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黑龙江七院正不正规香坊区妇幼保健医院能做人流吗FRANKFURT — WHETHER or not Apple’s secretive car project ever leads to an actual automobile, the technology company has aly had a profound effect on the vehicle business.法兰克福——不管苹果公司藏而不露的汽车研发项目未来是否真的会让它生产某款汽车,这家科技公司都已经对汽车行业产生了深远的影响。The mere knowledge that Apple has a team of several hundred people working on car designs changed the conversation this week at the Frankfurt International Motor Show. Along with Google, Apple has focused the minds of auto executives on the challenge posed by new technologies that have the potential to disrupt traditional auto industry hierarchies.仅仅是知道苹果有一个几百人的团队在做汽车设计方面的研发,就足以改变人们在本周举行的法兰克福国际车展(Frankfurt International Motor Show )上谈论的话题。苹果,再加上谷歌,让汽车公司的高管们把注意力都放在了新技术带来的挑战上,这些新技术有可能会打破汽车行业的传统实力格局。This year, “connectivity” has supplanted “horsepower” or “torque” as the prevailing buzzword in Frankfurt. The talk is of self-driving cars, battery-powered cars and information technology designed to link cars with data networks to make driving safer and more efficient.今年,“连通性”已经取代“马力“或“扭矩”,成为法兰克福车展的热门词汇。人们谈论的是自驾车、电动汽车,以及将汽车和数据网络连接起来以提高驾驶安全性和效率的信息技术。Even though neither Apple nor Google is close to mass-producing a vehicle, nervousness about their intentions — which remain cloaked in mystery — is understandable.虽说苹果和谷歌都离批量生产汽车还很远,但汽车行业依然为两家公司不为外界所知的研发意图而紧张,这不难理解。As cars increasingly become rolling software platforms, Apple and Google have depths of tech expertise that the carmakers would have trouble duplicating. And those Silicon Valley companies have financial resources that dwarf those of even behemoth companies like Daimler and Volkswagen. Google, which began working on self-driving cars in 2009, is valued by the stock market at more than five times the worth of either of those carmakers. Apple is worth eight times as much. That gives them an advantage in a business that requires huge investment in research and development.随着汽车越来越多地成为装上车轮的软件平台,汽车制造商却很难复制苹果和谷歌所拥有的强大技术专长。而且即便是奔驰和大众这样的汽车业巨头,其财力与这两家硅谷公司相比,也会相形见绌。从2009年开始研发自驾车的谷歌,在股票市场上的估值已经是上述两家汽车厂商中任一家的五倍还要多。苹果的估值则是它们中任一家的八倍。在一个需要在研发上进行巨额投入的行业里,这让谷歌和苹果显得更具优势。The main risk for carmakers is probably not so much that an Apple car would destroy Mercedes-Benz or BMW the way the iPhone gutted Nokia, the Finnish company that was once the world’s largest maker of mobile phones. Rather, the risk is that Apple and Google would turn the carmakers into mere hardware makers — and hog the profit.汽车生厂商面临的主要风险,也许并非苹果汽车(Apple car)有可能会摧毁奔驰或宝马汽车的市场,如同iPhone击溃了曾经是世界第一大手机厂商的芬兰公司诺基亚(Nokia)那样。而是说,苹果和谷歌有可能将汽车厂商变成纯粹的硬件制造者,进而独占这个行业的利润。Carmakers say they are determined to resist that danger by maintaining control of the software that is proliferating inside vehicles.汽车厂商们表示,他们决心对正在激增的汽车内置软件保持掌控,以对抗这种风险。“What is important for us is that the brain of the car, the operating system, is not iOS or Android or someone else but it’s our brain,” Dieter Zetsche, the chief executive of Daimler, the maker of Mercedes vehicles, told reporters at the car show. IOS is Apple’s operating system for mobile devices.“对我们来说比较重要的是,作为汽车大脑的操作系统不能是iOS、安卓或其他系统,它得是我们自己的,”奔驰汽车的制造商戴姆勒公司(Daimler)的首席执行官迪特·蔡澈(Dieter Zetsche)在车展上对记者表示。iOS是苹果为其移动设备研发的操作系统。“We do not plan to become the Foxconn of Apple,” Mr. Zetsche said, referring to the Chinese company that manufactures iPhones.