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芜湖哪里治早泄芜湖东方国康综合门诊部治疗性功能障碍多少钱Origins of Inebriation Revealed揭示醉酒的起源This cuneiform text dates back to the 6th year ofprince Lugalanda who ruled about 2370 B.C. in southern Mesopotamia.It is an administrative document concerning deliveries of three sorts of beer to different recipients 这种楔形文字的历史可以追溯到公元前2370年左右,王子卢加尔安达在美索不达米亚南部统治的第六年。它是一种行政文书,将三种啤酒传递到不同的人手中。In prehistoric Eurasia,drugs and alcohol were originally reserved for ritual ceremonies, and weren#39;tused merely to satisfy hedonistic motives, a new study suggests. What#39;s more,given the sacred role of the substances, their use was likely highly regulatedand only available to elite citizens.一项新的研究表明,在史前的欧亚大陆时期,毒品和酒精的最初用于宗教仪式,而不是仅用来满足人们享乐。更重要的是,考虑到这些物质神圣的角色,它们的使用几乎是受到高度控制的,仅供给于杰出公民。Many Eurasian cultures are known to have anancient history with psychoactive substances, as evidenced by early writtendocuments. The Greek historian Herodotus, for example, once described theScythians#39; (Iranian equestrian tribes) post-funeral purification ceremonyinvolving hemp, which dates back to the fifth century B.C.据早期的书面文件明,许多欧亚文化是已公认拥有一种精神活性物质的古代历史。例如,希腊历史学家希罗多德曾经描述斯基泰(伊朗马术部落)葬礼的净化仪式中涉及大麻,而这可追溯到公元前第五世纪。But written records aren#39;t the onlyindication of early drug and alcohol use.但是文字记录并不是早期使用药物和酒精的唯一痕迹。;It is generally thought thatmind-altering substances, or at least drugs, are a modern-day issue, but if welook at the archaeological record of prehistoric Europe, there are many datasupporting their consumption,; said study author Elisa Guerra-Doce, aprehistory expert at the University of Valladolid in Spain. ;Apart fromthe presence of macrofossil remains of plants with these [mind-altering]properties, there are artistic depictions of opium poppies, for instance, andsome designs in megalithic tombs may have been inspired by altered states ofconsciousness.;“人们普遍认为,改变意识的物质,或者说是药物,是一个现代议题,但如果我们看看欧洲史前考古记录,这儿有很多数据可以明他们的假设,”该研究的作者西班牙巴利亚多利德大学史前史专家艾丽莎·格拉-多西说道,“除了存在改变意识的植物化石,还有对罂粟的艺术描绘,例如,巨石墓里的一些设计可能会激发人们改变意识形态。”Despite numerous indications,archaeologists have largely overlooked the use of mind-altering substances inEurasian prehistory. So Guerra-Doce decided to sort through the scarce andscattered information in the scientific literature, in hopes of gaining abetter understanding of the history and context of ancient drug and alcoholuse.尽管有许多迹象表明,考古学家已经在很大程度上忽略了欧亚史前使用改变思想的物质。所以格拉-多西决定整理科学文献中稀少且分散的信息,以更好地理解历史和古老药物酒精使用的文本信息。She reviewed four lines of evidence:macrofossil remains of psychoactive plants, residues from fermented alcoholicdrinks, psychoactive alkaloids (chemical compounds) on artifacts and skeletalremains, and artistic depictions of psychoactive plants and drinking scenes.她回顾了四条据:含有精神活性植物的大化石,发酵的酒精饮料残留物,文物和遗骨的活性生物碱(化合物)以及精神活性植物和饮用场景的艺术描写。Widesp use广泛使用In prehistoric sites throughout Europe, archaeologists have found the remains of numerouspsychoactive plant and fungi species, including opium poppy, deadly nightshade,hallucinogenic mushrooms and ergot fungus. However, it#39;s not always possible todetermine how people used the substances, if they did at all.