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My Lord Mayor, Ladies and Gentlemen, it is again an honour to attend this wonderful dinner and to speak to you as Chancellor for the fifth time.Lord Mayor, I remember coming here to Mansion House, just weeks after the government was formed in 2010 – with Britain on the brink of an economic crisis – to give my first major speech on the task ahead.I set out for you the economic plan we would follow, and I drew on the words Winston Churchill had uttered in this very hall, to say that while Britain could not pretend our travails were at an end, we were at least at the end of the beginning.In the four years since, supported by the resolution and sacrifice of the British people, we have worked through that plan.Now we are starting to see the results:Britain growing faster than any advanced economy in the world.A record number of people in work.Now strong business investment on the back of low business taxes.And a budget deficit this year set to be half what it was.Last week, the IMF said that our resolute fiscal policy had been in their words an ‘anchor for the British economy’ that had maintained confidence and stability in the face of the storm.And I want to say to the business and financial community: you did not waver; you stuck with us and I thank you.But the task is far from complete; and there are many risks to the progress we have made.Abroad, the risks stem from the weak eurozone, unpredictable geopolitics and the slowdown in some emerging markets.At home, our economy is still too unbalanced, so I am the first to say we need to continue our efforts to boost business investment, exports and housing supply.But the biggest risk comes from the tendency in parts of our body politics – the left and now too the populist right – to wage a war on enterprise, regulate prices, propose penal taxes, close Britain to business and return to the old ways of borrow and spend.We must win this battle.And go on confronting Britain’s problems with long term answers that will build an economy for everyone.So while I know this is my fifth speech to you as Chancellor; I hope it is not my last.For I want to finish the job.Lord Mayor, tonight we are joined by someone attending their first Mansion House dinner.Our Governor of the Bank of England.Mark, we all thank you for the integrity, intelligence and international reach you have brought to the challenges of the last year.And we look forward to what you have to say.Our 3 new Deputy Governors – Jon Cunliffe, Ben Broadbent and Minouche Shafik, together with Andrew Bailey, complete what I immodestly think is the strongest team of any central bank in the world.The Court continues the oversight of the Bank’s work, and at the end of this month Anthony Habgood will replace David Lees as its Chair.David, thank you for helping steer the Bank through the big reforms of recent years and the appointment of a new Governor.And thank you too to Charlie Bean for the 6 years he has given our nation as Deputy Governor.We are lucky that one of our greatest economists has chosen to dedicate his life to public service for so long.The Bank of England now sits back where it belongs, at the heart of our financial system – supervising the prudential regulation of our banks and insurers, thanks to the reforms I announced in my first speech here at the Mansion House in 2010.And in each speech since, I have set out new steps to strengthen the resilience of our economy and the financing that underpins it.2011, Ringfencing our retail banks2012, launching funding for LendingLast year, restructuring the Royal Bank of Scotland and firing the starting gun on the sale of our stake in Lloyds.It would be tempting this year, at the Mansion House, to pause for breath.But our task is far from complete – and today I will announce further changes to build that resilient economy for all and the strong, competitive financial services that should contribute to it.201504/368523We are living on a planet with a lot of activities, with reference to our living environment,done by faith and guess alone. 我们对于这个地球上所发生的许多现象,都只是通过信念或猜测来认知。Our lives depend upon these creatures.我们的生命依赖于这些生物。To take an example close to home: there are over 500 species of bacteria now known friendly bacteria-living symbiotically in your mouth and throat probably necessary to your health for holding off pathogenic bacteria.举一个身边的例子:已知有500多种的细菌,友好的细菌—正生活在你的口腔里也许它们正在为你抵抗来自致病细菌的进攻。At this point I think we have a little impressionistic film that was made especially for this occasion.说到这里,我想给大家放一个片子就是为了这次演讲而准备的。And Id like to show it.现在请看屏幕。Assisted in this by Billie Holiday.我们得到了Billie Holiday的帮助。And that may be just the beginning!这也许还只是开始!The viruses, those quasi-organisms among which are the prophages,the gene weavers that promote the continued evolution in the lives of the bacteria,are a virtually unknown frontier of modern biology, a world unto themselves. 病毒,也就是那些带有有机体特性的“准”生物,prophasias 就是其中一种,它是基因编织师,正是它使得细菌的持续进化成为可能,这一世界是现代生物学的一个待开垦的处女地,也是一个自我—的世界。What constitutes a viral species is still unresolved,although theyre obviously of enormous importance to us. 