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A few years ago, Beyoncé Knowles was like any other record-breaking pop star in an aly crowded field. Then something changed.几年前,碧昂斯·诺尔斯(Beyoncé Knowles)像其他任何打破记录的流行歌星一样,是本已拥挤的歌坛的一员。然后有些事情发生了变化。If you#39;ve ever seen Beyoncé Knowles astride a concert stage or a red carpet, you know she is a woman with a flair for dramatic entrances. But no previous coup de théatre prepared the world for the arrival of the singer#39;s fifth full-length solo record, ;Beyoncé,; the ;visual album; that airdropped onto iTunes at midnight on Dec. 13, 2013. For months, the music press had seethed with speculation about Beyoncé#39;s delayed record release, with rumors of disastrous studio sessions and dozens of scrapped songs. ;There is utter disarray in Beyoncé#39;s camp,; the website MediaTakeOut.com hissed. It was an unheard-of turn of events for Beyoncé, whose career had been a testament to, as it were, array: a regal, orderly parade from hit to hit, milestone to milestone, strength to strength.如果你曾见过碧昂斯·诺尔斯登上音乐会舞台或踏上红毯的情景,你就知道她是个具有戏剧化登场天分的女人。但是之前的轰动并没有让世界准备好迎接她的第五张个人完整长度专辑《碧昂斯》(Beyoncé),这张“视觉专辑”于2013年12月13日午夜空降iTunes。之前的好几个月,音乐媒体因对碧昂斯专辑的推迟发行众说纷纭,有谣言说录音过程出现了灾难,几十首歌报废了。“碧昂斯的阵营出现了完全的混乱,”MediaTakeOut.com网站发出嘘声。对碧昂斯来说,这是前所未闻的剧变,因为之前她的事业像是有序的皇家阅兵,一首又一首金曲,一个又一个里程碑,她的实力不断增强。Sure enough, the alleged behind-the-scenes chaos turned out to be the usual behind-the-scenes order, in disguise: While the gossip mills whirred, Beyoncé stealthily recorded 14 songs and shot 17 s, which she unleashed in that December sneak attack. Purely as a feat of information management, ;Beyoncé; was impressive. The National Security Agency couldn#39;t stop its secrets from spilling all over the place; Beyoncé kept the lid on a project which, conservatively, involved hundreds of individuals — studio musicians, cameramen, key grips, personal assistants, even record executives, as a rule the least trustworthy people on the planet. The arrival of all that music, all at once and out of the blue, was an unprecedented shock-and-awe move, which rocked the record industry back on its heels and convulsed the Internet. A single Beyoncé is capable of staggering the senses; the simultaneous release of 17 of them — an onslaught of sound and spectacle and costumes and choreography and, in the case of a like the one for ;Rocket,; stately slow-motion images of billowing silk sheets and water droplets tumbling onto Beyoncé#39;s bare midriff — it was a lot to process. We can only imagine the feelings of Beyoncé#39;s pop diva competitors, whose carefully plotted monthslong album rollouts were instantly rendered quaint, and moot. That whining, whirring sound you heard on Dec. 13, mingling with the strains of ;Drunk in Love; — that was Lady Gaga, in her gloomy castle keep, chainsawing a meat dress into sackcloth.毋庸置疑,所谓的幕后混乱实际上是正常的幕后秩序:在流言满天飞的时候,碧昂斯暗自录了14首歌,拍了17个录影带,在12月份的那次突袭中一下子推出。《碧昂斯》像是一场信息管理的大胜仗,让人印象深刻。国家安全局都无法阻止自己的秘密四处泄露,碧昂斯却能严守自己项目的秘密,保守估计,这个项目涉及几百人——一般来说,录音室乐手、摄影师、道具员、私人助理,甚至包括录音主管都是世界上最不可信赖的人。这些作品突然全部发布是一个前所未有的令人震惊的举措,震惊了唱片业,震撼了互联网。碧昂斯的一个录影带就能让人大开眼界,同时发行17个,更是够人享受很长时间。这些录影带是声音、场面、装和编舞的猛烈冲击,而《火箭》(Rocket)这样的录影带中有丝绸汹涌飘动、水滴跌落到碧昂斯裸露腹部的慢镜头。