在整个欧洲的史前遗址上,考古学家已经发现许多精神活性植物和真菌物种的遗址,包括鸦片罂粟,颠茄,致幻蘑菇和麦角菌。然而,如果人们都使用这种物质,决定人们使用这些物质的可能性并不大。For instance, at a Neanderthal burial caveat Shanidar, in northern Iraqdating to around 60,000 B.C., researchers discovered the remains of manymedical plant species, suggesting the grave belonged to a shaman. But otherscientists argue that a gerbil-like rodent called the Persian jird may havebrought the plants into the cave after the Neanderthal there had died.例如,追溯到公元前60000年前,在伊拉克北部的一个尼安德特人沙尼达尔墓穴中,研究人员发现,许多药用植物的遗骸,而这坟墓属于一个萨满的。但是其他科学家认为,一种长爪沙鼠类的啮齿类动物,名叫波斯沙鼠可能在尼安德特人死了后,将植物带进洞穴。Yet many archaeobotanical finds providestrong evidence for the prehistoric use of mind-altering substances. Inparticular, at an archaeological site near Bucharest, Romania,scientists found charred Cannabis seeds from plants in some tombs. The mainpsychoactive compound of marijuana is tetrahydrocannabinol(THC), which is mostabundant in the female plants (Cannabis plants are typically either male orfemale, with male plants producing pollen that pollinates the seed-producingflowers of the female plant).;The presence of burnt seeds in these tombsproves that the prehistoric societies of eastern Europe were aware of this, andconsequently, they burnt female plants,; Guerra-Doce told Live Science.然而许多大型植物剂被发现并提供了强有力的据,明在史前时期人们使用过改变意识的物质。特别是,在罗马尼亚布加勒斯特附近的一个考古遗址上,科学家们在一些坟墓里发现了烧焦的大麻种子植物。大麻的主要活性化合物是四氢大麻酚(THC),这是最丰富的雌性植物(大麻植物通常是雄性或雌性,与雄性植物产生花粉,授粉的种子生产雌性花植物),“在这些墓葬中存在的烧焦种子明了东欧的史前社会已经意识到这一点,因此,他们燃烧雌性植物,”格拉-多西对生活科学说道。Alcoholic residues suggest many prehistoricEurasians drank fruit wines, mead, beer (from barley and wheat) and fermenteddrinks made from dairy products.酒精残留物暗示了许多史前欧亚的水果酒,蜂蜜酒,啤酒(大麦和小麦)和发酵饮料都产自于乳制品。The discovery of alcoholic fermentationappears to date back to about 7000 B.C. in China. By 5000 B.C., people in theZagros Mountains of northwestern Iran drank wine instilled with pineresin (for its preservative or medicinal properties). And at a site insoutheastern Armeniadating to 4000 B.C., scientists unearthed a fully equipped winery — they thinkthe wine was made for mortuary practices, considering there were 20 burialgraves, which contained drinking cups, next to the winemaking facility.在中国酒精发酵的发现原理可追溯到大约公元前7000年前。公元前5000年,在伊朗西北部的扎格罗斯山脉的人们在喝酒时逐渐滴入松树树脂(以达到防腐剂或药用性能的效果)。追溯到公元前4000年,在亚美尼亚东南部的一地区,科学家发现一个设备齐全的酒厂——他们认为酒是用来墓葬的,因为酿酒厂有20座葬墓群,坟墓里都有酒杯。Importantly, though some pottery fragmentscontaining residues of beer and wine come from settlements, most actually comefrom burial sites. ;Many tombs have provided traces of alcoholic drinksand drugs,; Guerra-Doce said. ;I think these substances were used toaid in communication with the spirit world.;重要的是,尽管一些瓷器碎片含有殖民地啤酒和葡萄酒的残留物,然而,大多数的残留物来自墓地。“许多坟墓留有酒精饮料和药物的遗迹,”格拉-多西说,”我认为这些物质是用来帮助精神世界交流的。”