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2020年01月25日 22:21:34来源:放心门户

  • For computer scientists, creation of neuromorphic systems — those inspired by and modeled after the way neurons in the human brain are structured — has been a longstanding goal.对计算机科学家而言,建立仿神经形态体系一直是一个长期目标,该想法源于且模仿人类大脑中神经元的构成方式。Now, in a significant step toward the development of neuromorphic technologies, a group of researchers IBM#39;s research laboratory in Zurich have announced that they have built a working, artificial version of a neuron.如今,作为关于神经形态技术的发展尤的重要一步,位于苏黎世的IBM实验室中,一组研究人员宣布他们已经发明了一个正在运行的人造神经元。The invention, described in a paper published in the journal Nature Nanotechnology, consists of a small square of germanium antimony telluride held between two electrodes. Germanium antimony telluride, a common ingredient in optical disks, is what is known as phase-change material. This means it can change its phase from an amorphous insulator to a crystalline conductor when hit with a strong enough electric pulse — thus acting like both, a resister and capacitor, and mimicking, to a certain extent, the behavior of biological neurons#39; lipid bilayer membrane.此项发明在《自然纳米技术》杂志上发表,此发明由两个电极之间一小块锗锑碲构成。锗锑碲是制作光盘的常见材料,也就是所谓的相变材料。这就意味着当遇到足够强大的电子脉冲时,其能够从无定形态绝缘体转变为晶体态导体,因此它的工作原理既像是电阻器又像是电容器,从某种程度上来说,它模仿了生物神经脂质双分子层的特性。;In the published demonstration, the team applied a series of electrical pulses to the artificial neurons, which resulted in the progressive crystallization of the phase-change material, ultimately causing the neuron to fire. In neuroscience, this function is known as the integrate-and-fire property of biological neurons,; IBM said in a statement released last Wednesday. ;This is the foundation for event-based computation and, in principle, is similar to how our brain triggers a response when we touch something hot. ;IBM在上周三发表的一份声明中称:;在发布的演示中,该团队在人造神经元上施加了一系列电子脉冲,使相变材料不断结晶,最终导致神经元;点火;。在神经科学领域,这一功能被称为生物神经元的集成--点火属性,它是基于事件的计算基础。从原理上说,与人们接触某些热东西后大脑的反应一样。;This is not the only similarity between IBM#39;s neurons and their organic counterparts. The artificial structures also exhibit ;stochasticity,; or the ability to produce random, unpredictable results. Biological neurons are stochastic due to fluctuations within the cell — such as changes in ionic conductance and thermal background — while these artificial neurons are stochastic because the amorphous state of germanium antimony telluride always changes slightly after each reset.这不是IBM神经元与其有机变体的唯一相似性。人造结构也表现出了;随机特性;,或者能够产生随机的、不可预测的结果。由于细胞内部的波动,生物神经元是随机的,诸如离子导电的变化、热背底的变化,而人造神经元也表现出了随机特性,因为锗锑碲的无定形态在每次复位后都有轻微的变化。So why is this stochasticity — which makes the output of a system inherently unpredictable — desirable in an artificial neuron? As the researchers explain, stochasticity lets the neurons accomplish tasks that they would not be able to do if their output were perfectly predictable — something that may eventually lead to the creation of efficient ;cognitive computers; that mimic the parallel processing architecture of the human brain.那么为什么人造神经元具有随机特性,使得系统输出本身具有不可预测性?正如研究人员所解释的,随机性使得神经元能够完成一些任务,这些任务在输出完全可以预测的情况下是无法完成的,这可能最终会促使高效;认知计算机;的发明,用以模仿与人类大脑平行的处理架构。;Populations of stochastic phase-change neurons, combined with other nanoscale computational elements such as artificial synapses, could be a key enabler for the creation of a new generation of extremely dense neuromorphic computing systems,; co-author Tomas Tuma said in the statement.合著者托马斯·图马在声明中表示:;结合诸如人造神经突触等其他纳米计算元素,随机相变神经元群体成为发明新一代高密度神经形态计算体系的重要推动者。; /201608/460986。
