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时间:2020年01月27日 20:05:34

13,000 years ago, the ice age cheetah was the pronghorns greatest enemy.在13,000年前的冰河时代,猎豹是叉角羚的天敌。And pronghorn would have needed all their amazing speed.叉角羚以其令人惊叹的速度著称。The American cheetah was larger than its African cousin. But it had the same Achilles heel.美洲豹比非洲豹的体型要大。但他们的致命弱点相同。A cheetahs high-performance muscles overheat in minutes, and unlike pronghorn, they cant switch to cruising speed.猎豹高性能的肌肉会在几分钟内变热,和叉角羚不同的是,猎豹不能长时间保持这一速度。So if the pronghorn managed to outrun the cheetah for the crucial first few hundred meters, it would probably survive.所以如果叉角羚能在开始关键的几百米内跑过猎豹,那便有可能幸存。The cheetah hasnt roamed the plains of North America for thousands of years, but pronghorn are still prime for the chase.几千年来,猎豹一直没有在北美平原游荡,而叉角羚在这场角逐中依然占据优势。Other extinct links to Africa had been found in caves steep in the Ozark Mountains of Missouri.其他的一些与非洲相关联的线索十分稀缺,但被发现于密苏里州欧扎克山脉的悬崖峭壁中。Preserved in mud were huge prints recreated here, more than 18 centimetres wide. What could have made them?这里的淤泥中保存下来一些脚印,有18多厘米宽。这是什么动物的脚印?They belonged to another ice age cat, the top cat of the plains, a lion.他们是另一种冰河时代的猫科动物,也是美洲平原猫科动物的王者——狮子。 英文文本来自普特英语,译文属.201305/240224

This is Burger Dale,one of the main rest camps in the Kruger national park.这是伯格·戴尔, 克鲁格国家公园的一处主要休息营地。As a sort of safe heaven for humans if you will.如果你愿意的话,它是人类一处安全天堂。But Im going to take things a little bit further,但是我要做的是再深入点,Im heading out into the bush on something called the Volatile Trail.我要进入被称为沃尔达烈的灌木丛。Its a little known wilderness experience,这是一次不为人知的荒野经验,and Im going to be living,walking and sleeping in an area that human rarely venture.而我要在一个人类几乎不曾冒险过的区域生活,散步及睡觉。But Im not just going to rely on my big nose to keep me out of trouble.但我不仅仅要依靠自己的大鼻子摆脱困境。We now have an expert ranging about my sound all times.我们现在会有一位专家来指点迷津。Otherwise,Ill be a fool.否则,我就是个傻瓜。For those of us more used to countering sheep or rabit,the prospect of this walk certainly causes some anxiety.对于那些我们过去更多是用来打猎羊或兔子的工具而言,这次旅程肯定会派不上用场。Im stepping into one of the worlds great wildernesses,full of danger,legend,and heroic tales of the African bush.我要走进一个世界上最伟大的荒野,充满危险,传说,英雄故事的非洲丛林。201306/245843

Neuroscientists opinions about the brains of birds have changed.神经系统科学家关于鸟类大脑的传统观念发生了转变。In humans and other mammals,the roof of the forebrain has evolved into the cerebral cortex, a structure responsible for flexiblelearning and reasoning.人类和其他哺乳动物的前脑顶层已经进化为大脑皮层,这一结构主管弹性学习和推理能力。Early neuroanatomists thought that the forebrain roof was small and simple in birds, with itsforebrain instead being dominated by structures in its base, called the basal ganglia.早期的神经系统科学家认为鸟类的前脑顶层在大脑中面积小,构造简单,且并非由大脑基底部名为基底神经节的结构组成。Without anelaborate forebrain roof, it seemed that birds couldnt be very smart.因此,鸟类并不拥有复杂精妙的前脑顶层,这似乎决定了鸟类智商有限。Recent research shows that birds are a lot smarter than scientists once thought.最近的研究表明鸟类要比科学家想象的聪明得多。To give just afew examples, the New Caledonian crow can manufacture and use tools.例如,新喀里多尼亚乌鸦会制作和使用工具。The African grey parrotcan learn to classify objects into categories, and the Florida scrub jay stores food in dozens ofcaches and can remember their locations for future use.非洲灰鹦鹉能学会对东西进行分类,佛罗里达灌丛鸦会将食物存储在不同的地方,并且能记住位置,以备将来之需。It turns out that neuroanatomists had it all wrong about bird forebrains.结果是神经解剖学家 对鸟类前脑的研究完全错误。During more than 300 million years of separate evolution, the forebrain roofs of birds and of mammals each grew largerand more elaborate, but in different ways.在3亿多年各自的进化过程中,鸟类和哺乳动物的前脑顶层分别以不同的方式变大变精。The roof of a birds forebrain is so different from thecerebral cortex of a mammal that the neuroanatomists had confused most of it with enlargedbasal ganglia.鸟类的大脑顶层与哺乳动物的大脑皮层差别如此之大以至于神经解剖学家 将其与增大的基底神经节基本都弄混了。201408/322222