Some artistic representations also hint atceremonial drug and alcohol use in prehistory. One of the most revealing itemsmay be a 30-inch-tall (76 centimeters) terracotta figurineknown as the;Poppy Goddess.; The figurine, found in an almost 3000-year-old cultchamber in Crete, depicts a bare-breastedwoman with upraised arms and a head bearing three movable hairpins shaped likepoppy capsules. Certain features of the capsules suggest how opium may havebeen extracted, and the figurine displays a serene facial expression, whichsome experts interpret as depicting a trancelike state gained from inhalingopium fumes.一些艺术再现也暗示了史前时期药物和酒精用于礼仪场合。一个最明显的项目可能是一个30英寸(76厘米)高的陶瓦小雕像,被誉为“罂粟女神。”这个小塑像发现于克里特岛(希腊)的祭祀场所,已有大约3000年得历史,描绘了一个坦胸露乳的女人,她高举双手,头上插了三根像罂粟壳似的可移动簪子。胶囊的某些功能暗示了鸦片可能已经被提取,而雕像显示了一个安详的表情,一些专家解释为这是鸦片烟吸入后的恍惚状态。Only for the elite?只面向精英?Guerra-Doce#39;s analysis further suggeststhat psychoactive substances may have been reserved for the elite. ;Themain evidence to support that idea is the archaeological contexts where theyhave been found: tombs of high-status individuals and restricted ceremonialplaces,; she said.格拉-多西的分析进一步表明,精神活性物质可能是给精英保留的。” 持这个想法的主要据来是考古信息,他们已经发现:高官的坟墓和限制仪式的地方,”她说。For example, at a Bronze Age cemetery insoutheastern Spain,archaeologists have found psychoactive alkaloids of opiates in tombs of theupper class. Similarly, a luxurious tomb in another area of Spain containedevidence of the hallucinogenic alkaloid hyoscyamine, which comes from thenightshade family of plants.例如,在西班牙东南部的一个青铜时代墓地,考古学家在上层阶级的坟墓里发现的阿片类药物活性生物碱。同样,在另一个地区的西班牙豪华墓地中发现了致幻生物碱莨菪碱的据,而这些碱属于茄科植物。Alcohol also seems to have been mainly forthe upper class. One of the most impressive examples comes from the so-calledHochdorf Chieftain#39;s Grave in Germany— a Celtic burial chamber for a 40-year-old man that dates to around 530 B.C.In the princely tomb, researchers found an enormous bronze cauldron from Greece thatcontained 350 liters (92 gallons) of mead.酒精也似乎是主要为上层阶级务的。其中最引人注目的例子是来自所谓的侯赫多尔夫的酋长的坟墓---追溯到公元前530年左右,一个40岁凯尔特男子的墓室。在王侯墓前,研究人员发现了一个巨大的希腊青铜鼎,其含有350公升(92加仑)的酒。;I think that prior to a large-scaleproduction, [alcoholic drinks] were reserved for special events, and theyplayed a similar role as drug plants,; Guerra-Doce said.After large-scaleproduction became possible, alcohol likely became available to many people (notjust elites), and its use shifted from ritualistic to hedonistic in nature, sheadded.“我认为,大规模生产之前,[酒被保留用于特殊事件,植物药也发挥了类似的作用,”格拉-多西说。在大规模生产成为可能时,酒精可能提供给许多人(不只是精英),其用途在性质上说是从仪式到享乐主义,她补充说道。Drug plants, on the other hand, were nevercultivated on a large scale. And though they were also eventually consumed forhedonistic purposes, this use is difficult to observe in the archaeological record,Guerra-Doce said. ;Interestingly, the common names of some of these plantsrefer to madness, to evil spirits, to harmful effects, so I think a taboo wasimposed in order to avoid their use for hedonistic purposes,; shesaid.另一方面,植物药并没有一个大规模栽培。虽然他们也最终是达到享乐主义的目的,但是这是很难在考古记录中发现的,格拉-多西说。“有趣的是,这些植物中的一些的共同名字指的是疯狂行为,魔鬼精神,有害影响,所以我认为一个禁忌是用来避免达到享乐目的的,”她说。 /201407/310803芜湖哪里有好中医 弋江区妇幼保健人民中医院不孕不育多少钱