  • Strengthen Your Boundaries: Love yourself enough to say no to others’ demands on your time and energy. Step back amp; reassess the situation. A note from me this week over at TwitterMonthly Feature: I Dare You to Do Something Different:I am encouraging you and myself, for the entire month of June to put your whole entire beautiful self first. It’s not about ignoring your family members and friends nor becoming totally self absorbed.It’s simply about making sure you are nurturing and rejuvenating yourself sufficiently on a physical, emotional and spiritual level. Be mindful you are not ignoring nor depleting your own energy reserves unwisely and unnecessarily.This months dare is a double dare and an opportunity to experience how absolutely amazing you would feel if you:* eat and drank well - you’d be nourished and hydrated* conscious of your breath - slowing down fast shallow breathing* quality rest - getting a balance between busy and calm, yin and yang* said no more often without feeling guilty - strong personal boundaries* released stress and worry often with regular simple rejuvenation tips* softened your thinking and refreshed your mind - back in your body* added more moments of joy and bliss - know what fills you up* restored your soul by listening to its soft guiding voice - meditate or journal* spent more time outside to revive your spirit and soul - get groundedGet Your Groove Back By Rejuvenating You - I Double Dare You:It’s all about energy in and and energy out:This month I encourage you to observe just how much time you spend on giving energy out compared to receiving energy in. The ultimate goal of course is to add more and more moments of receiving energy in; so you feel full, whole and complete rather than half empty, drained and depleted.A more balanced and equal exchange of energy in and out is what we are all aiming for to rejuvenate ourselves naturally.Emotional upset drains you in an instant:Personal rejuvenation is even more urgent if you have been exposed to a recent emotional upset. Emotional trauma is one of the quickest and easiest ways to deplete your energy reserves in an instant. It often comes without warning and turns your world upside down. The more intense or the longer the emotional upset continues the greater the focus needs to be on putting yourself first. It takes time and energy to re build your energy levels and internal strength again. Have patience and put yourself first more often.You only have two choices:1. Rejuvenate regularlyor2. Deplete yourself with physical, emotional and mental exhaustion and then wait for the illness to arriveStart Rejuvenating Now:Simply put yourself first for the month by focusing on one or more of the above suggestions I have listed (just under the photo).You may choose