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2019年09月20日 13:15:18 | 作者:最新共享 | 来源:新华社
The speed with which Africa was eclipsed by Iraq on Washington’s agenda was startling. It happened the moment Barack Obama left the first summit of African leaders convened by a US president and stepped into his limo alongside the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. African delegates who flocked to the US capital last week appeared as if they had stayed beyond last orders. It was a reminder of the need for strong champions if the spirit of engagement between Washington and African capitals is to be kept alive.在美国政府的议程上,非洲的地位正以惊人的速度被伊拉克盖过。巴拉克#8226;奥巴Barack Obama)刚离开首次由美国总统召集的非洲领导人峰会,在参谋长联席会Joint Chiefs of Staff)主席陪同下,一脚踏进他的加长轿车时,这种转变就发生了。上周涌入美国首都的非洲代表们,还没有意识到这次宴请已经结束。这对人们是一个提醒:美国和非洲要保持旺盛的合作精神,需要多么有力的领头人。The US has been slow to respond to rapidly changing dynamics on the continent where a decade and a half of rapid economic expansion has seen the emergence of more assertive governments, a consumer class and a host of fresh suitors from the developing world in search of commercial opportunity.15年来,非洲经济快速扩张,这让他们的政府变得更加自信,同时促成了一个消费者阶层的诞生,吸引了众多来自发展中国家的投资者前来寻找商机。针对非洲大陆这种快速变化的形势,美国一直反应迟缓。The raw pioneering capitalism with which Americans built their nation has been notably absent from the US approach. Instead it is the Chinese who have taken on that role. In pursuit of resources to fuel domestic growth and markets for manufacturers, Beijing has adopted a long-term view of the continent’s potential, marrying its interests to Africa’s need for railways, roads and fast money. The Turks, Indians, Brazilians and others have followed.在美国对非战略中,美国人建国时所倚赖的那种原始的开拓性资本主义精神显然已消失不见。扮演这一角色的反而变成了中国人。在寻找资源以促进国内经济增长、以及为国内制造商开辟市场的过程中,中国对非洲的潜力抱着长远眼光,将自身利益与非洲对铁路、公路以及“快钱”的需求结合在一起。土耳其、印度、巴西和其他国家也紧随其后。By contrast, Washington has appeared complacent, stuck in an era when the consensus remedy to debt-ridden economies emerging from dictatorship was named after America’s capital, and the medicine of free market economics and political freedom was universally if unevenly prescribed. China’s willingness to provide billions of dollars of investment free of politicised conditions has weakened the intellectual hold of the so-called Washington Consensus. If the US is to regain influence it needs to become more actively involved.相比之下,美国显得有些自满。美国的思维仍停留在这样一个时期:对那些债务累累、试图摆脱独裁的经济体,它给出同样的药方(尽管计量有所不同),那就是市场经济和政治自由。这些药方以美国的首都命名,名曰“华盛顿共识Washington Consensus)。而中国则愿意在不附加政治条件的情况下提供数十亿美元的投资,这削弱了华盛顿共识的影响力。要重新获得影响力,美国需要更积极地参与非洲事务。It was in belated recognition of this that Mr Obama called the summit. In many ways it surpassed expectations, showcasing to Africans the capacity America has to mobilise capital and expertise. The bn pledged towards investment and development comes from a blend of sources, not all American and not all new. But as a headline figure it matched what Beijing has offered.奥巴马召集此次峰会,意味着他终于开始面对现实。此次峰会在很多方面都超出了预期,它向非洲人展示了美国动用资金和专业技能的能力。峰会承诺向非洲投资370亿美元用于发展,这些资金并非所有都来自美国企业,也并非所有都是新投资。但从整体数据来看,其规模与中国相仿。The summit revealed to US businesses a fresh side of Africa. Thousands of Africans flew in for the occasion. While official delegations brought little new to the occasion, there was also a range of dynamic non-state participants eager to strengthen US-Africa ties.此次峰会向美国企业展示了非洲新的一面。数千名非洲人飞抵华盛顿参加会议。尽管官方代表没有给此次活动带来多少新东西,但与会者还包括很多渴望加深美非合作、富有活力的非政府人士。