我们只能想像其他和碧昂斯竞争流行天后的歌手们有何感受,她们花几个月时间精心策划的专辑发布瞬间变得徒劳无功。12月13日,伴着《醉在爱里》(Drunk in Love)的旋律,你可以听到Lady Gaga哀怨的呼叫,她在自己阴暗的城堡里把一件肉做的连衣裙锯成碎片。Beyoncé is 32 years old. She was 9 when she began singing with Girls Tyme, the group she formed with friends in her hometown, Houston; when the successor to Girls Tyme, Destiny#39;s Child, first cracked the Top 5 on the Billboard Hot 100, in 1998, Beyoncé was just 16. She never seemed like an ingénue, though: Even as a teenager, she had gravitas. In one of the centerpiece songs on the new album, Beyoncé gazes backwards: ;Look at me — I#39;m a big girl now . . . I#39;m a grown woman.; But the innocence-to-experience cliché doesn#39;t square with Beyoncé#39;s life, or art. From the beginning her message has been professionalism, perfectionism, power — ideals exemplified in her fearsome live performances and dramatized in songs that view romance through the lens of finance. Hits like ;Bills, Bills, Bills; (1999), ;Upgrade U; (2006) and ;Single Ladies (Put a Ring on It); (2008) have found Beyoncé figuratively hunched over a balance sheet, weighing the costs of affections dispensed and luxury goods accumulated. She#39;s afit star for our new gilded age, and an apt match, musical and otherwise, for her husband Jay Z, another arch-capitalist. In recent years, Beyoncé has toned down the materialism a bit, but ambition remains her calling card. In the torrid 2011 single ;Run the World (Girls); she sang: ;We#39;re smart enough to make these millions/Strong enough to bear the children/Then get back to business.; The song is a postfeminist anthem, sure. It#39;s also a business plan that she#39;s followed to a T.碧昂斯32岁了。她9岁起在女孩时间(Girls Tyme)乐团唱歌,那个乐团是她和朋友们在故乡休斯敦组建的。1998年“女孩时间”的后继者真命天女(Destiny#39;s Child)乐团第一次跻身“公告牌”百大金曲前五名时,碧昂斯才16岁。不过,她似乎从来没经历过天真少女的阶段:甚至在十几岁时,她都很稳重。在新专辑的一首主打歌中,碧昂斯回首过去:“看看我——我现在是大姑娘……是成熟的女人。”但是从无知到成熟的老套路线与碧昂斯的生活和事业都不吻合。从一开始,她传递的信息就是职业素质、完美主义和力量——这表现在她令人畏惧的现场表演中,体现在她透过金钱看爱情的歌曲中。像《钞票,钞票,钞票》(Bills, Bills, Bills, 1999)、《提升你》(Upgrade U, 2006)和《单身女士》(Single Ladies, 2008)这样的热门歌曲让人觉得碧昂斯在俯身看一张资产负债表,权衡付出的感情成本和积累的奢侈品的收益。她是适合我们这个新的镀金时代的明星;不管从音乐还是其他方面,她与丈夫Jay Z都十分般配,因为Jay Z也是业界重要的资本家。近些年,碧昂斯稍稍弱化了物质主义,但野心仍是她的重要特点。在2011年热情的单曲《统治世界》(Run the World)中她唱道:“我们足够聪明,能挣几百万/我们足够强大,能养育孩子/然后还能继续干事业。”这首歌当然是后女权主义的赞歌,也是她严格遵循的事业计划。In 2014, Beyoncé#39;s grip on the zeitgeist has become a stranglehold. A recent ;Saturday Night Live; skit revolved around the gag that Beyoncé-worship has become compulsory in the ed States, that Beyoncé refusniks will be tracked down and eliminated by deadly government goons, the Beygency. (;He turned against his country . . . and its queen,; boomed the voiceover.) As ;SNL; suggests, Beyoncé has become something more than just a superstar. She is a kind of national figurehead, an Entertainer in Chief; she is Americana. Someday, surely, her ;Single Ladies; leotard will take its place alongside Mickey Mouse and the Model T Ford and Louis Armstrong#39;s trumpet in a Smithsonian display case.2014年,碧昂斯对时代思潮的把握变成了一种束缚。《周六夜现场》(Saturday Night Live)最近的一个小品讲的就是碧昂斯崇拜在美国已经成义务了,排斥碧昂斯的人将被致命的政府暴徒“碧机构”(Beygency)追踪并消灭(“他背叛了自己的祖国……和它的女王,”画外音洪亮地说道)。就像《周六夜现场》暗示的那样,碧昂斯已经不只是个超级明星。她是一种国家领袖,是圈的老大;她是典型的美国事物。