to put yourself first by frequently focusing on your breath. When your breathing is shallow and fast your thinking is hurried and fast. You talk fast, eat fast, drink fast, become anxious and work fast. It’s a classic symptom of stress.By observing your breathe and becoming conscious of slower, deeper breathes you are sending quality, life giving oxygen into your body and brain. You greatly calm your mind and actions along with releasing stress and tension with each long slow exhale. All this and much more happens when you simply choose to put yourself first and focus on your breath.For me personally I’m going to focus on strengthening my boundaries and releasing stress and worry more often. Sounds like a rejuvenation plan to me.Now, go forth and rejuvenate. 开阔眼界:别人对你时间以及精力上的要求要勇于说不。重新审视你所处的环境。这个星期我将向你提供一些建议。一周特色:我希望你能有所改变:我鼓励你以及我自己,在这整个七月能把优秀的自己放在第一位,而这并不意味着让你忽视你的家人以及朋友或完全沉浸于自我之中。而只是简单的让你在身体、情绪和精神层次上能充分的恢复青春恢复自我。要注意你并不是在忽视或是愚笨和没有必要的耗尽你的精力储量。这一个月的勇敢尝试效果将是加倍的,同时它也是一个让你感觉惊异的机会,只需要你:·吃好喝好-滋养你的生命·关注你的呼吸-放慢那些快而浅的呼吸·有质量的休息-从繁忙与平静、阴与阳中找到平衡·多说不而不会有犯罪感-明确自我与他人的边界·经常用简单而有规律的恢复青春的方法去释放压力和担忧·柔化你的思想,往你的意识中灌注新鲜血液-回归到身体·增加快乐和福佑的时刻-清楚什么使你快乐·通过聆听内心声音来恢复你的灵魂-沉思或是记录·多在室外来重新振作你的精神和灵魂-来搁浅自己通过恢复精力来使自己达到最佳状态-我加倍的激励你:所有的一切都只是能量的获取与释放:这个月我鼓励你去观察一下你花了多少时间在花费和存储能量。最终的目标是让你有更多的机会来储备;这样你才不会觉得空虚或被耗尽而是感觉充足完整。一个内外更加平衡和均等的能量交换正是我们所有人追寻的自然的返老还童的目标。感情上的不快能在霎那间击垮你自己:自我的恢复显得更加重要假如你近期陷入了感情的困境。感情上的创伤是最快也是最简单的在霎那间耗尽你能量的方法。它来时没有任何预兆但却能让你的世界从此一团糟。一旦那种创伤持续的越长越强烈,你所需要投入的关注也越重。恢复你现有的活力和内心的坚强需要时间和体力。因此要有耐心,把自己放在重要的位置。你只有两种选择:1.定期恢复精力又或2.身体、感情以及精神上的精疲力竭来耗尽你自己,随之而来的就是疾病的到来现在就开始恢复你的青春:简单的花一个月的时间来完成我的建议中的一条或一条以上(照片下面)。你也许会尝试用关注呼吸来恢复你的青春。当你发现你的呼吸浅而快,你的思想急促,你的说话进食工作也变得快速而且容易焦虑,这就是传统的压力所带来的症状。通过观察你的呼吸,并且意识到慢而深的呼吸的时候你就懂得了高质量的生活,这种生活向你的身体和大脑传输氧气。每一个缓慢的呼气都有助于你释放压力与紧张,这样你才能缓和你的思想和行动。只要你看重自己关注自己的呼吸,这些都能或至少大部分会实现。对我个人而言,明确自己与他人的界限,释放压力和担忧更为重要。听起来好像是一个为我自己量身打造的恢复计划。现在就开始返老还童吧。 /200808/46209。
  • HONG KONG — After a customer canceled a large order at the last minute, shares in Aixtron, a German high-tech company, sank fast. 香港——一个客户在最后时刻取消一笔大订单后,德国高科技公司爱思强(Aixtron)的股价迅速下滑。Months later, with the stock still reeling, a Chinese investor agreed to buy the company.数月后,在其股价依然萎靡不振之际,一个中国投资者同意买下公司。If only it were as simple as smart deal-making.如果此事真是这么简单,只是有人做出了明智的交易决策就好了。Financial filings and public statements indicate a web of relationships among the customer, the buyer and the Chinese state. 然而,根据提交给金融监管机构的文件及该公司公告显示,那名客户、买家与中国政府之间存在一个关系网。The links highlight the blurred lines between increasingly acquisitive Chinese companies and Beijing’s long-term industrial policy.这种关联,突显出胃口越来越大的中国企业和北京的长期产业政策之间颇为模糊的界限。The Aixtron case makes it very clear: It is not regular investment that is at work here, said Sebastian Heilmann, president of the Mercator Institute for China Studies, a think tank based in Berlin. 爱思强的例子非常清晰地表明:这并不是常规的投资,在位于柏林的智库墨卡托中国研究中心(Mercator Institute for China Studies) 担任主管的韩天(Sebastian Heilmann)说。Instead, we see governmental-program capital working behind the scenes.相反,我们看到受政府控制的资本在幕后发挥着作用。Chinese leaders have made clear their intention of using state funds to acquire technological capabilities overseas and bring them home, and a series of purchases in recent years have highlighted that strategy.