Out of this jamboree, a more pro-active and holistic US approach could be born. In the past decade, US policy has become increasingly militarised, with concerns over security, and the sp of Islamic extremism, often taking precedence over democracy. Some of Washington’s strongest allies in Africa are its most autocratic. This has weakened Washington’s message on human rights and made Africans acutely sensitive to US double standards.美国可以借助此次大型峰会形成一种更主动、更全面的战略。过0年,美国政策越来越军事化,对于安全以及伊斯兰极端主义蔓延的担忧经常优先于对民主的关切。美国在非洲的一些最强大盟友也是最为独裁的。这削弱了美国的人权立场,同时让非洲对美国的双重标准极为敏感。It is no longer enough to preach. If Washington wishes to maintain its influence over political and security developments, it needs to play a stronger role in Africa’s economic evolution. The focus Mr Obama has brought to trade and investment, and greater state backing with credits and guarantees, is a necessary step. That makes it all the more important to sustain Eximbank, if US companies are not to be put at a disadvantage.仅仅说教已经不够了。如果美国希望保持其在政治和安全发展方面的影响力,就需要在非洲的经济发展中发挥更大作用。奥巴马将注意力放在贸易和投资领域以及增加政府的信贷和担保持,是必要之举。这使得持美国进出口银Eximbank)愈发重要,如果不想让美国企业处于劣势的话。With US businesses playing a bigger part in driving growth and creating jobs, African governments will pay more attention on other fronts. To persuade US businesses to invest more, African governments need to strengthen the rule of law. The Chinese are building physical infrastructure. The US can bring technology, business knowledge and institution-building expertise. Prospects for African prosperity will be healthier with all aboard.随着美国企业在推动非洲经济增长和创造就业方面发挥更重要作用,非洲政府将更多关注其他领域。要说美国企业扩大投资,非洲政府需要加强法制。中国人正在非洲建设物质基础设施。美国可以提供技术、商业知识以及制度建设方面的技胀?有了各方的参与,非洲的发展将更为健康稳健。来 /201408/320683ABERDEEN, Scotland Even before Craig May, a longtime Chevron executive, moved to this North Sea port city two summers ago, he knew that the oil wealth in Britains waters was on the steepening slope of a decadeslong decline.苏格兰阿伯丁——克雷格·Craig May)是雪佛龙公司(Chevron)的资深高管。即使在两年前的夏天搬到北海的这座港口城市之前,他就已经知道,英国水域的石油财富已经处在了数十年来的下降过程中一个愈加陡峭的阶段。Along with other Big Oil players that make Aberdeen their North Sea hub, Chevron had let its aging offshore operations become inefficient. There was still plenty of oil and gas out there. But the rising expenses, May said, no longer justified the diminishing revenue from the undersea wells.还有一些石油巨头也把北海枢纽设在了阿伯丁,而它们和雪佛龙遇到了同样的困难:日益老化的近海业务变得效率低下。那里仍然存储着大量的石油和天然气。但梅表示,成本不断攀升,海底油井的营收日益减少,从经济上说不再合理。“We recognized we werent structured the right way,said May, who now leads the companys exploration and production in northern Europe. “Cost always matters.”“我们那时候就认识到,我们的结构有问题,”梅说。他现在是该公司欧洲北部勘探与生产部门的负责人。“成本一直都是重要因素。”And that was when oil was selling for more than 0 a barrel.当时,石油的价格还在每桶100美元以上。Now, with oils price per barrel down about 40 percent from a year ago, and with some operators shutting down aging platforms, May and Chevron are in a race against irrelevancy for their North Sea operations.现在,随着油价比一年前下跌了约40%,一些石油公司在关停日益老化的平台。梅和雪佛龙在北海的业务可能会变得无足轻重,而他们正在与之赛跑。The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, which meets on Friday in Vienna, is unlikely to provide any sort of relief to the North Sea industry by cutting production to prop up prices. Instead, OPEC which does not include Britain or any other North Sea producer hopes that a spell of low prices will discourage new investment in high-cost regions like the North Sea, reducing their output.石油输出国组织(Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries,简称欧佩克)将于本周五在维也纳碰头。它不太可能通过削减产量的方式来撑油价,给北海业务提供喘息的机会。相反,欧佩克——其中不包括英国或其他北海产油国——希望,持续的低油价能够阻止新的投资进入北海这样的高成本地区,从而让它们的产出减少。Even before the price of oil began collapsing last summer, May was taking steps to trim Chevrons North Sea costs and planning new technologies including a million integrated operations center in Aberdeen to wrest renewed efficiencies from 20- and 30-year-old offshore oil and gas rigs.