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2019年09月19日 16:22:22 | 作者:搜医新闻 | 来源:新华社
HANGZHOU, China — In Dream Town, a collection of boxy office buildings on the gritty edge of this historic city, one tiny company is developing a portable 3-D printer. 中国杭州——在位于这座历史名城郊区的一片四四方方的办公楼群梦想小镇内,一座小公司正在研发便携式3D打印机。Another takes orders for traditional Chinese massages by smartphone. 另一家则通过智能手机提供中国传统的推拿务。They are just two of the 710 start-ups being nurtured here.它们只是在这里孵化的710家创业公司中的两个。Anywhere else, an incubator like Dream Town would be a vision of venture capitalists, angel investors or technology stalwarts. 放在别的地方,像梦想小镇这样的孵化器势必是出自风险资本家、天使投资人或技术中坚分子的构想。But this is China. 但这里是中国。The Chinese Communist Party doesn’t trust the invisible hand of capitalism alone to encourage entrepreneurship, especially since it is a big part of the leadership’s strategy to reshape the sagging economy.中国共产党不相信单凭不可见的资本之手就可以鼓励创业,尤其是考虑到,重塑陷入疲软的中国经济是这届领导层的发展战略的一个重要部分。Which is why the government of Hangzhou — a former royal capital that has been a major commercial hub for more than a millennium — built Dream Town and lavishes resources on start-ups. 这是杭州市政府建设梦想小镇,在创业公司上投入大批资源的原因。The businesses here get a slate of benefits like subsidized rent, cash handouts and special training, all courtesy of the city.在这座有千年历史的商业中心和古都里,这些公司可以享受包括房租优惠、现金补贴和特殊培训在内的一系列好处,它们都由政府买单。Chemayi, which offers car repair services through a smartphone app, is staying rent-free at Dream Town for three years and is applying for as much as 0,000 in subsidies from city authorities to help pay salaries and buy equipment.车蚂蚁是一家通过智能手机应用提供车辆维修务的公司,它已经在梦想小镇享受了三年的免租金待遇,而且正在向市政府申请高达45万美元的补贴,用于付员工薪资和采购设备。From the central government all the way down to local governments, we have seen a lot of warm support, said Li Liheng, co-founder and chief executive of Chemayi.我们看到,从中央到地方政府,都给予了很多热情的持,车蚂蚁联合创始人兼首席执行官李立恒说。For much of China’s long economic boom, young people flocked to manufacturing zones for jobs making bluejeans or iPhones. 在中国时间不短的经济繁荣期里,年轻人多数时候都是涌向工业区,寻找加工牛仔裤或iPhone的工作。But today China is trying to move beyond just being the world’s factory floor. 然而现在,中国正试图超越世界工厂的角色。Policy makers want the next generation to find better-paying work in modern offices, creating the ideas, technologies and jobs to feed the country’s future growth.决策者想要下一代在现代化的办公室内找到待遇更好的工作,让他们创造新观念、新技术和新工作机会,以保中国在未来的持续增长。Premier Li Keqiang frequently calls for mass entrepreneurship. 国务院总理李克强曾多次呼吁大众创业。In March at the National People’s Congress, he bragged that 12,000 new companies were founded each day in 2015.在今年3月举行的全国人民代表大会上,他不乏自豪地宣称,2015年中国每天有1.2万家新公司成立。The entrepreneurial embrace comes with lots of financial support. 这种对创业的持包括许多财务上的扶持。Across the country, officials are creating investment funds, providing cash subsidies and building incubators.全国各地的官员都在设立投资基金,提供现金补助和打造孵化器。Without these kinds of subsidies, you only rely on private money, and you wouldn’t see so many technology start-ups happening today, said Ning Tao, a partner at Innovation Works, a venture capital fund in Beijing. 没有这类补贴,只靠个人资金,我们不会看到有这么多创业公司涌现出来,位于北京的风险投资基金创新工场的合伙人陶宁说。Without quantity, you cannot have quality.没有数量,就难求质量。But the heavy spending is adding to worries about an inflating bubble in the world of China’s tiniest companies. 然而这种巨大的投入让人们愈发担心,中国的这些小公司正面临越来越大的泡沫。 /201609/464894