芜湖无为县妇幼保健人民中医院看男科好吗So many things come down to connections -- especially the ones in your brain.很多事情归根结底都是连接――尤其是你大脑中的那些神经。Women and men display distinctive differences in how nerve fibers connect various regions of their brains, according to a half-dozen recent studies that highlight gender variation in the brain#39;s wiring diagram. There are trillions of these critical connections, and they are shaped by the interplay of heredity, experience and biochemistry.近来,有半打之多的研究着重探索了大脑接线图中的性别差异。这些研究表明,在神经纤维如何连接大脑各个区域方面,男性和女性显得截然不同。人脑中遍布着上万亿这样的关键连接,而遗传因素、人生经历和生物化学的相互影响、相互作用又塑造了这些连接的形成。No one knows how gender variations in brain wiring might translate into thought and behavior -- whether they might influence the way men and women generally perceive reality, process information, form judgments and behave socially -- but they are sparking controversy.目前尚不清楚,大脑连接中的性别差异可能会如何传导至人们的言行中――它们是否可能会影响一般男性与女性解读现实、处理信息、社交行为和形成判断的方式――但它们现在却引发了争议。#39;It certainly is incendiary,#39; said Paul Thompson, a professor of neurology and director of the University of Southern California#39;s Imaging Genetics Center. He is directing an effort to assemble a database of 26,000 brain scans from 20 countries to cross-check neuroimaging findings. #39;People who look at findings about sex differences are excited or enraged,#39; he said.南加州大学(University of Southern California)基因影像学中心(Imaging Genetics Center)负责人、神经学教授保罗#12539;汤普森(Paul Thompson)说:“那肯定会点燃争议的导火索。”为了反复核对神经影像学的研究成果,汤普森正带头致力于组建一个数据库,该数据库将包含26,000份来自20个国家的脑部扫描资料。他说:“那些查看有关性别差异研究成果的人,有些兴奋不已,有些则忿怒填胸。”Researchers are looking at the variations to explain the different ways men and women respond to health issues ranging from autism, which is more common among men, and multiple sclerosis, which is more common among women, to strokes, aging and depression. #39;We have to find the differences first before we can try to understand them,#39; said Neda Jahanshad, a neurologist at USC who led the research while at the University of California, Los Angeles.研究人员正在查看这些变化以解释男性和女性对健康问题的不同反应方式。这些问题包括从在男性中更常见的孤独症到女性中更常见的多发性硬化症、再到中风、衰老和抑郁症。南加州大学(USC)神经病学家妮达#12539;扎哈沙德(Neda Jahanshad)在加州大学洛杉矶分校(the University of California, Los Angeles) 带领团队完成了上述研究,她说:“在我们试着弄清这些问题之前,我们得先找到它们的区别。”Dr. Jahanshad and her UCLA collaborators conducted a 2011 brain-imaging study of healthy twins, including 147 women and 87 men, to trace connections in the brain. She discovered #39;significant#39; sex differences in areas of the brain#39;s frontal lobe, which is associated with self-control, speech and decision-making.2011年,扎哈沙德与她在加州大学洛杉矶分校的同仁们进行了一项针对健康双胞胎的脑成像研究以追踪大脑中的连接情况,该研究共涉及147名女性和87名男性。她后来发现,在人脑额叶区中存在着“显著”的性别差异,该区域与自控力、决策力和演讲能力都息息相关。In the most comprehensive study so far, scientists led by biomedical analyst Ragini Verma at the University of Pennsylvania found the myriad connections between important parts of the brain developed differently in girls and boys as they grow, resulting in different patterns of brain connections among young women and young men.在目前为止最全面的一项研究中,以宾夕法尼亚大学(the University of Pennsylvania)生物医学分析专家拉吉尼#12539;维尔马(Ragini Verma)为首的科学家们发现,大脑重要部位之间的诸多连接随着男孩、女孩的成长而演化出差异,导致年轻女性和男性的脑内连接模式不同。