早在去年夏天油价开始崩盘之前,梅就开始采取措施,削减雪佛龙在北海的运营成本,并计划采用新的技术——包括一个造价300万美元的阿伯丁综合作业中心——来努力提高二三十年前修建的近海油气钻井平台的效率。There is much more at stake than one companys profitability. The efforts are a test of the continued viability of an energy region that, if nurtured, could continue to give Europe a hedge against its reliance on oil and gas from Russia and the OPEC nations.其中牵扯的,绝不仅限于一家公司的盈利能力。这些努力是对一片能源区域持续开采作业能力的测试。若是获得改善,北海能够持续给欧洲提供一个立足点,让它不那么依赖于俄罗斯和欧佩克的油气。Just as crucially, the techniques that Chevron is experimenting with in the North Sea could lead the way for other oil companies around the world to coax continued life from aging offshore energy operations wherever they are and learn from some industry mistakes.同样关键的是,雪佛龙在北海尝试的技术,可能会为世界各地的其他石油公司指引方向,让它们得以延续日益老化的近海能源业务——无论它们地处哪里——的生机,并从同行的错误中吸取经验教训。In a sense, British waters are a microcosm of the global industry. Costs, especially for offshore operations, have risen across the globe, eating into profits and reducing incentives for new exploration.从某种意义上说,英国水域是全球石油行业的一个缩影。世界各地的石油生产成本都在上升,近海业务尤其如此,因此利润遭到挤压,进行新勘探的动力也随之减少。Despite the global push toward renewable energy and onshore drilling of oil and gas from shale in the ed States and elsewhere, the world is likely to require a long-term, adequate supply of undersea oil if it can be extracted economically. Chevron, for one, has postponed a big Scottish deepwater project called Rosebank, where the North Sea gives way to the North Atlantic just northwest of the Shetland Islands, judging it not feasible under current industry economics.尽管可再生能源与从美国等地的页?中开采油气的陆上钻探的趋势获得了全球性的推动,但我们可能还是需要长期而充足的海底石油供应——如果它能够以经济可行的方式获得的话。比如,雪佛龙推迟了位于苏格兰的大型深水项目罗斯班克(Rosebank),因为公司认为,在目前的行业经济状况下,这个计划是不可行的。罗斯班克位于北海和北大西洋的交界处,正好在设得兰群岛的西北方。As other large oil companies in the region have, Chevron has turned to layoffs and other cost-cutting moves. While total industry job cuts in the North Sea region have so far been in the low thousands, the management consulting firm Ernst amp; Young forecasts that as many as 35,000 of the 375,000 jobs related to the oil industry in Britain could be lost over the next four years.就像该地区的其他大型石油公司一样,雪佛龙也采取了裁员等削减成本的方法。虽然迄今为止,油气行业在北海地区总共裁减了小几千人,但据管理咨询公司安永(Ernstamp; Young)预测,英国与石油业有关的37.5万个工作岗位中,可能有至.5万个会在未来四年中遭到裁减。“The issue in the North Sea is existential around the cash cost of operation at the current level of oil prices,Simon Henry, Royal Dutch Shells chief financial officer, said recently while discussing the companys quarterly results.“北海业务存亡问题的核心是,在目前油价水平上开采作业的直接成本,”荷兰皇家壳牌公Royal Dutch Shell)的首席财务官西蒙·亨利(Simon Henry)近期在讨论公司的季度业绩时表示。And in the North Sea, no company is an island.而在北海,没有哪家企业是一座孤岛。The region is a vast web of interconnected fields and pipelines and other infrastructure, with different owners, that transport the oil and gas. If one company closes a node in this network, others might be forced to shut down portions of their own operations.这片地区是一个巨大的网络,油田、管道及运输油气的其他基础设施彼此相连,属于不同的公司。如果这个网络上有一家公司关闭一个节点,那么其他公司可能就不得不关停自己的部分业务。Chevron, for example, lost production for several months from a field called Erskine because its oil flowed through a field operated by the BG Group. That field had been closed since October for an upgrade but recently came back online.例如,雪佛龙有一块名为厄斯金(Erskine)的油田,蒙受了数个月的生产损失,因为它出产的石油要流经BG集团(BG Group)的一块油田。从去年10月开始,BP的那块油田因升级改造而关停,不过近期又重新连接到网络中。“It takes only one field that has exposure to a piece of infrastructure to put the whole system in jeopardy,said Derek Leith, an energy consultant at Ernst amp; Young in Aberdeen.