“我们不打算做苹果的富士康(Foxconn),”蔡澈说道,他指的是为苹果生产iPhones的中国公司。Even without competition from Apple and Google, the carmakers are under extreme pressure to change the way they build cars. Regulators in Europe and the ed States are demanding that cars emit less carbon dioxide, a culprit in global warming. The only way the automakers can meet increasingly stringent emissions standards is by selling more hybrid vehicles, and eventually all-electric cars. Both technologies require more software than gasoline or diesel engines.即便没有来自苹果和谷歌的竞争,汽车厂商们也面临着极大的压力,需要改变生产汽车的方式。欧洲和美国监管机构要求汽车厂商进一步降低汽车碳排放量,因为汽车排放是导致全球变暖的原因之一。而满足越来越严格的排放标准的唯一方式,就是销售更多混合动力汽车,最终实现只销售电动汽车。这两种技术都更加依赖软件研发,而非汽油或柴油发动机。Technology that links cars to data networks, so-called connectivity, also plays a role in reducing emissions and satisfying regulators. Systems that help drivers quickly find a parking space or avoid traffic jams, besides being convenient, help limit unnecessary driving and save fuel. But the new technologies are expensive, and car buyers are not necessarily willing to pay. Electric cars account for a sliver of the market so far.将汽车与数据网络相连的技术,即所谓的连通性,对于实现更少碳排放和让监管机构满意,也很重要。帮助司机快速找到停车位或避开交通拥堵的系统,除了方便之外,也有助于减少驾驶时长和节省燃料。但新技术相当昂贵,汽车购买者未必愿意为之买单。目前电动汽车的销售量只占整个市场很小一部分。Those pressures have been building for several years, but they have intensified since word leaked out early this year that Apple was studying whether to build a car.对汽车厂商而言,这些压力过去几年一直在增加,但今年年初苹果就是否生产汽车的问题进行研究的消息传出后,他们的压力更是瞬间加剧。“What has been an evolution is going to be a revolution,” said Stephan Winkelmann, the chief executive of Lamborghini, the Italian maker of super sports cars that is part of the Volkswagen group.“原先在不断演进的过程,如今要成为革命性巨变了,”兰基尼(Lamborghini)首席执行官斯特凡·温克尔曼(Stephan Winkelmann)说,这家意大利顶级跑车企业是大众汽车集团的子公司。“Starting from sustainability, going over to digitalization, and ending up at autonomous driving — these three big things are really something that is a game changer for the automotive industry,” Mr. Winkelmann said in an interview. “Everybody has to tackle these challenges.”“从可持续性,到数字化,再到最终的自动驾驶,这是未来会真正改变汽车行业游戏规则的三件大事,”温克尔曼在接受采访时说道。“所有汽车企业都必须应对这些挑战。”Volkswagen, previously regarded as a laggard in vehicle electrification, said in Frankfurt this week that it would introduce 20 new plug-in hybrid or all-electric models by 2020, and it introduced a battery-powered Porsche concept car. At the company’s preshow extravaganza for the media Monday night at a repurposed basketball arena, there was nary a mention of internal combustion. Instead, Martin Winterkorn, the Volkswagen chief executive, spoke of cars that would park themselves and eventually run completely on autopilot.之前被认为在汽车电气化方面落后于其他公司的大众集团,本周在法兰克福推出了一款保时捷电动概念车,并表示至2020年大众集团将陆续推出20款新的插电式混合动力或全电动车型。周一晚上,该集团在一个重新布置的篮球馆举行了声势浩大的展前发布会。在会上,无人提起内燃机之类的词汇。大众集团首席执行官文德恩(Martin Winterkorn)转而谈到了可以自动停车以及最终可以完全自动驾驶的汽车。“By the end of this decade we will have transformed all of our new cars into smartphones on wheels,” he said.“截至2020年,大众所有新款车型都将转变成带轮子的智能手机,”他说。It is not only the European carmakers closely watching Apple and Google. Anthony Foxx, the ed States transportation secretary, in Frankfurt for a meeting on Thursday with his counterparts from other G7 nations, said conventional automakers were trying to roll out technology as fast as they can, while some in Silicon Valley were aiming to leap straight to self-driving cars.