毋庸置疑,有一天,她在《单身女士》录影带中穿的紧身连衣裤将和米老鼠、福特T型汽车以及路易·阿姆斯特朗(Louis Armstrong)的小号一起出现在史密森尼物馆的展柜里。Historically speaking, this is no small achievement. Black women have always been dominant figures in American popular music, but no one, not even Aretha Franklin, has reached the plateau that Beyoncé occupies: pop star colossus, adored bombshell, ;America#39;s sweetheart.; Inevitably, Beyoncé is also a flashpoint, provoking ire from naysayers and ideologues of all stripes. In March, Bill O#39;Reilly decried ;Partition,; a song that details a Beyoncé-Jay Z tryst in a limousine, for setting a poor example for ;girls of color.; (Postmarital sex between consenting adults: immoral.) Last month, the black feminist author and activist Bell Hooks told an audience at a New School symposium: ;I see a part of Beyoncé that is in fact antifeminist, that is assaulting — that is a terrorist . . . especially in terms of the impact on young girls.; There is a growing scholarly literature on Beyoncé; the Women#39;s and Gender Studies department at Rutgers University has offered an undergraduate course called ;Politicizing Beyoncé.; Beyoncé is, as a cultural studies professor might put it, popular culture#39;s most richly multivalent ;text.; The question these days is not, What does the new Beyoncé record sound like? It#39;s, What does Beyoncé mean?从历史角度讲,这绝不是小小的成就。黑人女性一直是美国流行乐坛的主力军,但是没有人,甚至包括艾瑞莎·弗兰克林(Aretha Franklin),曾达到碧昂斯现在占据的高度:流行歌坛巨星,性感尤物,“美国甜心”。同时,碧昂斯也必然是个导火线,引起了爱唱反调的人以及各种思想家的愤怒。3月份,比尔·奥赖利(Bill O#39;Reilly)认为《隔离》(Partition)给“深色皮肤的女孩”树立了一个坏榜样。这首歌详细描述了碧昂斯和Jay Z在豪华轿车中的一次约会(成年人的婚后性爱:有伤风化)。上个月,黑人女权主义作家、活动家贝尔·胡克斯(Bell Hooks)在新学院(New School)的一次研讨会上对观众说:“我觉得从某些方面讲,碧昂斯实际上是反女性主义者,有破坏力,是恐怖分子……尤其是从她对年轻女孩的影响方面讲。”有越来越多的关于碧昂斯的学术研究。罗格斯大学的女人和性别研究系开设了一门本科生课程,名叫“碧昂斯政治化”。就像文化研究教授可能说的那样,碧昂斯是流行文化中最具有丰富多重意义的“文本”。如今的问题不是碧昂斯的新专辑听起来如何,而是碧昂斯意味着什么?Of course, the meaning begins with sound — with the tone and timbre of Beyoncé#39;s voice, one of the most compelling instruments in popular music. Beyoncé has traditionalist skills. She can belt an adult contemporary ballad like Barbra Streisand; she can deliver a fiery gospel testimonial; she can channel Michael Jackson (;Love on Top;) or imitate Prince#39;s falsetto (;No Angel;). But she is unmistakably a product of the hip-hop era, a singer who has assimilated the aggression and slippery rhythms of rap into a virtuosic and strange vocal style. We have gotten so used to Beyoncé, it may be hard to grasp what an oddball she is, how different her approach to rhythm, melody and harmony are to those of previous generations. You can hear that eccentricity in the wild timbral shifts and skittering syncopations of ;Drunk in Love,; a half-sung, half-rapped hit that sounds, in the best sense, like a song Beyoncé is improvising from scratch in real time. Like all innovators, Beyoncé has pushed back boundaries, expanding our sense of what music should sound like. To the extent that we hear Beyoncé as ;pop,; it#39;s because she has taught us to do so.当然,意义始于声音——碧昂斯的音调和音质是流行乐坛最引人注目的利器之一。碧昂斯还有传统主义技巧。她能像芭芭拉·史翠珊(Barbra Streisand)那样高歌成人当代抒情歌曲,也能演唱热烈的福音歌曲;她能模仿迈克尔·杰克逊(Michael Jackson,比如《爱情至上》[Love on Top]),也能模仿“王子”(Prince)的假声(比如《非天使》[No Angel])。但她毋庸置疑是嘻哈音乐时代的产物,她吸收说唱乐的攻击性和变幻的节奏,形成一种艺术性的、奇怪的演唱风格。