“只要有一块油田的一处基础设施出问题,整个网络就会处境不妙,”安永驻阿伯丁的能源顾问德里克·利Derek Leith)表示。Once fields start to shut down, the companies cannot simply abandon them. International laws require the companies to safely and cleanly dismantle the platforms and underwater equipment, a process with considerable costs.一旦油田开始关闭,相关公司也不能简单弃用,而是要按照国际法的要求,安全、无污染地拆除钻井平台和水下设备。这个过程需要投入大量成本。The industry is projected to spend about 15 billion pounds ( billion) in the next decade on North Sea decommissioning spending the industry can hope to partly defer the longer it can squeeze life from existing operations.在未来十年里,整个行业预计会在退出北海业务上花费150亿英镑(约合1400亿元人民币)左右。现有业务持续得越久,该行业就越有希望推迟部分开销。Apache, a midsize oil company based in Houston, is considered something of a model. In 2003, Apache acquired a portion of the Forties field, a vast North Sea plot 140 miles northeast of Aberdeen that was discovered in 1970 and once produced about a half-million barrels a day. By the time Apache bought its portion from BP, output had dwindled to 41,000 barrels a day.总部位于休斯顿的中等规模的石油公司阿帕奇(Apache)被认为堪称这方面的榜样003年,该公司收购了福蒂斯油Forties)的一部分。这片广阔的油田也位于北海,在阿伯丁东北140英里(约25公里)处。福蒂斯970年发现的,曾经能日产原油0万桶。到阿帕奇从BP手里买下油田的一部分时,其产量已跌至每天4.1万桶。But Apache has raised production 20 percent, to about 50,000 barrels a day, by investing in new wells and installing more electrical generators to reduce downtime, according to James L. House, the companys North Sea manager until this month.不过,在本月之前一直担任阿帕奇北海业务经理的詹姆斯·L·豪斯(James L House)称,通过投资新油井,以及增加发电机来减少停工期,公司将产量提高了20%,达每天万桶。“We all have access to the same level of technology and hire people with similar educational backgrounds,he said. “It is how decisions are made and how they are executed.”“我们所有公司掌握的技术水平是一样的,雇的员工的教育背景也类似,”他说。“关键是决策的制定和执行。”At Chevron, May says he is encouraged by his companys efforts to reclaim the North Sea. Chevron is continuing with development of a new field called Alder. And the giant Rosebank project could yet go ahead, May said.雪佛龙公司的梅表示,他受到了公司恢复北海业务的种种行动的鼓舞。雪佛龙正在继续开发一个名叫阿尔德(Alder)的新油田。据他介绍,庞大的罗斯班克项目仍可能推进。“We have been here for 50 years,he said. “We want to stay.”“在这里50年了,”他说。“我们想留下来。”来 /201506/378911Greece’s premier accused European leaders of attempting to “blackmailGreek voters, just hours after apparently holding out an olive branch to the country’s creditors by accepting most of the terms of the economic reform plan they had tabled last weekend.希腊总理指责欧洲领导人试图“要挟”希腊选民,而在那几小时前,这位希腊领导人貌似向该国的债权人伸出了橄榄枝,接受了后者在上周末拿出的经济改革计划的大部分条款。Eurozone officials said they were baffled by the mixed messages from Athens, which this week missed a 1.5bn payment to the International Monetary Fund and was forced to impose capital controls to avert a financial meltdown.欧元区官员们表示,他们对雅典方面发出的混杂信息感到困惑。本周希腊未能如期向国际货币基金组织(IMF)偿还15亿欧元,还被迫实行资本管制以避免金融瘫痪。In a televised address, Alexis Tsipras urged his countrymen to vote No in a referendum on whether they should accept tough terms for bailout aid, and accused EU leaders of threatening to drive Greece out of the euro. He called EU leaders “extremist conservative forceswho had forced the shutdown of Greece’s banks “because the government decided to give people a say亚历克西#8226;齐普拉斯(Alexis Tsipras,见上图)发表电视讲话,敦促国民在针对应不应该接受严苛条件以换取纾困援助的全民公投中投出反对票,并指责欧盟领导人威胁要把希腊赶出欧元区。他把欧盟领导人称为“极端保守势力”,正是他们迫使希腊的关门,“就因为政府决定让人民有一个表态机会”。“The sirens of destruction are blackmailing you to say Yes to everything without any prospect of exiting the crisis,Mr Tsipras said.“诱人走向毁灭的海妖们在要挟你们,要你们在毫无希望摆脱危机的情况下接受一切,”齐普拉斯表示。The prime minister’s hardline speech, which some eurozone officials saw as a declaration of impending Grexit, came despite a major climbdown just hours earlier. In a letter sent to Greece’s creditors he accepted most of the terms of the earlier bailout.