2020年02月26日 12:15:33|来源:国际在线|编辑:搜医卫生
Women are shunning academic careers in math-intensive fields because the lifestyle is incompatible with motherhood, researchers at Cornell University found in a study to be published next month in American Scientist Magazine.康奈尔大学的研究人员发现,女性很少在数学相关领域从事学术研究工作是因为女数学教授的生活方式和母亲的身份相冲突。这一研究将于下个月在《美国科学家杂志》上发表。Universities have long been criticized for hiring and evaluation policies that discriminate against women, but the findings of this new study point to the female biological clock as a main reason why so few women end up as professors in fields such as math, engineering, physics and computer science.长期以来,大学一直因为歧视女性的聘用和考评政策而受到抨击,然而这一新研究的发现指出,女性生物钟是女性很少在数学、工程学、物理学和计算机科学等专业担任教授的主要原因。A woman who wants a family looks at the rigorous path to a tenured position and considers how old she will be before she can start a family and how little time she will have to raise her children. Many of those women opt for a more flexible career.当一个渴望拥有家庭的女性看到通往终身教授职位的道路是如此严苛,想到自己成为教授后再生育时年纪已经很大,抚养小孩的时间也很少,于是许多女性就选择了更有弹性的职业。;Universities have been largely inflexible about anything other than the standard time table, which is you kill yourself for years and only then would you consider getting pregnant,; said Wendy Williams, a human development professor at Cornell who co-authored the study with her husband, Stephen Ceci.康奈尔大学的人类发展学教授温迪bull;威廉姆斯和她的丈夫斯蒂芬bull;赛西共同撰写了这一研究报告。她说:;大学除了课程设置比较灵活外,其他很多方面都很僵化,也就是说,你要熬很多年才能得到稳定职位,才能考虑怀生子。;Williams and Ceci analyzed data about the academic careers of men and women with and without children. Before women became mothers, they had careers equivalent to or more successful than their male peers. But once children entered the equation, the dynamic changed.威廉姆斯和赛西分析了男性和女性(有孩子和没孩子)的学术生涯相关资料。在女性成为母亲之前,她们的职业和同行业的男性一样成功,甚至更成功。但是一旦有了孩子,这一态势就发生了变化。Women in other academic fields such as the humanities and social sciences face similar hurdles and often leave academia as well. But because there are so many women in those Ph.D. programs, enough ultimately stay to amount to a critical mass of female professors.在人文学科和社会科学等其他学术领域里,女性面临着同样的障碍,她们也往往因此离开学术界。但由于攻读人文社科类士学位的女性很多,所以才有足够的女性最终留下来成为女教授,使这些领域的女教授数量达到一定规模。In math-heavy fields, however, women make up a tiny minority of the graduate students. So when the rare few who make it through a Ph.D. program leave because universities are insensitive to their needs as mothers, the net result is virtually no women represented on faculty rosters, the study said.不过,在数学相关领域里,女性只占据研究生的很小一部分。因此,研究指出,当极少数获得士学位的女性又因为大学对自己生儿育女的需要漠不关心而离开,其最终结果就是,没有几位女性能跻身理科教授行列。 /201202/171942When Alibaba raised billion in its blockbuster I.P.O. in September, U.S.-based e-commerce companies were curious to know when the Chinese giant planned to begin spending that money to compete against them.今年9月,当阿里巴巴(Alibaba)在声势浩大的首次公开募股中筹得250亿美元时,美国的电子商务公司都很想知道,这家中国电商巨头准备何时拿这笔钱与它们展开竞争。The answer is that no one really knows: Alibaba has been focused more on investing in the U.S. than in operating there. The China market, after all, is huge. Witness the -billion “Singles Day” shopping orgy the country celebrated on Tuesday.没有人真正知道。阿里巴巴目前更注重在美国投资,而不是在美国运营。毕竟,中国市场本身就十分巨大。在上周中国的“双十一”购物狂欢日当天,阿里巴巴的销售额高达93亿美元。