PRUE — In the age of Amazon and the internet, the idea of going to a public library to borrow a book may seem ever more quaint and old-fashioned in many parts of the world, but one country, at least, is clinging to it tenaciously: the Czech Republic.布拉格——在这个亚马逊(Amazon)与网络当道的年代,在世界上许多地方的人看来,上公共图书馆借书一举似乎更显得古怪过时。然而至少还有一个国家仍顽强地保持这项习惯,那就是捷克共和国。There are libraries everywhere you look in the country — it has the densest library network in the world, according to a survey conducted for the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. There are more libraries than grammar schools. In fact, there is one library for every 1,971 Czech citizens, the survey found — four times as many, relative to population, as the average European country, and 10 times as many as the ed States, which has one for every 19,583 people.放眼望去,捷克到处是图书馆:根据比尔及梅琳达盖茨基金会(Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation)进行的一项调查,该国有全世界密度最高的图书馆网络,数量比文法学校还要多。事实上,这项调查发现,每1971位捷克人就有一间图书馆,依人口比例算来是平均欧洲国家的4倍、美国的10倍(美国每19583人才有一间图书馆)。Why so many Czech libraries? Well, for decades they were mandatory — every community, from a big city down to a tiny village, was required by law to have one.为什么捷克有这么多图书馆?其实在数十年的时间里,图书馆的建造曾是强制规定——以前捷克从大城到小镇的每个社区,依法都必须要有一间图书馆。The law was enacted in 1919, soon after Czechoslovakia emerged as an independent country. The idea was to promote universal literacy and education after the country was free of the German-speaking Austro-Hungarian Empire. And it worked.该项法案是1919年颁布的,当时捷克斯洛伐克独立不久,用意是为了在脱离说德语的奥匈帝国统治后,提高全民的识字率、普及教育。而这种做法的确有效。“Czechs developed a strong ing habit, and even today, those who visit libraries buy more books — 11 a year, on average — than others,” said Vit Richter, director of the Librarianship Institute of the Czech National Library.“捷克人养成了很强的阅读习惯,即便在今天,会上图书馆的人买书也更多,一年下来平均会买11本书。”捷克国家图书馆附设图书馆学中心的主任维特#8231;李希特(Vit Richter)表示。The library law survived the German occupation, the communist era and even the breakup with Slovakia in the early 1990s. What it couldn’t survive, in the end, was budgetary pressure. To save money, the requirement was dropped in 2001, when there were about 6,019 libraries in the country; since then, about 11 percent have merged or closed.这项图书馆法案挺过了“二战”德国占领期、共产主义时期,甚至当捷克在上世纪90年代初期与斯洛伐克分家时仍照行不误。它最终挺不住的是预算压力。这项法案在2001年为减省开而废除了,而当时捷克全国上下有将近6019座图书馆。自此以后,有大约11%的图书馆遭合并或关闭。Rather than just linger on as an eccentricity from a bygone age, though, the surviving Czech libraries are doing what they can to stay vibrant and relevant. They serve as polling places for elections and as local meeting venues. They organize ing clubs and art exhibits and offer computer literacy courses, and they welcome droves of schoolchildren and retirees during the day.然而,现存的捷克图书馆并不甘于作为历史遗留的怪癖传世,它们尽可能地保持活跃及与民众生活的联系。图书馆是选举时的投票所、是当地居民的集会场地,馆方也会组织阅读俱乐部与艺术展览、提供计算机教学课程,并且在日间接待成群来访的学童与退休人士。But mostly, they do what 92 percent of Czechs still want them to go on doing, according to the Gates Foundation survey: They lend books.不过,根据盖兹基金会的调查,这些图书馆的主要工作还是提供92%的捷克人仍希望他们继续下去的务:借书给大家看。 /201607/456449

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