希腊总理措辞强硬的讲话被某些欧元区官员视为该国即将退出欧元区的宣告,而就在几小时前,齐普拉斯曾摆出明显退让的姿态。他致函希腊的债权人,接受了早前纾困方案的大部分条款。But the letter was given short shrift by eurozone officials. They said that the remaining concessions that Mr Tsipras was seeking were “not a handful of minor changes and the letter could not form the basis of the new 29.1bn bailout programme Athens now seeks.但这封信遭到欧元区官员的冷落。他们说,齐普拉斯所寻求的其余让步“并不是少量小改动”,这封信也不能构成雅典方面现在寻求91亿欧元新纾困计划的基础。The divergent views from Athens come just as policy makers at the European Central Bank gathered to consider whether to raise the heat on Greece and its banks by restricting their access to emergency loans.雅典方面发表矛盾言论之际,欧洲央行(ECB)的政策制定者正开会讨论要不要对希腊及该国加大压力,限制它们获取紧急贷款的能力。Because Greece’s bailout has expired, Athens must now negotiate a new programme with its creditors, which officials said made Mr Tsiprasnew concessions part of a process that may now take weeks. “This is certainly a more complicated situation to resolve than it would have been if we had reached agreement on the previous programme,said Valdis Dombrovskis, the European Commission vice-president in charge of eurozone issues.由于希腊原有的纾困计划已经期满,雅典方面现在必须与债权人谈判达成一个新纾困计划。官员们表示,这使齐普拉斯提出的新让步构成一个可能持续数周的过程的一部分。“相比我们就原计划达成协议,这肯定是一个更加复杂的情形,不容易解决,”欧盟委员会(European Commission)负责欧元区政策的副主席瓦尔蒂#8226;东布罗夫斯基Valdis Dombrovskis)表示。After a teleconference of eurozone finance ministers to discuss Mr Tsiprasnew proposals, Jeroen Dijsselbloem, the eurogroup chair, said creditors would cut off talks at all levels until after the referendum.欧元区各国财长召开电话会议讨论齐普拉斯的新提议之后,欧元集团主席杰#8226;迪塞尔布洛姆(Jeroen Dijsselbloem)表示,债权人将中断各级谈判,等到公投之后再说。Even if Mr Tsipras makes further concessions, his advocacy for a No vote and the belittling of Greece’s creditors has caused significant bad blood that many believe cannot now be overcome.即使齐普拉斯做出进一步的让步,但他呼吁希腊选民在公投中投出反对票,还对希腊的债权人出言不逊,这些举动都引发了严重反感,很多人相信,这种反感现在无法消除。Despite the confusion, markets were relatively upbeat. The FTSE Eurofirst 300 was up 1.6 per cent after falling 4.1 per cent over the previous two days, and Germany’s Dax jumped 2.2 per cent.尽管形势混乱,但市场相对乐观。富时Eurofirst 300(FTSE Eurofirst 300)在前两日下跌4.1%之后,昨日上.6%,德国DAX指数跃升2.2%。来 /201507/383930

SEOUL, South Korea The South Korean government’s failure to share information quickly with the public and establish an efficient disease-control system contributed to worsening the outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome in the country, a joint panel of experts from the World Health Organization and South Korea said Saturday.韩国首尔——世界卫生组World Health Organization)与韩国联合成立的一个专家组周六表示,韩国政府未能迅速向公众共享信息,未能建立起高效的疾病控制体系,这加剧了中东呼吸综合征(Middle East Respiratory Syndrome,简称MERS)疫情在该国的爆发。The experts have spent the past week visiting hospitals and meeting with health authorities to assess the outbreak, which has killed 14 people, and make recommendations.上述专家过去一周走访医院并与卫生主管部门会面,从而对疫情进行评估,并作出建议。疫情已在韩国导4人死亡。“One of the things South Korea failed to do was a transparent and rapid distribution of information, which is the most important thing to do,said Lee Jong-koo, the leader of the South Korean side of the joint mission, at a news conference Saturday.“韩国未能做到的事项中,包括未能迅速、透明地传播信息,这应该是重中之重,”联合专家组韩方负责官员李钟Lee Jong-koo)周六在新闻发布会上表示。A “failure to establish proper governancein controlling the outbreak in its early stages also contributed to “confusionamong the public, Mr. Lee said.在疫情出现的初期,“未能建立妥善的管理手段”控制蔓延,也在公众当中造成了“混乱”,李钟求说。