不是只有欧洲汽车厂商在密切关注苹果和谷歌的动向。美国运输部部长安东尼·福克斯(Anthony Foxx)周四在法兰克福与来自其他G7国家的运输交通部长召开会议。他表示,传统汽车厂商正在尽可能快地推出新技术,而硅谷的科技公司则想一步到位地推出自动驾驶汽车。“There is an interesting dialogue between Detroit and Silicon Valley on this,” Mr. Foxx said during a meeting with several reporters. “There is probably some tension there, but maybe that is good creative tension.”“在这方面,底特律和硅谷之间形成了有趣的互动,”福克斯在会见几位记者时讲道。“他们之间可能存在一些紧张情绪,但或许这是有益创造性的紧张情绪。”One of the main guessing games at the auto show was whether Apple or Google would ever build a car. Both companies have met with German car companies as well as suppliers. Google executives have said the company will not become a carmaker.在车展上,大家猜测比较多的是一个问题是,苹果或谷歌是否会生产汽车。两家公司都和一些德国汽车公司和供应商见过面。谷歌的高管已经表示,它不会做汽车厂商。“Google is not a car manufacturer and does not intend to become one,” John Krafcik, a former Ford and Hyundai executive who runs Google’s self-driving car program, said in Frankfurt.“谷歌不是汽车制造商,也不打算成为这样的角色,”之前曾担任福特(Ford)和现代(Hyundai)汽车公司高管、现为谷歌自驾车项目负责人的约翰·克拉夫茨克(John Krafcik)在车展上表示。But it was not clear yet whether he meant that Google would license self-driving technology to traditional carmakers, or use contract manufacturers to build a vehicle. A Google spokesman declined to elaborate.但此话是否代表着谷歌会将其自驾车技术授权给传统汽车厂商,或通过签约汽车厂商生产汽车,还不清楚。一位谷歌发言人拒绝透露这方面的详细信息。Apple’s intentions are murkier. As is customary for Apple, the company has provided no information. But Timothy D. Cook, the Apple chief executive, reportedly visited a factory in Leipzig, Germany, last year where BMW manufactures the i3, an all-electric sedan with a carbon fiber body.苹果的意图更加模糊。如其一贯作风,苹果不曾透露过这方面的任何信息。但据说苹果首席执行官蒂莫西·D·库克(Timothy D. Cook)去年曾拜访德国莱比锡市的一家工厂,那是宝马公司生产拥有碳纤维车身的全电动小轿车宝马i3的地方。“We are not quite sure what Apple is prepared to do,” Friedrich Eichiner, the chief financial officer of BMW, said during a meeting with a group of reporters in Frankfurt. He said he thought Apple was still trying to understand the implications of getting into the car business.“我们不太确定苹果准备做什么,”宝马集团首席财务官弗里德里希·埃希纳(Friedrich Eichiner)在法兰克福接受记者群访时说。他说,他认为苹果还在努力弄清楚自己进入汽车行业有可能产生的结果。“Financially they are very strong,” Mr. Eichiner said. “They could do it.”“就财力而言,他们很强,”埃希纳说。“生产汽车没问题。”Luca de Meo, head of sales and marketing at Audi, another Volkswagen unit, said it would be out of character for Apple not to build its own vehicle, if it decides to get into the car business. “The Apple style is the ability to do software and hardware at the same time,” Mr. de Meo said in an interview.大众集团另一子公司奥迪(Audi)的销售与市场总监卢卡·德·梅奥(Luca de Meo)表示,如果苹果决定进入汽车行业,不生产自己的汽车的做法不符合它一贯的风格。“苹果的优势就在于同时集成软硬件的能力,”德·梅奥在接受采访时讲道。The traditional carmakers’ big advantage is that they have aly mastered the formidable complexity of manufacturing vehicles that are reliable, comfortable and safe. But it is becoming more feasible for a newcomer to outsource vehicle manufacturing the same way that Apple outsources production of iPhones. And the outsourcer wouldn’t necessarily be in China.传统汽车厂商的一大优势是,他们已经掌握了生产可靠、安全和舒适的汽车所需的极其复杂的工艺。但是对于进入这一行业不久的企业来说,像苹果外包iPhones的生产那样将汽车生产业务外包出去,正在变得愈发可行。而汽车生产外包商不一定来自中国。One company aly working with Google is ZF, a large German auto components supplier that in May completed an acquisition of TRW, a company based in Michigan that provides auto electronics such as airbag systems. TRW has been working on sensors and other hardware for self-driving cars.