Look more closely, though, and there are ways to discern Alibaba’s strategy. For instance, the only U.S. investment it discussed in its I.P.O. filing was the 39% stake it took in ShopRunner, an Amazon Prime-like service founded by the same team that started an Amazon competitor called GSI Commerce, now part of eBay . Alibaba invested about 0 million in ShopRunner last year. It also has invested in taxi-killer Lyft and game maker Kabam, but only ShopRunner earned the prospectus mention.不过仔细观察,我们还是能够找到一些探究阿里巴巴战略的方法。比如,阿里巴巴的招股说明书中唯一提到的美国投资,是收购了ShopRunner 公司39%的股权。该公司的务与亚马逊金牌会员务(AmazonPrime)非常类似,其创始人曾经创建过亚马逊的竞争对手GSI Commerce公司,后者如今已被易趣(eBay)收购。去年,阿里巴巴在ShopRunner上投资了约2亿美元。该公司还投资了私家车搭乘务应用Lyft和游戏制造商Kabam,不过招股说明书只提到了ShopRunner。To learn more about ShopRunner I recently visited its offices in San Mateo, Calif. and the company’s CEO, Scott Thompson. You might remember him as the one-time CEO of Yahoo who left after reports that his resume wasn’t altogether accurate. He left Yahoo in 2012 and before that had been a top PayPal executive at eBay.为了进一步了解ShopRunner,我最近参观了它在加利福尼亚州圣马特奥的办公室,并对该公司首席执行官斯科特o汤普森进行了采访。你也许记得他曾经担任过雅虎(Yahoo)首席执行官,后来因为履历有水分而被迫在2012年离职。加入雅虎之前,他曾担任易趣付平台贝宝公司(PayPal)总裁。ShopRunner, it turns out, has an interesting niche. Whereas Amazon Prime customers can get anything under the sun—and then some, including streaming s—delivered to them for a year, ShopRunner customers get a more select, slightly more curated collection of brands. They pay for free, two-day delivery. It’s a deal designed to attract consumers but also merchants, who see the value of not being glopped together with everyone else over at Amazon.事实明,ShopRunner拥有一个有趣的小众市场。亚马逊金牌务的顾客能够以每年99美元的价格,让买到的任何东西(后来还包括流媒体视频)送货上门。而ShopRunner顾客可选择的品牌经过了进一步筛选,也更系统一些。他们可以花79美元获得免费的两日内送货上门务。此举不仅是为了吸引顾客,还试图吸引那些不愿意和亚马逊其他商品捆绑在一起的商家。Thompson, the technology executive, is learning to talk like a merchant. “Retailers ask, ‘Who is my neighbor in the mall?’ There’s a lot of brand adjacency in retailing. Amazon has a lot of SKUs. So if you’re someone who is very thoughtful about your brand, you’re in the middle of a lot of stuff. Our attitude is, if it’s something you need, go with Amazon Prime. If it’s something you want and have an emotional connection to, that’s us.”科技高管汤普森正学着像一个店主那样说话。“零售商会问:‘我在购物中心里会与谁为邻?’在零售业中,大量品牌毗邻而居。亚马逊的库存量很大,所以如果你非常在意自己的品牌,你就会发现自己被太多东西包围了。我们的看法是:如果你要买必需品,那就去找亚马逊金牌务;如果你要真正喜欢的,对你有特殊感情的东西,那就来找我们。”Focusing on signing up name-brand retailers—a few include American Eagle Outfitters, Diesel, and Neiman Marcus—is ShopRunner’s bet on relevancy in a world dominated by Amazon.ShopRunner将重点放在签约的名牌零售商上,比如美鹰傲飞(American Eagle Outfitters)、Diesel和内曼o马库斯(Neiman Marcus)。在亚马逊统治的这个全球市场,ShopRunner把赌注压在了顾客与品牌的关联性上。The strategy worked to the extent that it attracted another important brand, American Express. The financial services company cut a deal with ShopRunner to offer the two-day free delivery service to all of its cardholders, minus corporate card users. “Free shipping and shipping in general is critical to driving engagement online,” says Leslie Berland, executive vice-president for digital partnerships at Amex, who inked the deal with ShopRunner. Neither she nor Thompson says who pays whom in the Amex-ShopRunner relationship. But Amex is providing a free benefit to its customers that then enables ShopRunner to collect a commission on sales it facilitates for its customers. Amex, by the way, also invested in ShopRunner.这个战略发展得很顺利,甚至吸引另一个重要品牌美国运通(American Express)参与其中。