The disease, known as MERS, is known to have infected 145 people in South Korea since the first patient was identified on May 20. The outbreak is the largest to date outside the Middle East, where the virus first emerged in 2012 in Saudi Arabia and has killed more than 400 people.自首位患0日确诊以来,韩国已知的MERS感染者已45人。此次疫情爆发是有史以来,中东地区以外规模最大的一次。这种病毒最初是2012年在沙特阿拉伯出现的,当时的疫情造成超过400人死亡。One of the tasks of the joint mission was to determine why so many people were infected in South Korea in a relatively short period of time. On Saturday, Keiji Fukuda, chief World Health Organization official on the panel, pointed to several factors: South Korean doctorsunfamiliarity with MERS; the country’s “overcrowdedemergency rooms; the practice of “doctor shoppingfor care at many different clinics; and the fact that hospital rooms here tend to be bustling with visitors. Nearly all of the country’s confirmed MERS patients were infected while seeking care or while visiting patients at hospitals. Hospital staff members were also infected.联合专家组的一项任务是,研究在相对短暂的时间里,韩国为什么有这么多人感染。联合小组中世卫组织方面的负责官员福田敬Keiji Fukuda)在周六指出了若干项因素:韩国医生不熟悉MERS;该国医疗机构的急诊室“过于拥挤”;在不同的诊所之间“挑拣医生”寻求医护的做法;以及韩国医院的病房里,经常有人头攒动的来访者。该国几乎所有的MERS确诊病例,都是在求医时或在医院探望病人时感染的。医院的医护人员也受到了感染。Mr. Fukuda said the panel had found no evidence to indicate that MERS was sping in the broader population. “However, continued monitoring for this possibility is critical throughout the entire outbreak,he said. “Now, because the outbreak has been large and is complex, more cases should be anticipated.”福田敬二表示,专家组没有找到显示MERS向范围更广的公众传播的据。“然而,在疫情持续的整个时间段,持续监控这种可能性是很关键的,”他说。“因为疫情规模大、情况复杂,现在应当预期会有更多病例出现。”Both Mr. Fukuda and Mr. Lee said that the rate of new infections was decreasing, as South Korean officials have improved their communications with the public and carried out stronger infection-control measures. Twelve new MERS cases were reported Saturday, and seven more on Sunday.福田敬二和李钟求表示,随着韩国官员改善了与公众的沟通,并采取了更有力的措施防控感染,新病例的感染率出现了下降。周六报告了12个新增MERS感染病例,周日报告了7例。The government has come under heavy criticism for withholding critical information early in the outbreak, like the names and locations of hospitals where infections had occurred. It eventually released the hospitalsnames, weeks after the first case was discovered. The outbreak has been a blow to President Park Geun-hye, whose approval rating has fallen in recent weeks.由于在疫情出现早期没有公布关键信息,如感染者姓名和发生感染的医院的位置,政府受到了严厉的批评。在发现第一个病例的数周后,政府终于公布了医院的名称。疫情的爆发对韩国总统朴槿Park Geun-hye)产生了冲击,她的持率在最近几周出现下降。Mr. Fukuda, who said transparency during an outbreak was “the basis of trust,urged South Korea to continue to enforce a strong quarantine and monitoring system. He also recommended that the country invest more in its public health system, particularly by hiring more epidemiologists and expanding its laboratoriescapacities.福田敬二表示,疫情爆发期间,透明度是“信任的基础”。他敦促韩国政府,要继续推行有力的隔离和监控措施。他还建议,韩国应该对公共卫生系统给予更大投入,尤其是聘请更多流行病学家,拓展实验室的能力。来 /201506/380869

George Osborne is Britain’s biggest political risk-taker; indeed, on a five-day tour of China the chancellor’s relish for the grand gesture suggests the mindset of the thrill seeker, constantly looking for an even bigger challenge.乔治攠斯George Osborne)是英国政界最敢于冒险的人。这位财政大臣在为期五天的访华之旅中饶有兴致地摆出大度的姿态,实际表明了他寻求刺激的心态,他在不断寻找更大的挑战。Mr Osborne calls his approach “bold at home, bold abroadand his China trip is the clearest sign yet that he intends to deploy his radical approach to domestic policymaking on a much wider stage. A trade mission to Iran is next on his agenda.奥斯本称自己的作风“在国内大胆,在国外也大胆”,而他的中国之行是最明显的信号,表明他打算将自己的激进作风应用到更广泛的国内政策制定上。他的下一行程是携贸易代表团前往伊朗。