德国的大型汽车配件供应商ZF已经和谷歌展开合作,该公司在今年5月收购了位于密歇根的TRW,后者是一家生产安全气囊装置等汽车电子元件的企业,一直在研发和生产用于自驾车的传感器和其他硬件。Stefan Sommer, the chief executive of ZF, said the company would be able to produce a Google-branded car along with two or three other partners supplying components that ZF can’t, such as sheet metal body parts. “We would be a partner in that, for sure,” Mr. Sommer said in an interview.ZF公司首席执行官斯特凡·佐默(Stefan Sommer)表示,只要有两三个提供配件的合作企业与之相配合,该公司未来就可以生产谷歌牌汽车,合作企业可以为之供应包括金属板车身在内的ZF无法生产的汽车部件。“作为合作伙伴,我们肯定会参与谷歌汽车的生产,”佐默在接受采访时讲。But he said ZF could not work with Apple under the conditions it now imposes on suppliers. ZF sees itself as an innovator, not just a supplier. In Frankfurt, it displayed a car with electrically powered wheels that allow the car to turn 360 degrees almost on its own axis. ZF could not agree to demands by Apple for exclusive rights to such inventions, Mr. Sommer said.但他也表示,ZF无法按照苹果目前强加于其供应商的要求与之合作。因为ZF将自身看作创新企业,而不只是供应商。在法兰克福,该公司展示了一款配备电动车轮、几乎可以360度自转的汽车。佐默表示,ZF无法同意将这类创新技术独家授权给苹果。While Apple and Google pose a threat to traditional automakers, the mood in Frankfurt is not gloomy. Not long ago, analysts were predicting that the auto industry faced long-term decline. Surveys showed that younger people were less interested than their parents in cars and driving. But if Apple and Google are interested in the car industry, auto executives reason, cars and driving must be cool again.尽管苹果和谷歌给传统汽车厂商带来了威胁,但法兰克福车展上并非愁云密布。不久前,分析师们预测汽车业将面临长期的业绩下降。不少问卷调查也显示,更年轻的一代对汽车和驾驶的兴趣,比他们的父母辈一代要少。但汽车公司高管们推断,如果苹果和谷歌对汽车行业感兴趣,汽车和驾驶肯定会再度变酷。“It’s confirmation that we are working in a future industry,” said Ola , head of marketing and sales for Mercedes-Benz cars.“这明,我们从事的是一个拥有未来的行业,”奔驰的市场和销售总监奥拉·凯伦纽斯(Ola )说。Apple and Google have given the car industry a jolt. Now the question is whether carmakers can respond quickly enough.苹果和谷歌已经给汽车行业带来冲击。现在的问题是,汽车厂商们能否足够快地予以应对。And they are trying to raise their games. Daimler, for example, reorganized its factories around the world last year, eliminating plant managers and giving control over production to the executives in charge of different model lines. The change allowed Mercedes to introduce a new variant of its popular C-Class at four factories, on four continents, in six months — about half of what it would have taken earlier, said Markus , head of production at Mercedes.他们正努力改善自身的现状。比如,奔驰在去年重组了它分布于全球的工厂,裁掉工厂经理,将生产的控制权交给负责各个产品线的高管。该公司的生产总监马库斯·舍费尔(Markus Sch昀 )表示,这让他们可以在6个月内在位于4个大陆的4家工厂开工生产备受欢迎的C-Class的一个新款车型,而在此前这样的工作大约需要花费一年的时间。“This enables us to be more competitive in a world where new competitors come to the table,” Mr. Sch said.“在一个有新竞争对手开始入场的世界里,这会让我们更具竞争力,”舍费尔说。“We created the automobile,” he said, “and we will not be a hardware provider to somebody else.”“我们发明了汽车,”他说,“我们不会沦为其他企业的硬件供应商。” /201509/400017黑龙江省农垦总局总医院妇产科 It was once used by nearly 1bn people, making it one of the world’s best-known technology brands. But even Microsoft, its maker, has been forced to admit that it is deeply unloved.它一度有近10亿名用户,使得它成为全世界最知名的科技品牌之一。但现在就连它的开发者微软(Microsoft)也被迫承认,它非常不受喜爱。Internet Explorer — the software that launched the browser wars of the 1990s and became a symbol of the Seattle company’s former stranglehold on the tech world — is about to be ushered into retirement.Internet Explorer(简称IE)即将被退休。这款软件曾引发上世纪90年代的浏览器大战,成为总部位于西雅图的微软曾经把持科技世界的标志。