Some of this ice age dung was found beneath the skull in the Aucilla. The dung contained plant remains that tell us what the mastodon was browsing on 13,000 years ago or more—a mixture of trees and grasses.在奥西拉市发现的头骨下面发现了一些从冰河时代遗留下来的粪便。粪便中包含着植物化石,这告诉我们,在13000多年前,乳齿象的食物便是树木和草的混合物。This suggests that ice age Florida was drier than it is today—a mix of woodlands and savanna rather than swamps. And mastodon teeth found in the Aucilla held a more important revelation. The enamel contains chemical signatures of a local soil, passed by the plants the mastodons ate. But some of the chemicals found in the Aucilla teeth could only have come from soil hundreds of miles further north. The inescapable conclusion is that these mastodons migrated, making a round trip of more than 400 miles every year. And since their dung also contains remains of summer fruits from the Aucilla region, they must have travelled north for the winter. 这能够告诉我们,冰河时代的佛罗里达比现在更加干燥,到处都是树林和草原而不是沼泽。在奥西拉发现的乳齿象的牙齿透漏出了更多的重要信息。通过他们所吃的食物,牙齿上的釉质带有一些当地土壤的化学成分。但是,一些牙齿上的化学成分都来于北方几百英里外的土壤。我们很轻易地得出一个结论:这些乳齿象每年都进行400多英里的往返迁移。由于这些粪便中含有来自奥西拉地区的夏季水果化石,因此他们一定是在冬天向北方迁徙。The question is, why? Why leave a place which as we have seen was abundant with food and a refuge from the cold? And why go north for the winter when most migrants move south? Perhaps the present climate can provide a clue. 问题是,这是为什么呢?为什么离开一个在我们看来食物充足并能抵御严寒的地方?为什么当大部分的动物向南部迁徙过冬时他们却向北部迁徙?也许现在的气候可以为我们提供一些线索。Florida has a peculiar seasonal quirk. Although the winter months are cooler, they are also drier, much drier. Between October and February, theres almost no rainfall at all.佛罗里达的气候十分特殊。尽管冬季的月份更加寒冷,但是同样也更加干燥,尤为干燥。在十月和二月之间,佛罗里达基本上没有降雨。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201309/255223