这家金融务公司与ShopRunner达成协议,对所有运通卡持有人(不含公司卡用户)提供免费的两日内快递。与ShopRunner签约的美国券交易所(Amex)数字合作部执行副总裁莱斯利o伯兰表示:“要提高在线购物的吸引力,免费快递和普通的运送务都至关重要。”莱斯利和汤普森都没有透露这次合作究竟是哪方出钱。但美国券交易所正在为它的客户提供一项免费福利,这项福利能够使ShopRunner从该公司促成的交易中获得一笔佣金。顺带提一句,美国券交易所也投资了ShopRunner。ShopRunner is privately held and doesn’t disclose revenues. Janney Capital Markets analyst Shawn Milne, who follows e-commerce companies, guesses the company’s sales could be approaching 0 million on as many as 2 million subscribers. “One of the reasons they are showing value is that they are delivering new valuable customers to the network,” he says. Milne predicts ShopRunner could grow to as many as 10 million customers, not a mass-market business but a profitable one. It also could be valuable to an e-commerce giant looking to compete with Amazon.ShopRunner是私人公司,并未公开收入。Janney Capital Markets公司电子商务行业分析师肖恩o米尔恩猜测,该公司的销售额可能接近2亿美元,并有多达200万付费用户。他表示:“他们正在展现价值的原因之一在于,他们正在将一些有价值的新客户带到网上。”米尔恩预计,ShopRunner可以发展到1,000万用户的规模,不算是一个大众市场,但利润可观。对于一家寻求与亚马逊一较高低的电商巨头来说,它也是很有价值的。That’s where Alibaba comes in. So far the Chinese giant barely operates in the U.S. But it is the largest shareholder in ShopRunner, which recently signed a deal with Alibaba affiliate Alipay to connect its U.S. merchant customers with Chinese consumers. It’s also worth noting that Alibaba isn’t a retailer. It runs online marketplaces. That could change. “Alibaba doesn’t have a Prime-ShopRunner analogue,” Thompson notes. “It doesn’t sell anything on its own.” Not yet anyway.这就是阿里巴巴的切入点。到目前为止,这家中国巨头几乎没有在美国运营任何业务,但它是ShopRunner的最大股东。最近,ShopRunner与阿里巴巴旗下的付宝(Alipay)签订了协议,将美国商业客户与中国顾客联系了起来。还值得一提的是,阿里巴巴不是零售商,而是在线商城运营商。但这一点是可以改变的。汤普森表示:“阿里巴巴没有类似亚马逊金牌计划或ShopRunner的务,它不卖自己的东西。”至少,现在不卖。 /201411/343192

America’s Supreme Court delights online retailers and appals media firms联邦最高法院判决——有人欢喜有人忧CALL it academic arbitrage. Supap Kirtsaeng, a Thai student who earned a PhD in mathematics from the University of Southern California, made as much as .2m with some basic maths. He asked friends and family to ship him cheap textbooks from Thailand, which he sold for a handsome profit in America. The books were intended only for sale in Thailand, and Wiley, a publisher of some of the textbooks he sold, sued him for copyright infringement in September 2008 and won. Mr Kirtsaeng appealed, and the case made its way to America’s highest court.Supap Kirtsaeng 是一名泰国学生,在美国南加州大学取得了数学士学位,然而他仅靠简单的算术便赚得了120万美金。Supap Kirtsaeng让朋友和家人从泰国寄来廉价的课本,再在美国高价卖出,所得利润丰厚,可以称之为是“学术套利”。Supap Kirtsaeng卖出的课本原本只限于泰国境内出售,因此,他所售课本的出版商之一,约翰威立父子出版公司,在2008年9月以侵犯版权为名对Supap Kirtsaeng提起诉讼,并打赢了官司。之后,Supap Kirtsaeng提出上诉,该案便一路打到了美国联邦最高法院。On March 19th the Supreme Court ruled that American copyright law does not restrict goods produced abroad from being resold in America. The ruling,widens the reach of the “first sale doctrine”, which gives copyright-holders control of their goods until their first sale; afterwards the purchaser can lend or peddle them for whatever price he chooses. Previously, the first-sale doctrine protected copyright-holders from their works being imported and resold without their permission. A retailer could legally sell a second-hand “Gone with the Wind” DVD, but could not buy it cheaply in Russia, bring it to America and sell it for a low price. With the Supreme Court’s ruling, that protection has been swept away.