The group said this week it would not use the IE name for the new browser it plans to deliver with the next version of its Windows operating system, due this year. The revised software, codenamed Project Spartan, is intended to catapult Microsoft beyond the Web 1.0 world for which IE was designed.微软本周表示,定于今年推出的下一版Windows操作系统自带的新浏览器将不再使用IE这个名字。新的浏览器代号Project Spartan,微软意图凭借这款新浏览器跳出IE面向的Web 1.0世界。With Spartan, Microsoft hopes to vault past IE’s weaknesses to produce a browser that is more suited to a digital life lived on multiple devices — part of the strategy of new chief executive Satya Nadella to break the company’s reliance on its old personal-computer monopoly.微软希望凭借Spartan一举超越IE的弱点,开发出一款更适合多设备数字生活的浏览器,这是新任首席执行官萨蒂亚#8226;纳德拉(Satya Nadella)战略的一部分,目的是打破微软对自己过去垄断个人计算机(PC)的依赖。Tom Bedecarre, chairman of Akqa, a digital advertising agency owned by WPP, said the 20-year-old brand was long past its sell-by date. “In the war of the future, which is mobile, they’re losing. Nobody’s going to download Internet Explorer as their mobile browser.”WPP旗下的数字广告公司Akqa的董事长汤姆#8226;贝德卡雷(Tom Bedecarré)表示,IE这个已经20岁的品牌早已过了保质期。“在面向未来的这场移动战争中,它们不断失去地盘。没人会下载IE作为自己移动设备上的浏览器。”Microsoft has admitted that it failed to make IE a more loved part of daily life over the years. It even resorted to self-mockery in some of its advertising, referring to it as “The Browser You Loved To Hate”. Nearly a decade ago, Dean Hachamovitch, then head of the IE business, confessed: “We messed up.”微软承认这些年来它未能使IE成为人们日常生活中一个更受喜爱的部分。它在一些广告中甚至自嘲IE,称其是“那款你喜欢痛恨的浏览器”。近10年前,当时的IE业务负责人迪安#8226;哈查莫维奇(Dean Hachamovitch)就承认:“我们搞砸了。”“It’s been a product problem for a long time,” said Dan Brewster, a senior interactive designer with Wolff Olins, the marketing agency. People used it, he added, only because it was pre-installed on their computers or because they were required to by their employers.市场营销公司沃尔夫#8226;奥林斯(Wolff Olins)的高级交互设计师丹#8226;布鲁斯特(Dan Brewster)说:“这款产品早就有问题了。”他补充说,人们以往之所以使用它,只不过是因为他们的电脑上预装了它,或他们的雇主要求使用它。Designed to counter the rise of browser pioneer Netscape at the dawn of the internet, IE was delivered free with the pervasive Windows operating system, a tactic that made Microsoft the target of an antitrust investigation.IE是在互联网诞生初期,为对抗早年大受欢迎的浏览器网景(Netscape)而设计的,微软将它预装在普及率极高的Windows操作系统上,这种做法曾让微软成为反垄断调查的对象。It overtook Netscape within three years and went on to account for an estimated 95 per cent of browser usage soon after the turn of the millennium. But first the open-source Firefox browser and then Google’s Chrome ate into IE’s market share. It has fallen to about 20 per cent, similar to Firefox, while Chrome has risen to nearly 50 per cent.IE在不到3年的时间里就超过了网景浏览器,到千禧之交后不久,IE据估计已占到浏览器市场的95%。但开源浏览器火狐(Firefox)和谷歌(Google)的Chrome,先后开始蚕食IE的市场份额。IE的市场占有率已降至约20%,跟火狐差不多,Chrome的市场占有率则升至近50%。 /201503/364993绥化市治疗子宫内膜炎多少钱

黑龙江省第一医院是不是三甲医院Xiaomi Inc launched its latest flagship smartphone, the Mi 5, on Wednesday at a press conference in Beijing, with founder Lei Jun saying the company plans to focus this year on making ;exciting; products and winning consumers#39; hearts and wallets.在上周三北京的发布会上,小米公司正式推出了其最新旗舰智能手机小米5。创始人雷军表示,公司计划在今年集中打造“令人兴奋”的产品,以赢得消费者的青睐。Analysts warned, though, that the new device wasn#39;t distinctive enough to help the Beijing-based company regain sales momentum in a hotly competitive market.尽管如此,分析家们却警告称,这款新机器并不能直接帮助这家总部位于北京的公司赢回在竞争激烈的市场上的热销势头。