Australia and Japan澳大利亚和日本Scrum-halves逐利先锋Closer security ties with Japan unsettle some Australians一些澳大利亚人对澳日更紧密的国防关系感到不安THE prime minister of Japan, Shinzo Abe, flew to the Australian outbacks red desert on July 9th to inspect the commodity that once defined his countrys relations with Australia: iron ore. He left behind policy wonks in Canberra, the capital, digesting his blunt call a day earlier for a “truly new base” for the relationship between the two countries. After acknowledging the second world war, in which Australia and Japan were mortal enemies, Mr Abe told Parliament that Australia and Japan must now “join up in a scrum, just like in rugby” to nurture regional peace. Many Australians his remarks as recruiting Australia as an ally in Japans disputes with China, creating a growing dilemma for some in the host country.七月九日,日本总理安倍晋三飞往澳大利亚境内的红沙漠视察当地的铁矿,该商品曾一度奠定了日澳两国关系。在首都堪培拉,安倍 摒弃其政治专攻的形象,一天前,安倍坦言需为两国关系着想,寻求“可靠的合作新基础”。澳日两国在二战中为宿敌,在日本承认其在二战中的罪行后,安倍授意议会澳日两国的当务之急是“像橄榄球的队友一样,在乱局中联起手来”,并以此维护区域和平。大部分澳大利亚人将安倍的言辞视为日本是在中日争端中为本国招募盟友,为了自身利益,却使澳在进退维谷的漩涡中越陷越深。Mr Abe had arrived from New Zealand, where John Key, the prime minister, opposed any attempt by Japan to resume whaling in the Antarctic Ocean following the International Court of Justices ruling against Japans “scientific” whale hunts in April. In Canberra, however, Mr Abes sights were fixed more on the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Mr Abes speech made no mention of China, yet it was all about that country, its growing military posturing and its challenges to neighbours maritime claims. Mr Abe called on Australia to join Japan in keeping the Asia-Pacific regions “vast seas” and its skies “open and free”.在此之前,安倍还到访了新西兰,其总理约翰凯伊拒绝日本任何关于在南冰洋恢复捕鲸的企划,因为四月份日本提出的的“科学”捕鲸计划违反了国际法庭在此方面的管制。然而,在堪培拉,安倍把目光锁定在了太平洋和印度洋。安倍虽未曾提及中国,然则其所有举动皆与中国有关,比如说其上升的军事态势,或是其对于中国领海主权的挑衅。安倍呼吁澳大利亚与日本结盟,保卫亚太地区“广袤的海洋”,并最大程度实现“开放与自由”。As the first Japanese prime minister to address Parliament, Kishis grandson “humbly” offered his “most sincere condolences” to those who lost their lives. Mr Abes reference to the “evils and horrors of history” was the most expansive such acknowledgment by a Japanese leader on Australian soil. The speech was intended to sound frank and open-minded—though not for the first time in the history of Japanese apologetics, it amounted neither to full-blown acceptance of Japanese war guilt nor a clear apology.Mr Abe played on historical resonance in a visit that could go down as a key moment in the two countries relations. In 1957 Mr Abes grandfather, Nobusuke Kishi, became Japans first post-war prime minister to visit Australia, signing a commerce treaty. Yet Japans attacks in 1942 on northern Australia and Sydney, and the brutal treatment of Australian prisoners-of-war in New Guinea, Borneo and elsewhere, overshadowed relations for decades.作为第一位在澳议会发表演讲的日本首相,岸信介的孙辈,安倍晋三“低声下气”的向在二战中死去的人们致以“最诚挚的哀悼”。在日总理访澳的历史上,安倍在演讲中提及“历史的不幸和惨剧”已算是最为干脆的认罪了。安倍本想让演讲听起来又坦率又开放——尽管安倍不是历史上首个道歉的首相,但其演讲中既没有充斥着日本对自身战争罪行的认识,也没有包含明确的致歉。此次访问是决定两国关系是否下滑的关键时刻,安倍走上了其前辈的老路。1957年,安倍晋三的外祖父,成为日本首任战后首相的岸信介到访澳大利亚,签署了一份通商条约。而就在1942年,日本袭击了澳大利亚北部以及悉尼,残暴对待新几内亚,婆罗洲还有其他地区的澳大利亚战俘,以至于阴影笼罩在两国关系之上,数十年不散。But Tony Abbott, Australias prime minister, was not going to let that get in the way. He approved heartily when Mr Abe pronounced that the two countries had cast off “one old layer” to form a new “special relationship”. The two leaders signed a free-trade agreement, and another pact to share defence equipment and technology. Australia needs to replace ageing submarines, and Japan has world-beating engine technology.但澳大利亚总理托尼阿伯特打算驱散阴影。他衷心的赞同安倍所宣称的两国已不计前嫌,建立新的“特别关系”。两国领导签署饿了自由贸易协定,另有一份分享国防设备和国防技术的合约。澳大利亚需要更新过时的潜艇,而日本有着一流的机械技术。More closely than anyone, China is watching this cosying up between two of Americas key Pacific allies, and it does not approve. That unsettles a number of Australians who worry about the growing dilemma of relying on China for prosperity and the ed States for security. Ever since China displaced Japan as Australias biggest trading partner seven years ago, debate in Australia has focused on how the country should balance its relations with China, America and Japan. Mr Abbott unsettled some last October when he (accurately) called Japan Australias “best friend in Asia”. He supports Japans decision earlier this month to ditch a ban on coming to the military aid of allies if Japan itself is also under threat. Mr Abbott welcomes Japans becoming a “more capable strategic partner in our region”.中国比任何国家都要紧密的关注着这两个美国重要的太平洋盟友感情日益升温,且并不赞同。在依赖中国以实现经济繁荣的同时依赖美国以实现国家安全,两者间产生的越来越大的矛盾另许多澳大利亚人心神不定。自七年前中国取代日本成为澳洲最大的贸易合作伙伴以来,澳洲人民便就该如何平衡中美日三国关系而争论不休。去年十月,阿伯特明确称日本是澳洲“在亚洲最好的朋友”,该言辞令小部分人感到不安。月初,他持日本受到威胁时恢复来源于盟友的军事补给路线。阿伯特欢迎日本成为澳洲“在亚太地区更有能力的战略伙伴”。Mr Abbott claims that “ours is not a partnership against anyone”. But that is precisely where doubts remain in the wake of the Abe visit. Chinas bullying of neighbours over maritime claims is behind much anxiety in Asia, and a chief reason why Japan wants to bolster its own security and recruit friends. Yet Japans poor relations with neighbours, mainly over wartime history, allows China to tout the myth that Japanese militarism is on the prowl once more. Australians care more than most when China chooses to be angry.阿伯特宣称“日澳关系不针对于任何国家”。但确切来说,在安倍到访后该言论值得斟酌。中国在海防上的压制令周边国家感到焦虑,这也是日本想要加强国防,拉拢邻国的原因。但是日本因战事导致的与邻国的恶劣关系,中国可以兜老底,称日本军国主义依然遗留。澳洲也十分担心激怒中国。In the nearly six decades since Mr Kishis visit, Australias relations with Japan have spun peaceably around strong trade ties and a mutual alliance with America. Chinas rise has complicated that. Hugh White at the Australian National University argues that Australia has never had to face a country in its region that is positioning itself as a strategic rival to both Japan and America. For Australia to assume that its interests can be comfortably yoked to Japans, he says, would be a “very big risk”. The problem is, to yoke Australias interests with Chinas would be an even bigger one.自六十年前岸信介访澳,澳日关系依赖着大规模的贸易联系以及与美国同盟维系起来。中国的崛起令这段关系复杂化。澳国立大学的休怀特表示:在亚太地区,澳大利亚从未面临这样一个把自己摆在日美两国战略敌对关系的国家。可以想象,澳大利亚与日本互为利益伙伴,但结成伙伴确需“冒险”。而问题在于,澳中利益将更加难以衔接。 /201408/317648


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