The team imaged the brains of 949 healthy young people, 521 females and 428 males, ranging in age from 8 to 22. Like Dr. Jahanshad#39;s team, Dr. Verma employed a technique called Diffusion Tensor Imaging to trace how water molecules align along the brain#39;s white-matter nerve fibers, which form the physical scaffolding of thought. The study was reported earlier this month in the journal the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.该团队对949名健康的年轻人进行了脑成像扫描,其中包括521名女性和428名男性,他们的年龄从8到22岁不等。同扎哈沙德的团队一样,维尔马也采用了一种名为“弥散张量成像(Diffusion Tensor Imaging)”的技术来追踪水分子是如何同脑白质神经纤维相应移动的,这形成了该想法的理论框架。这一研究于本月早些时候发表在《美国国家科学院院刊》(Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)上。The neural patterns emerged only when combining results from hundreds of people, experts said. In any one person, gender patterns may be subsumed by the individual variations in brain shape and structure that help make every person unique.专家们称,只有将来自成百上千人的结果归纳结合起来看时,才会出现上述的神经模式。在任何某一个人身上,性别模式可能会被归为大脑结构和形态方面的个体差异,这些个体差异会使每个人都显得独一无二。Dr. Verma#39;s maps of neural circuitry document the brain at moments when it is in a fury of creation. Starting in infancy, the brain normally produces neurons at a rate of half a million a minute, and reaches out to make connections two million times a second. By age 5, brain size on average has grown to about 90% of adult size. By age 20, the average brain is packed with about 109,000 miles of white matter tissue fibers, according to a 2003 Danish study reported in the Journal of Comparative Neurology.在创造思潮难抑之时,维尔马的神经回路图会即时记录下大脑的情况。据2003年发表在《比较神经外科学杂志》(Journal of Comparative Neurology)上的一项丹麦研究表明,从婴儿时期开始,人脑通常就会以每分钟50万个的速度长出神经元,并以每秒钟200万次的速度伸展、形成连接。到了五岁的时候,大脑的尺寸一般会长到成年人脑的90%。到了20岁的时候,平均而言,大脑中会布满长达109,000英里(约合175,418千米)的白质组织纤维。Spurred by the effects of diet, experience and biochemistry, neurons and synapses are ruthlessly pruned, starting in childhood. The winnowing continues in fits and starts throughout adolescence, then picks up again in middle age. #39;In childhood, we did not see much difference#39; between male and female, Dr. Verma said. #39;Most of the changes we see start happening in adolescence. That is when most of the male-female differences come about.#39;在饮食习惯、生活经历和生物化学的影响刺激下,神经元与突触从童年时期就开始被无情地修剪。这场筛选一阵一阵地继续,然后开始贯穿整个青春期。维尔马说:“童年时期,我们在男孩女孩身上看不到太多的差别。我们看到的大多数变化都发生在青春期。也就是那个时候,男女之间的大多数差别显现出来了。”Broadly speaking, women in their 20s had more connections between the two brain hemispheres while men of the same age had more connective fibers within each hemisphere. #39;Women are mostly better connected left-to-right and right-to-left across the two brain hemispheres,#39; Dr. Verma said. #39;Men are better connected within each hemisphere and from back-to-front.#39;从广义上说,女性在20岁时左右脑之间的连接更多,而同龄的男性则是左、右脑各自内部的连接纤维更多。维尔马称:“女性大脑两个半球之间无论是从左至右、还是从右至左的连接都更好些。男性则是左、右脑各自内部的连接和后脑到前脑的连接更佳。”That suggests women might be better wired for multitasking and analytical thought, which require coordination of activity in both hemispheres. Men, in turn, may be better wired for more-focused tasks that require attention to one thing a time. But the researchers cautioned such conclusions are speculative.