In 2015, Xiaomi shipped nearly 70 million smartphones domestically, up about 14.5 percent from the previous year, retaining the No.1 position in China#39;s smartphone market with a 15 percent share, according to a report issued by US-based market consultancy Strategy Analytics in late January.根据美国市场研究公司策略分析1月下旬发布的报告显示,2015年小米智能手机国内出货量近7000万,较上年同期增长约14.5%,并以15%的市场份额的优势稳居中国智能手机市场销量第一名。However, Xiaomi#39;s shipments in 2015 fell significantly short of its target and raised doubts over the prospects of the Chinese tech start-up in a cut-throat battleground. The company had aimed to ship 80 million to 100 million handsets last year.然而,2015年小米的出货量在还未达到制定的目标时就出现大幅度下跌,这不免引起了人们对中国科技初创企业在激烈的市场中前景的质疑。去年该公司的目标是销售8000万至1亿部手机。By contrast, domestic rival Huawei Technologies Co, which woos consumers around the world with both high-end and low-cost models, disclosed in early January that it had shipped 108 million smartphones globally in 2015, up 44 percent from 2014.相比之下,该公司的国内竞争对手华为技术有限公司,面向世界各地出售高端低成本智能机,赢得了消费者的广泛持。2015年1月初该公司已向全球出货1亿800万部智能手机,同比2014年增长了44%。Liu Dingding, an industry analyst with Beijing-based market research firm Sootoo, wasn#39;t very optimistic about the prospects of the Mi 5. ;The new smartphone is ?well-spec#39;d but shows no distinctive differences from its domestic comparatives,; Liu told the Global Times on Wednesday.北京市场研究公司速途网的行业分析师刘丁丁表示,他并不看好小米5的发展前景。刘先生于周三接受环球时报采访时表示:“尽管新的智能手机配置很好,但它与国内同类商品相比较并无明显差异”。Xiaomi will confront a tough year in 2016 in the face of increasingly strong Chinese competitors with respect to specifications and prices, Liu noted.刘丁丁指出,2016年将是小米最艰难的一年,它将面对因技术和价格优势而日益强大的中国竞争对手。Wang Yanhui, head of the Shanghai-based Mobile China Alliance, told the Global Times on Wednesday that the Mi 5#39;s product positioning is almost the same as that of the Mi 4, so the new model is unlikely to fare much better than the Mi 4 in the market.总部位于上海的手机中国联盟负责人王艳辉周三对环球时报表示,小米5的产品定位几乎与小米4一样,所以这一新的设备不可能比小米4销售得更好。The 5.2-inch Mi 5 model is priced at 1,999 yuan to 2,699 yuan, available both on its own online marketplace and at more than 1,000 brick-and-mortar stores of domestic home appliance retailer Suning Commerce Group Co in March.5.2英寸的小米5售价为1999至2699元,3月份将在自己的网上市场和1000多家国内家电零售商--苏宁商务集团有限公司的实体店出售。 /201603/428850哈尔滨治疗白带异常去哪个医院 哈尔滨省第一人民医院有微创手术吗

黑龙江省哈尔滨市第七医院不孕不育中心OVER the last decade, China has become, in the eyes of much of the world, a job-eating monster, consuming entire industries with its seemingly limitless supply of low-wage workers. But the reality is that China is now shifting its appetite to robots, a transition that will have significant consequences for China’s economy — and the world’s.在全球很多地方看来,过去十年中国已经成了一个侵蚀工作机会的恶魔,向各行各业输送着仿佛无穷无尽的廉价工人。但现实是,中国目前正在将自己的用工需求转向机器人。这一转变将对中国以及全球的经济产生重大影响。In 2014, Chinese factories accounted for about a quarter of the global ranks of industrial robots — a 54 percent increase over 2013. According to the International Federation of Robotics, it will have more installed manufacturing robots than any other country by 2017.2014年,在全球工业机器人大军中,中国工厂里的机器人占了大约四分之一,同比增加54%。据国际机器人联合会(International Federation of Robotics)称,到2017年,中国安装的工业机器人数量将居全球之首。Midea, a leading manufacturer of home appliances in the heavily industrialized province of Guangdong, plans to replace 6,000 workers in its residential air-conditioning division, about a fifth of the work force, with automation by the end of the year. Foxconn, which makes consumer electronics for Apple and other companies, plans to automate about 70 percent of factory work within three years, and aly has a fully robotic factory in Chengdu.