今年的3月19日,联邦最高法院做出判决,宣布美国版权法不限制国外购进的产品在美国再次出售,扩大了“首次销售原则”的适用范围(“首次销售原则”规定,版权所有者在首次销售前对产品享有控制权;首次销售后,购买者则可以以任意价格租借或贩卖所购产品。)之前“首次销售原则”的规定是,不经版权所有者许可,不得从他国进口并再次销售其产品,这在一定程度上对版权所有者进行了保护。对于零售商来说,售卖二手的《乱世佳人》DVD是合法的,但他们却不能从俄罗斯低价买进这一DVD,进口至美国,再以低于美国市价的价格卖出。然而,在联邦最高法院的这次判决之后,版权所有者将失去这一层法律保护。Publishers, record labels, film studios and other content-owners are shocked. They have often sold the same product in poorer countries for less, knowing that it would not hurt their pricing power at home. Now it will. Big online retailers such as Amazon and eBay could start exploiting these pricing differences on a large scale. Ian Whittaker of Liberum Capital, a broker, thinks this ruling will really hurt academic publishers, such as Pearson (a part-owner of The Economist). They tend to sell identical books for eye-watering prices in America and much less in countries where people cannot afford those prices.包括出版商、唱片公司、电影制片厂在内的一众版权所有者大为震惊。之前,这些公司一贯在较为贫穷的国家降低产品价格,知晓这样做并不会损害其在本国的定价权。然而现在,这种降价策略将对这些公司在美国的定价权产生直接影响。如亚马逊和eBay这样的大型网上零售商很可能会开始利用国际间的价格差大规模牟利。伦敦投行Liberum Capital的股票经纪人Ian Whittaker认为,联邦最高法院的这一判决将损害培生教育出版集团(The Economist股东之一)等学术出版商的利益。这是因为,学术出版商所售课本在美国通常标价极高,但在那些无力承受高价的国家,课本定价则会大为降低。Publishers have aly warned that they may have to turn the page on the old system of letting students in poor countries buy textbooks cheaply. “Some people are predicting a world where price discrimination will no longer be possible,” says Arti Rae, a professor of law at Duke University. Media companies could choose to stagger the release of films or books across countries, delaying the launch of titles in countries where they cannot fetch high prices. However, that may simply encourage piracy. Congress could intervene and rejig 调整 更改 the Copyright Act of 1976, which established the first-sale doctrine. But that would require Washington to get its act together 齐心协力—a plotline so implausible that it would make J.K. Rowling blush.对此,出版商们已经做出了警告,表示他们或许要迫于压力结束让贫穷国家学生低价购买课本的历史了。杜克大学的法学教授Arti Rae表示:“有人认为,今后价格歧视将不复存在。”媒体公司可以控制电影或图书在不同国家的发布时间,在那些无法卖出高价的国家推迟产品投放市场的时间。然而,这样做可能只会让盗版行为更加猖獗。国会可以介入此事,对1976年版权法案(该法案确立了“首次销售原则”)进行调整,解决媒体公司所面临的困境,但是要达成此事恐怕需要联邦政府各方面齐心协力,这种事情估计连写奇幻小说的JK罗琳都觉得不可能发生吧。In any case, an even bigger copyright issue is brewing. The Copyright Act was written before digital media became popular, and the first-sale doctrine does not apply to electronic wares. Should consumers have the right to lend and sell their music files and e-books, even though they do not wear out like their physical counterparts, or should content-producers retain the copyright? If consumers could legally resell their electronic media, it could wipe out the profits of many media firms. ReDigi, a firm that enables people to buy and sell second-hand electronic music files, was sued last year for copyright infringement by Capitol Records, a music label. A judge should rule on the case soon, but it may well be appealed all the way to the Supreme Court.总之,一场更大的版权问题即将到来。1976年撰写版权法案时,数字媒体大流行的时代还没有到来,而“首次销售原则”也不适用于电子产品。在电子媒体产品不会像实体媒体产品一样耗损老化的情况下,消费者是否有权租赁、出售他们的音乐文件夹和电子书?而内容出版者又是否应当保有他们的版权呢?如果消费者有权转售他们的电子媒体产品的话,很多媒体公司的盈利空间将不复存在。唱片商Capitol Records去年以侵犯版权为名起诉了ReDigi公司,而ReDigi公司正是允许人们购买、出售二手电子音乐的。负责该案的法官不日便会做出判决,但这一案件可能会像Supap Kirtsaeng案一样,一路打到联邦最高法院去。 /201303/232630

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