这就表明了女性可能在完成多重任务和分析思维方面更出色,而这需要左右脑之间的协作活动。反过来,男性可能在集中思维方面更为出色,这需要他们将注意力一次只放在一件事情上。但研究人员谨慎表示,这些结论都是推测性的,并非定论。Experts also cautioned that subtle gender differences in connections can be thrown off by normal disparities in brain size between men and women and in the density of brain tissue. Other factors, such as whether one is left- or right-handed, also affect brain structure.专家们还警告称,连接方面微小的性别差异会被当成男女大脑尺寸及脑组织密度方面的正常差异而被摒弃。其他一些因素,如一个人是不是左撇子或右撇子,也会影响大脑结构。Also affecting results are differences in how computer calculations are carried out from one lab to the next. #39;With neuroimaging, there are so many ways to process the data that when you do process things differently and get the same result, it is fantastic,#39; Dr. Jahanshad said.影响结果的还有:从这个实验室到下个实验室,这其中如何进行电脑运算。扎哈沙德说:“关于神经影像,有很多方式都能用来处理其相关数据,所以当你使用不同的方法处理数据还能得到相同的结果时,那简直不可思议。” /201312/270228鸠江区妇幼保健人民中医院治疗包皮包茎多少钱 芜湖哪家医院看男科好

芜湖市第三人民医院治疗阳痿早泄Patrick Modiano, the French writer whose novels center on topics like memory, identity and guilt, won the 2014 Nobel Prize in Literature on Thursday.星期四,法国作家帕特里克·莫迪亚诺(Patrick Modiano)获得2014年诺贝尔文学奖,他的小说主要以记忆、身份与罪恶为主题。In an announcement in Stockholm, the Swedish Academy cited Mr. Modiano#39;s ability to evoke ;the most ungraspable human destinies in his work.;瑞典学院在斯德哥尔发布声明,称莫迪亚诺有能力在他的作品中唤起“最为莫测的人类命运”。Mr. Modiano was born in 1945, to a Belgian mother who worked as an actress and a Jewish-Italian father who was often absent during his childhood. Mr. Modiano first rose to prominence in 1968, with the publication of his novel ;La Place de L#39;Etoile.; Many of his fictional works delve into the moral dilemmas that citizens faced during World War II, and some play with the detective genre. Several of his works have been translated into English, but he is not widely known outside Europe.莫迪亚诺出生于1945年,母亲是一位比利时裔女演员,父亲是意大利犹太人,在他的童年生活中经常缺席。莫迪亚诺1968年因出版小说《星形广场》(La Place de L#39;Etoile)首度成名。他的很多虚构作品都深入挖掘“二战”后人们所面临的道德困境,也有些作品戏谑地使用侦探小说形式。他的若干作品被译为英文,但在欧洲之外并不广为人知。Mr. Modiano, 69, is the 11th writer born in France to win the prize. Recent winners for the literature prize have included the Canadian short-story writer Alice Munro in 2013; the Chinese novelist Mo Yan in 2012; the Swedish poet Tomas Transtromer, in 2011; and the Peruvian writer Mario Vargas Llosa in 2010. The last American writer to win the Nobel in literature was Toni Morrison, in 1993. The Nobel, one of the most prestigious and financially generous awards in the world, comes with a .1 million prize. The literature prize is given out for a lifetime of writing rather than for a single work.莫迪亚诺现年69岁,是第11位出生在法国的诺贝尔文学奖获得者。近期的诺贝尔文学奖得主包括2013年的加拿大短篇小说作家爱丽丝·门罗(Alice Munro)、2012年的中国小说家莫言、2011年的瑞典诗人托马斯·特兰斯特勒默(Tomas Transtromer)以及2010年的秘鲁作家马里奥·巴尔加斯·略萨(Mario Vargas Llosa)。上一位获得诺贝尔文学奖的美国作家是1993年的托尼·莫里森(Toni Morrison)。诺贝尔奖是世界上最有声望、奖金最高的奖项之一,奖金为110万美元。文学奖的授予是基于作家的毕生创作,而非单独的某部作品。 /201410/335081 芜湖看阳痿要花多少钱芜湖人民医院看病口碑



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