在高度工业化的广东,知名家电制造商美的计划在今年年底之前,用自动化取代其家用空调部门的6000名员工,这大约是其员工总数的五分之一。为苹果(Apple)和其他公司生产消费电子产品的富士康(Foxconn)计划在三年内让工厂里大约70%的工作实现自动化。此外,该公司位于成都的一家工厂已经实现了全部由机器人操作。Chinese factory jobs may thus be poised to evaporate at an even faster pace than has been the case in the ed States and other developed countries. That may make it significantly more difficult for China to address one of its paramount economic challenges: the need to rebalance its economy so that domestic consumption plays a far more significant role than is currently the case.因此,中国工厂里的工作岗位消失的速度,可能将比在美国和其他发达国家还要快。这可能会大大增加中国应对其首要经济挑战之一的难度。这个挑战就是,中国需要实现经济的再平衡,这样国内消费才能发挥出远比当前更大的作用。China’s economic growth has been driven not just by manufacturing exports, but also by fixed investment in things like housing, factories and infrastructure — in fact, in recent years investment has made up nearly half of its gross domestic product. Meanwhile, domestic consumer spending represents only about a third of the economic pie, or roughly half the level in the ed States.中国经济增长的动力不仅是制造业出口,还有房地产、工厂和基础设施领域的固定投资。事实上,近年来投资在其国内生产总值中所占的比例已接近一半。与此同时,国内消费出仅占中国经济这个蛋糕的约三分之一,大致相当于美国的一半。This is clearly unsustainable. After all, there eventually has to be a return on all those investments. Factories have to produce goods that are profitably sold. Homes have to be occupied, and rent has to be paid. Generating those returns will require Chinese households to step up and play a larger role: They will have to spend far more, not just on the goods produced in China’s factories, but increasingly in the service sector.这显然是不可持续的。毕竟,所有这些投资最后都得有回报。工厂得生产出能卖出去并且能获利的商品。房子得有人住,房租得有人付。实现这些回报要求中国家庭出来发挥更大的作用:他们得大大增加出,不仅是购买中国工厂生产的商品,而且要越来越多地在务业消费。Making that happen will be an extraordinary challenge. Indeed, the Chinese leadership has been talking about it for years, but virtually no progress has been made. One problem is that even in the wake of recent wage increases, average Chinese households simply have too little income relative to the size of the economy.实现这一点将是一项艰巨的挑战。事实上中国领导层已经讨论了多年,但几乎未取得任何进展。其中一个问题是,即便经历了最近的涨薪,相对于中国的经济规模,普通中国家庭的收入也还是太少。Another problem is that the Chinese public has an extraordinary propensity to save. By some estimates, the average household socks away as much as 40 percent of its income. That may be partly driven by the need to provide for retirement and self-insure against risks like unemployment and illness, as China’s newly capitalistic economy has largely decimated the social safety net.另一个问题是,中国民众有着非比寻常的储蓄倾向。据一些人估计,普通家庭存款占其收入的比例高达40%。这可能部分是因为他们需要为退休,以及抵抗失业和疾病等危险的自保考虑,因为中国新形成的资本主义经济大大削弱了社会保障体系。The bottom line is that any policy designed to rebalance economic growth will have to raise household incomes while dampening down the saving rate. That would be a daunting challenge under any circumstances, but accelerating technology is virtually certain to make it far more difficult.关键是,任何旨在再平衡经济增长的政策,都得在增加家庭收入的同时降低储蓄率。这在任何情况下都是一项艰巨的挑战,但技术的进步几乎必然会让其难度大大增加。