中国领导人表明了利用国家基金获取并引入海外技术能力的意图。近年来的一系列收购也突显了这一策略。That has led to questions about how to treat bids that cross between private investment and state-orchestrated takeovers. It has also fed into broader suspicions about the fate of the takeover targets, and whether national champions will ultimately be absorbed into the supply chain in China.这引发了一个问题:如果要约既涉及私人投资,又涉及由政府策划的收购,该如何对待?它还引发了关于收购目标未来命运如何的疑问,以及这些全国性龙头企业最终是否会被纳入中国供应链。Aixtron — one of a growing number of European businesses with cutting-edge technologies that have recently been targeted by a surge in Chinese overseas investment — provides a case study.近年来,随着中国在海外掀起投资热潮,越来越多拥有尖端技术的欧洲企业成了它的目标。作为其中一员,爱思强提供了一个可资研究的案例。A university spinoff, it employs hundreds of highly skilled engineers and has a decades-long history of making the advanced tools needed to make semiconductors. 作为大学衍生企业,爱思强雇用了数百名技能高超的工程师,在生产制造半导体所需先进工具方面拥有数十年经验。Its systems can deposit layers of chemicals just atoms thick that grow the crystals needed to make chips and light-emitting diodes.它的系统可以让化学品进行原子层沉积,由此生成的晶体是生产芯片和发光二极管的必需品。It was facing a broad slowdown in demand in 2015 when San’an Optoelectronics, based in the eastern Chinese city of Xiamen, canceled a large order at the last minute.在2015年,中国东部城市厦门的三安光电公司在最后时刻撤销了一笔大订单,这让爱思强遭遇了需求全面下降的状况。The decision sent Aixtron’s share price crashing. 这个决定导致爱思强的股价大幅下挫。By May of this year, it had agreed to sell itself to a Chinese investment fund, Fujian Grand Chip.到了今年5月,它接受了中国投资基金福建宏芯的收购要约。Yet in a twist that shows the conflicting interests that can lurk behind Chinese deals, San’an has a number of connections to Fujian Grand Chip, including a common investor and an existing financial relationship.不过,三安光电和福建宏芯有许多关联,其中牵涉到一名共同投资人和一种既有的财务关系。这显示了牵涉中国的交易背后,常常隐藏着利益冲突。Fujian Grand Chip is 51 percent controlled by Liu Zhendong, a businessman the Mercator Institute said most likely had government connections but was otherwise hard to track. 商人刘振东持有福建宏芯51%的股份。墨卡托中心称其极可能和政府有瓜葛,但这一点难以追查。The rest is held by Xiamen Bohao, a local government investment fund that itself has links to San’an.受控于当地政府的投资基金厦门灏持有其余的股份,它本身和三安光电有关。A financial filing showed that at the end of 2014, San’an owed Bohao 300 million renminbi, now worth about million. 提交给金融监管部门的一份文件显示,2014年底,三安光电欠厦门灏3亿元人民币,约合现在的4500万美元。The following year, another filing showed Bohao owed San’an 240 million renminbi. 次年另一份文件显示,厦门灏欠三安光电2.4亿元人民币。While there is no explanation given for the fund flows, they appear to be related to financing provided to San’an by Bohao.尽管文件未对上述资金流动做出说明,但它们似乎和厦门灏为三安光电提供资金持有关。There are other links as well. 二者之间还存在其他一些关联。Another state-run investment firm based in Xiamen holds stakes in both companies. 厦门的另一家国有投资企业在这两家公司里都持有股份。And a broader national investment fund is providing a loan facility, through a subsidiary, for the takeover of Aixtron while holding a stake in San’an.此外,一家业务范围更广的全国性投资基金在三安光电持有股份,正通过自己的子公司为收购爱思强提供贷款融通。Just three days after the Aixtron bid was announced, a new company was registered at an address in Quanzhou along the Taiwan Strait. 爱思强接到收购要约的消息宣布仅3天后,一家新公司在台湾海峡沿岸城市泉州注册成功。