The China tour, covering four cities and thousands of miles, saw Mr Osborne accompanied by a sizeable retinue of British officials, business and civic leaders, and the kind of security normally associated with a visiting head of state.奥斯本此次中国之行共访问了四座城市,行程数千英里。他的随行代表团规模相当庞大,包括英国官员,商界和民间领袖,以及规格堪比国家元首出访的安保团队。“I’m the prime minister’s envoy,he tells the Financial Times during a trip on a high-speed train through the arid wastes of Xinjiang in north-west China. The 17-car convoy awaiting his arrival is on the scale of a prime ministerial visit.奥斯本在乘坐高铁前往新疆的途中对英囀?金融时报》表示:“我是英国首相的特使。”新疆位于中国西北地区,列车要穿过干旱的沙漠地区。由17辆汽车组成的车队等候着他的到来,迎接规模达到首相访问级别。Mr Osborne, a Sinophile who backpacked around China after graduating from Oxford 20 years ago, designed the itinerary himself in the knowledge that it would generate criticism in the west and approbation in Beijing.亲华派奥斯本从牛津大Oxford)毕业20年后,才开始了他的中国“背包”游。这一行程由他亲自安排,他很清楚此行会受到西方的批评,但会获得北京方面的赞许。“I just want to do something different with these China trips,he says. “I want to take a bit of a risk with the China relationship, pushing it so it really brings jobs and growth to our country.”奥斯本说:“我只是希望此次访华之旅能做些不一样的事。我希望在对华关系上冒一点险,推动英中关系发展,从而真正为我们国家带来就业机会和经济增长。”Mr Osborne’s visit to the Shanghai stock exchange was a gesture of economic solidarity, a defiant insistence that Britain should “run towards Chinawhen others were suggesting it might be better to head to the exit.奥斯本参观上海券交易所展现出了要在经济方面与中国紧密团结的姿态,当其他人都认为最好逃离中国之时,奥斯本用这一挑衅式表态强调英国应该“奔向中国”。His five-hour mission to Urumqi in the restive region of Xinjiang a highly unusual visit by a western politician was criticised by human rights groups concerned about Beijing’s curbs on the Muslim Uighur minority.乌鲁木齐位于不安定的新疆地区,奥斯本对这座城市进行了5个小时的访问,这在西方政客中是极不寻常的。一些关注中国政府压制维吾尔少数民族穆斯林的人权团体对奥斯本此行提出批评。Mr Osborne expected the reaction but his visit was appreciated in Beijing; only by conducting a walkabout in downtown Lhasa could Mr Osborne have raised the diplomatic stakes higher.奥斯本对这种反应已有意料,但此行受到了北京方面的赞赏。除非奥斯本在拉萨市区漫步,才会导致更大的外交风险。“Ultimately those who say don’t come to places like this don’t have an argument,he says of his stay in Urumqi. “They are saying you can best advance the interests of people living here by not turning up. I think that doesn’t wash.”奥斯本谈到乌鲁木齐之行时表示:“从根本上来说,那些说不要来这种地方的人毫无理由。他们说我不现身此地才能提高生活在这里的人民的利益,我认为这一说法无法令人接受。”Mr Osborne says he raised human rights issues as part of a wider “grown upconversation with his hosts. He says there is a false choice in public debate between “standing up to China and kowtowing to China奥斯本表示,他在与中方进行更广泛的“成熟”对话中提到了人权问题。他说有关“对抗中国还是屈从于中国”的公开辩论其实并不存在非此即彼的选择。China Daily, the state-run newspaper, purred in agreement that Sino-British relations presented “a desirable and harmonious pictureat the end of the chancellor’s visit, in contrast with the “downturnin 2012 after David Cameron met the Dalai Lama.中国官方报纸《中国日报China Daily)满意地赞同道,与2012年戴维愠蕓伦(David Cameron)会见达赖喇嘛(Dalai Lama)后英中关系的“低迷”状态相比,奥斯本此次访问结束之际,中英关系呈现出“理想而和谐的景象”。But are the commercial gains worth the political risk? After all, the chancellor’s diplomacy will not look so good in the event of an ethnic bloodbath in Xinjiang or another stock market crash. Mr Osborne admits British exporters have not been a great beneficiary so far in China’s economic growth but he believes that is changing.然而,为了获取商业利益是否值得冒政治风险?毕竟,如果新疆发生种族屠杀,或者中国股市再度崩盘,财相的外交手段看起来就不那么高明了。奥斯本承认,英国出口商迄今并非中国经济增长的重要受益者,但他相信这种情况正在改变。“In the early stage of China’s development, frankly our economy didn’t have a huge amount to offer,he says. But he argues that as China moves from an economy based on investment to one based on consumption, the country would want “to make use of services more: British high-end manufacturing, banking, pharmaceuticals, cultural products all come into play“在中国发展的早期,坦白说我们的经济并没有很多可以提供的东西,”奥斯本说。