是什么构成了病毒还尚无定论,虽然这对人类而言意义重大。But this much we can say: the variety of genes on the planet in viruses exceeds, or is likely to exceed, that in all of the rest of life combined.但是有一点可以肯定,病毒世界的基因多样性远远大于所有其他生物的基因多样性之总和—至少科学家是这么认为的。Nowadays, in addressing microbial biodiversity,scientists are like explorers in a rowboat launched onto the Pacific Ocean. 今天,那些研究微生物多样性的科学家,就如乘着木船驶进太平洋的探索者。But that is changing rapidly with the aid of new genomic technology.但是,随着新的基因组技术的发展,这一境况正得到改善。Aly it is possible to sequence the entire genetic code of a bacterium in under four hours.现在,我们已经可以用四个小时的时间完成对一个细菌进行基因测序。201504/367396And its also applied to the countries. Just like the Industrial Revolution determines which country had the best standard of living over a period of hundreds of years. The Internet revolution will have the same impact. Those countries who use this technology to add productivity to the government, who use this technology in the way they teach children how to employ it to be more effective not only in business but also in the way they live and play, and those countries and companies to employ would determine the future of their economies in many, many ways. It used to be the U.S, Europe and Japan as example. You could often tell what the economy was like in terms of Internet by just looking at the name cards. Almost no Japanese businessperson has called one had an Internet address on it. Today its almost socially unacceptable not to do that. The Japanese in four years have closed the advantage that the Europe and North America to have on the Internet where it almost completely equal. They understood the impact that it would have on the future of their business, the future of the country, the future of their children. So the Internet generation is people, companies, and countries move in an unbelievable pace as it move forward.它对于国家也同样适用,如同工业革命那样,它决定着哪个国家在几百年后生活水平最髙。互联网革命也会具备同样的效果。那些将此技术用于增强政府生产力的国家,那些将此技术传授于下一代并教导他们如何在事业、生活和方面更有效使用互联网的国家,这样的国家和公司将决定它们经济的未来。比如,我们仅从名片上的互联网地址就可以推断美国,欧洲和日本的经济发展趋势。以前几乎没有一位日本商人的名片上有互联网网址,今天,各片上没有互联网网址几乎就不能被社会接受。在四年内,日本就终结了欧洲和北美曾经在互联网方面的优势地位,并拥有了与其相当的互联网水平。他们明白这项技术对商业的未来,对国家的未来甚至下一代的未来的重要影 响。因此,在互联网时代,人、公司和国家将以一种难以置信的速度发展。There are two things that are really driving this. The first is its fourth generation of technology, with each generation being dramatically bigger than the prior generation. For several decades, It was the main trend. And now it is the network generation. And it will have more impact probably them all the three prior generations confined. So as you move into the new generation technology you naturally see the explosion. But what is driving it even stronger than the technology is the business application. It doesnt matter if you are in Germany, France, UK,. US, Japan, or China. All the business organizations have the same challenges.这样的发展有两个推动力。一个是第四代技术,每代技术都极大地超过前一代。几十年来,这都是一个主要的趋势。现在是网络时代,网络时代的影响将大于前三代的总和。所以当我们进入新的技术时代时,自然会感受到技术爆炸的冲击力。比这个驱动力还要强大的力量就是商务应用。无论你在德国、法国、英国、美国、日本还是中国,所有的商业机构都面临着同样的挑战。201408/322694Politicians have recently begun Twittering. In fact, theres 47 members of Congress who currently have Twitter accounts. And theyre Tweeting, in some cases, from behind closed-door sessions with the President. In this case, this guys not liking what hes hearing. The President himself is our most popular Twitter user, although his tweets have dropped off as of lately, while Senator McCains have picked up. As have this guys.政客们最近也开始使用Twitter了。实际上,47位国会成员拥有Twitter账户。有的时候,他们会在和总统开会发出Twitter。看来,这家伙并不喜欢自己所听到的事情。总统本人就是最受欢迎的Twitter用户,尽管近来他不怎么在上面发言了,不过麦凯恩参议员的Twitter使用频率却开始增加。这个人也是。Twitter was originally designed as pretty much a broadcast medium. You send one message and it goes out to everybody, and you receive the messages youre interested in. One of the many ways that users shaped the evolution of Twitter was by inventing a way to reply to a specific person or a specific message. So, this syntax, the ;@username; that Shaquille ONeals using here to reply to one of his fans was completely invented by users, and we didnt build it into the system until it aly became popular and then we made it easier. This is one of the many ways that users have shaped the system.Twitter最初只不过被设计成一个广播媒介。你发送的信息能被其他人收到,同时,你也能收到自己感兴趣的信息。但用户们还自己发明了很多Twitter的新用法,例如,回复消息给特定的人,或者回复某条特定的消息。比方说,大鲨鱼奥尼尔在这使用“@用户名”来回复他的某个粉丝,这种用法就完全是用户们自己发明的。Twitter本来并不持这种用法,直到大家都开始这么用的时候,我们才增加了这个功能,方便用户。上面说到的只是用户帮助改进Twitter的众多方式之一。Another is via the API. We built an application programming interface, which basically means that programmers can write software that interacts with Twitter. We currently know about over 2,000 pieces of software that can send Twitter updates, interfaces for Mac, Windows, your iPhone, your BlackBerry ... as well as things like a device that lets an unborn baby Twitter when it kicks or a plant Twitter when it needs water.还有一种方法是借助于API(应用编程接口)。我们提供了一些API,这样程序员可以编写其他程序来和Twitter交互。目前大约有2000种程序可以发送Twitter信息,他们可以运行在Mac,Windows,iPhone或黑莓上...同时,还有的设备可以在胎儿踢腿时发出Twitter信息,或者当植物需要浇水时发出Twitter信息。201401/273244

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