San’an was an investor in the company, and the address was the same as that listed by Fujian Grand Chip in its Aixtron offer.三安光电是该公司的一个投资方,而公司注册地址,与福建宏芯在收购爱思强的要约文件中列名的地址相同。The connections do not necessarily indicate wrongdoing. 这些关联不一定意味着存在违规行为。Still, they raise questions about the independence of Chinese companies that have been on a global high-tech spending binge.不过,它们会让人怀疑,正在全球范围内掀起高科技投资狂潮的中国企业是否具有独立性。It is the goal of Chinese outbound industrial policy programs to replace foreign technology leaders in the medium term — not just in China but also in global export markets, Mr Heilmann said.中国外向型产业政策规划的中期目标,是取代国外的科技龙头企业——不只是在中国,而且是在全球出口市场上,韩天称。He echoed the complaints of American and European officials, who say that while Chinese companies — including those backed by the state — are able to mount takeover bids for companies in the West, the opposite is not typically allowed within China.他的说法与美国及欧洲官员的抱怨相呼应。美欧官员称,虽然中国企业——包括那些有政府背景的企业——可以向西方企业发起收购要约,但如果换成西方企业收购中国企业,在中国则通常不被允许。The German economics ministry declined to comment on the Aixtron takeover. 德国经济部拒绝就爱思强收购案置评。Fujian Grand Chip, Bohao and Mr Liu declined to comment. 福建宏芯、厦门灏及刘振东也拒绝置评。San’an did not respond to a request for comment, but in a statement, Aixtron said San’an canceled its order because its specific qualification requirements were not achieved.三安光电未回复置评请求,但爱思强在一份声明中称,三安光电之所以取消订单,是因为特定的工艺要求无法得到满足。In an August conference call with analysts, Aixtron’s chief executive, Martin Goetzeler, said there no was current investment link between San’an and Fujian Grand Chip, a relationship that was first reported in the German magazine Capital.在8月份的面向分析师的电话会议上,爱思强首席执行官马丁#8226;格特策勒(Martin Goetzeler)说,三安光电和福建宏芯之间目前不存在投资关系——当初首先报道这种关系的是德国杂志《资本》(Capital)。Bids for companies like Aixtron reflect a shift in Chinese investment patterns that goes back a number of years.向爱思强这样的公司发出要约,反映出中国沿用多年的投资模式发生了转变。Chinese companies bearing checkbooks have generally been welcomed in Europe. 总体来说,手持票簿的中国公司是受到欧洲欢迎的。They have provided a source of fresh capital for ailing European enterprises, like the Swedish carmaker Volvo, the Italian tire maker Pirelli, the French resort operator Club Med, and the port in Piraeus, Greece.它们为境况不佳的欧洲企业,包括瑞典汽车制造商沃尔沃(Volvo)、意大利轮胎制造商倍耐力(Pirelli)、法国度假区运营商地中海俱乐部(Club Med)和希腊比雷埃夫斯的港口提供了新的资金来源。But deals over the past two years — which last year hit a record 20 billion euros, or .4 billion, according to a survey by Rhodium Group and the Mercator Institute — have begun targeting leading-edge companies with crucial technologies and iconic brand names.但过去两年里的交易开始把目标对准拥有关键技术和标志性品牌的前沿企业。荣鼎集团(Rhodium Group)和墨卡托中心共同进行的一项调查显示,去年这类交易达到了创纪录的200亿欧元。Anxieties are perhaps most acute in Germany, which has had Aixtron and the well-known robotics company Kuka — whose technology is ubiquitous in German car factories — both go to Chinese bidders this year. 最紧张的大概是德国。今年,该国的爱思强和著名机器人公司库卡(Kuka)均被中国收购。库卡的技术在德国的汽车工厂里随处可见。Largely because of those two deals, Germany has become the largest recipient of Chinese investment in Europe thus far in 2016, according to the Mercator Institute.据墨卡托中心称,主要因为这两项交易,德国成了欧洲2016年迄今最大的中国投资接受国。In the ed States, a number of Chinese bids for chip companies have been undone by regulatory concerns. 