The traditional path followed by developed countries has been to first raise incomes and build a solid middle class on the basis of manufacturing, and then later to make the transition to a service economy. The ed States, and later, countries like Japan and South Korea, had the luxury of undertaking that journey at a time when technology was far less advanced. China is faced with making a similar transition in the robotic age.发达国家采取的传统途径是,先增加收入,并以制造业为基础构建稳定的中产阶级,然后再向务型经济过渡。美国,以及后来的日本和韩国等国,都有幸在科技远没现在这么发达时完成了这个过程。中国则正面临着在机器人时代进行类似的过渡。Automation has aly had a substantial impact on Chinese factory employment: Between 1995 and 2002 about 16 million factory jobs disappeared, roughly 15 percent of total Chinese manufacturing employment. This trend is poised to accelerate.自动化已经对中国工厂里的就业岗位产生了巨大的影响:从1995年到2002年,约有1600万工厂工作岗位消失,大约占中国制造业岗位总数的15%。这一趋势还将加速。That might not be a problem if the Chinese economy were generating plenty of higher-skill jobs for more educated workers. The solution, then, would simply be to offer more training and education to displaced blue-collar workers.如果中国经济能为受教育更多的人创造大量技能要求更高的岗位,这或许就不是问题了。那么解决办法不过是向被取代了的蓝领工人提供更多培训和教育。The reality, however, is that China has struggled to create enough white-collar jobs for its soaring population of college graduates. In mid-2013, the Chinese government revealed that only about half of the country’s current crop of college graduates had been able to find jobs, while more than 20 percent of the previous year’s graduates remained unemployed.但现实是,中国已无力为人数飙升的高校毕业生创造足够的白领岗位。2013年中期,中国政府透露,只有大约一半应届高校毕业生能找到工作,而上一年的毕业生中超过20%的人依然处于待业状态。According to one analysis, fully 43 percent of Chinese workers aly consider themselves to be overeducated for their current positions. As software automation and artificial intelligence increasingly affect knowledge-based occupations, especially at the entry level, it may well become even more difficult for the Chinese economy to absorb workers who seek to climb the skills ladder.一项分析显示,已有足足43%的中国员工认为,自己的教育程度高于当前职位所需。随着软件自动化和人工智能对于以知识为基础的岗位,特别是入门岗位产生越来越大的影响,中国经济会更难吸纳那些希望提升技能的员工。What policies might help China succeed in making the transition to a consumer economy even as the robotic revolution unfolds? Strengthening the health care, retirement and unemployment insurance systems, so that workers feel more secure, might help lower the savings rate somewhat.什么政策可以帮助中国成功地实现向消费型经济的转型,即便此时机器人革命正在上演?加强医疗卫生、退休和失业保险制度,从而提升员工的安全感,这可能在一定程度上有助于降低储蓄率。However, it seems likely that the Chinese government will ultimately need to resort to direct income supplementation in some form — perhaps through a program similar to the earned-income tax credit in the ed States. Even that may prove ineffective in the long run as rapidly advancing technology leaves more and more workers behind.不过,中国政府最终可能需要借助于某种形式的直接收入补充,或许是通过某种与美国的“劳动所得税抵免”(earned-income tax credit)类似的计划来实现。即便如此,长期来看可能也没有效果,因为科技的迅速发展,将越来越多的员工抛在了身后。China could well turn out to be ground zero for the economic and social disruption brought on by the rise of the robots. The country’s relatively brittle authoritarian political system, together with its dependence on a sustained level of economic growth that would be considered extraordinary in any developed nation, suggest that China may face a staggering challenge as it attempts to adapt to the realities of a new age.在机器人的崛起所带来的经济和社会破坏当中,中国很可能会是一个中心。中国的威权主义政治制度相对脆弱,而且依赖于持续的经济增长,其经济增长水平在任何一个发达国家看来都是超乎寻常的。这两点表明,在试图适应新时代的现实时,中国可能面临着巨大的挑战。 /201506/380637 巴彦县治疗不孕不育多少钱呼兰区中心医院门诊部在哪里



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