, General Gordon, later the imperialist “ martyr” in the Sudan, is often accredited as having saved the Manchu dynasty from the Taiping insurrection.比如,戈登将军也就是之后苏丹的帝国主义“烈士”通常被认为将满洲国从太平起义的暴乱中拯救了出来。 /201512/412275

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