但他认为,随着中国从依靠投资的经济转为依靠消费的经济,中国将希望“利用更多务:英国的高端制造业、业、药物和文化产品都会开始发挥作用”。He says the City of London could be the biggest beneficiary as China’s capital markets go global but it is a slow process. Mr Osborne says China is slowly opening its economy but has no qualms about the lopsided nature of the relationship. He says Britain’s “access all areasoffer to China is good in its own right. “There’s a powerful free trade doctrine,he says. “We had that idea in the 19th century and it’s served us well ever since.”奥斯本称,伦敦金融City of London)可能是中国资本市场走向世界的最大受益者,但这是一个缓慢的过程。他表示,中国正缓慢开放经济,但他对于两国关系的不平衡并无顾虑。他说,英国向中国提供“所有领域的准入”本身是不错的。“其中包含强大的自由贸易信条,”他说,“我们在19世纪萌生了这种思想,此后这一直让我们受益匪浅。”As the train speeds from Urumqi to Turpan on the old silk road, the chancellor admits he has an appetite for risk he cites his decision to bring a party of Labour leaders from northern cities with him from London but he says he is guided by the national interest.沿着古老的丝绸之路,火车从乌鲁木齐高速驶向吐鲁番,奥斯本承认,他有一种对冒险的渴望——比如说他决定带领英国北方城市的一些工党领袖一起从伦敦来华就是一个例子——但他表示,他是在国家利益的指引下这么做的。At home, policies such as revolutionising the pensions sector, slashing the welfare state or introducing a 9 national living wage speak to his love of the bold move. He says he is confident those policies will work out, but he cannot be sure. Could the minimum wage end up as a millstone around the neck of the economy; will handing over pension pots to individuals leave the state to pick up the pieces if they squander the money, or result in a mis-selling scandal? With Labour’s opposition in turmoil, is hubris only a step away?在英国国内,养老金改革、削减福利国家角色,或者引英镑的国家生活工资标准等政策,都表明他喜欢采取大胆举措。奥斯本说,他有信心这些政策将会奏效,但他不能确定。最低工资最后是否可能成为经济的负累?如果个人挥霍了移交给他们的养老金,国家是否要收拾残局,或者是否可能导致不当销售的丑闻?在一片混乱局势中不顾工党的反对,这离狂妄自大是否只有一步之差?Mr Osborne says: “I think in this job you have a responsibility to shift the dial a bit and take the big decisions the country needs for its future. Ultimately I’m paid to make decisions with the prime minister on the country’s future.”奥斯本表示:“我认为,身在这个岗位上,你有责任推动一些进步,做出国家未来所需要的重大决策。归根结底,我拿这份报酬是要和首相一起,为这个国家的未来做出决策。”He argues that not making decisions is more dangerous: for example not pushing ahead with the HS2 train line or striking out into riskier export markets. “I don’t want us to slowly decline into the sunset,he says, arguing that plenty of countries were following that route.他认为,不做决策更为危险;比如,不推进英国HS2高铁项目,或者不去开辟风险更高的出口市场。“我不希望我们慢慢衰退,走向没落,”奥斯本说,他表示有许多国家正走上这条路。“I’d agree with the broader point that if you take big bold decisions they won’t always be popular,he says. “In that sense it’s a risk. But sometimes the absence of decision and the consequences can be much worse.”“我认同一个更广泛的观点,也就是如果你做出大胆的决策,它们并不会总是受到欢迎,”他说,“就此而言,这是一种风险,但有时,没有决策,后果可能糟糕得多。”One minister said before the trip that Mr Osborne’s China mission was “all about George becoming prime minister but we can’t say that Even Mr Cameron’s team seemed surprised at the scale of the visit. “Five days?said one ally.一位大臣在这次出访前表示,奥斯本的中国之行“一切都在于乔治要成为首相,但我们不能说出来”。即使是卡梅伦的团队,似乎也对此次出行的规模感到吃惊。“五天?”一名助手说。But Mr Osborne shrugs off suggestions he is auditioning for the top job. “I’m very focused on my job which is to deliver economic success for Britain,he says. “Being here is about doing that. I do that in partnership with the leadership of DC without whom none of this would be possible.”但奥斯本对于他在“试演”最高职位的说法不以为然。“我非常专注于我的工作,那就是实现英国经济的成功,”他说,“身处这里是为了做那件事情。我是在戴维愠蕓伦的领导以及与他的合作下做这些事情的,没有他这些都不可能。”来 /201509/401116

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