在美国,中国公司对芯片企业发出的多项要约因监管机构的担忧而被迫取消。Regulators thwarted an overture by San’an for an American semiconductor company, and the Treasury Department’s Committee on Foreign Investment in the ed States is reviewing the Aixtron bid.监管机构叫停了三安对一家美国半导体公司提出的收购提议,美国财政部下属的美国外国投资委员会(Committee on Foreign Investment in the ed States)正在审查对爱思强提出的收购要约。By contrast, European laws give politicians few avenues to block acquisitions, though that has not stopped them from trying.相比之下,欧洲的法律几乎没给政界人士提供阻止收购的途径,但这并未妨碍他们尽力尝试。President Fran#231;ois Hollande of France has warned the Chinese hotel group Jin Jiang against trying to acquire a majority in the French hotel chain Accor. 法国总统弗朗索瓦#8226;奥朗德(Fran#231;ois Hollande)警告中国酒店集团锦江不要试图收购法国酒店连锁品牌雅高(Accor)的多数股份。And last month, Prime Minister Theresa May of Britain delayed approval of a nuclear power plant because of security concerns about Chinese companies involved. 上月,出于因涉及中国公司而产生的安全担忧,英国首相特丽莎#8231;梅(Theresa May)推迟了一个核电站项目的批准。(It has since been given the green light.)(该项目现在已经获批。)In Germany, the takeover of Kuka — frequently cited by politicians as emblematic of the country’s future economic development — has drawn particular attention. 在德国,收购库卡一事引起了特别的关注。政界人士常说此事象征着德国未来的经济发展。The economics ministry examined the takeover of the company by Midea Group in China, which aly owns 95 percent of Kuka shares, but eventually decided the deal did not meet the strict criteria for a formal review.该国经济部对中国美的集团收购库卡一事进行了调查,但最终断定交易未达到进行正式审核需满足的严格条件。美的现已拥有库卡95%的股份。Beyond politics, concerns also surround the origin of the money supporting Chinese bids.除政治外,持中国公司发出收购要约的资金的来源也引发了担忧。The Aixtron case, in particular, shows how difficult that can be.爱思强收购案尤其体现了其中的难度。Ultimately both San’an, the customer, and Fujian Grand Chip, the buyer, are recipients of government funds earmarked to help China build out its semiconductor capabilities. 无论是爱思强的客户三安,还是买家福建宏芯基金,从根本上都是政府资金的接受方,政府此举是为了帮助中国发展其半导体实力。While it’s not clear whether the two coordinated in any way, they are a product of a new approach Beijing has taken to develop its semiconductor industry.尽管尚不清楚这两家公司是否以某种方式进行了协调,北京为发展其半导体行业而采取了一种新方法,它们都是这一方法的产物。Previously, China’s government would dole out funds to several well-known state-owned companies. 以前,中国政府会将资金发放给多家著名的国有企业。Now those funds are being distributed through national and local investment funds, which give them out to, and through, smaller companies like Bohao and San’an.现在,这些资金通过中央和地方投资基金的形式发放,投资基金再将它们发放给灏和三安这种较小的公司,或是再经由它们进行发放。German companies have so far managed to stay ahead of China and other competitors in quality and technology, but there are growing concerns that Chinese companies are catching up.迄今为止,德国公司仍能在品质和技术上领先于中国和其他竞争对手,但民众对中国公司正在迎头赶上的担忧日渐加剧。A lot of people in Germany have massive concerns about Chinese companies taking over leading tech companies, said Daniel Bauer, a spokesman for SdK, a German investor-protection group. 很多德国人对中国公司收购德国著名科技公司非常担心,德国投资者保护组织SdK的发言人丹尼尔#8226;鲍尔(Daniel Bauer)说。People fear that foreign investors will just transfer the know-how and have no interest in keeping the facilities.人们担心外国投资者只会转移专业技术,无意于保留设施。 /201609/466790。
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