我们太习惯于碧昂斯的唱腔了,所以可能没有想过她其实是个多么古怪的歌手,她对节奏、旋律和和声的把握与之前几代音乐人是多么不同。在《醉在爱里》狂野的多音色变化和跳跃的切分音中,你能感受到那种古怪。这首半演唱半说唱的热门歌曲听起来像是碧昂斯从头即兴创作的一首歌。和所有的创新者一样,碧昂斯打破界线,扩展了我们对音乐听起来应该是怎样的看法。以至于我们觉得碧昂斯就是“流行音乐”,因为她教我们这样认为。She#39;s taught the world to see music differently, too. The 17 s for her latest album capture the star in a head-spinning variety of attitudes and alter-egos: as a beauty pageant contestant; as a moll with a flapper haircut; as a roller-disco queen; as the leader of a militant street mob with her hair dyed green; as a Houston homegirl, vamping on a street in the city#39;s hardscrabble Third Ward, with a nasty-looking dog on a leash; as a stripper, an ardent lover, a wife; and, in ;Blue,; as an earth-mother-with-child, strolling a sun-dazzled strip of Brazilian coastline with her daughter, Blue Ivy. More than three decades after the rise of MTV, there are still those who view music s as debased or ;inauthentic.; But Beyoncé#39;s music is inseparable from her movie-star magnetism: the way she stares down a camera, strikes a pose, wears her clothes and, especially, the way she dances. And why not? Popular music has always been an audiovisual medium. If Beyoncé is the dominant figure in 21st-century music, perhaps it#39;s because pop has circumnavigated back to its 19th-century vaudevillian roots, to a time before disembodied voices came to us through hi-fi speakers or noise-canceling headphones, when music was, exclusively, a performing art. Beyoncé is the greatest old-fashioned singer and hoofer, the supreme show-woman, in an era when, once again, we#39;ve learned to love a splashy musical show.她还教这个世界用不同的眼光看音乐。在她最新专辑的17个录影带中,这位巨星表现出令人头晕目眩的各种态度和人格:选美比赛选手;发型轻佻的;旱冰迪斯科女王;好斗的绿发街头暴徒头目;休斯敦居家女孩,在该市贫穷的第三区的街头色诱男人,手里牵着一只长相凶恶的小;脱衣舞女,热烈的情人,妻子;在《蓝色》(Blue)中,扮演一位能生儿育女的母亲,和女儿布鲁·艾薇(Blue Ivy)在阳光炫目的巴西海岸漫步。音乐录影带崛起30多年来,仍有人认为它低劣、“不真实”,但是碧昂斯的音乐和她电影明星般的魅力是不可分割的:她注视摄像机、摆姿势、穿衣、特别是跳舞的方式,特别吸引人。为什么不呢?流行音乐一直都是一种视听媒体。如果说碧昂斯是21世纪音乐界的主导人物,也许是因为流行音乐又回归到了19世纪轻歌舞剧的根源,回到了我们通过高保真音响或降噪耳机聆听没有实体的声音之前的时代,那时音乐是唯一的表演艺术。碧昂斯是最优秀的传统歌手和职业舞蹈家,是无与伦比的表演歌手,在这个年代,我们再次学会了热爱炫目的音乐表演。Of course, she#39;s more than that. Literally and figuratively, Beyoncé is a moving target — it#39;s as difficult to get a fix on her as it would be to keep up with her on the dance floor. Beyoncé represents down-home earthiness and impossible glamour, soul-woman warmth and diva hauteur, a nose-to-the-grindstone work ethic and garish 1 percent excess. Her new album is sexed-up to the point of lewdness, with punch lines about body fluids on evening wear and intimations of rough sex. Yet the sex — in the limo, in the kitchen, everywhere, apparently, but the bedroom — is married sex, family-values sex, which, the album makes clear, produced a bouncing baby girl, a result perhaps even Bill O#39;Reilly can feel good about.当然,她不只如此。不管从字面意思还是象征意义上讲,碧昂斯都是一个移动靶——你很难定位她,也很难在舞池上跟上她的步伐。碧昂斯既有美国南方的质朴,也有不可思议的魅力、黑人女性的温暖和天后的傲慢——专注的职业精神和1%的过分炫耀。她的新专辑对性欲的挑逗达到了淫荡的程度,其中一些歌词提到了晚礼上的体液,暗示着粗野的性爱。但是其中的性爱——在豪华轿车上,在厨房里,在所有的地方,但是显然不在卧室里——是婚后的性爱,是家庭价值观念里的性爱,专辑中明确说明,这样的性爱育了一个活泼的女婴,这样的结果恐怕连比尔·奥赖利也会感到欣慰。Beyoncé#39;s songs are packed tight with such contradictions. Think of ;Single Ladies,; an anthem of feisty feminist solidarity that endorses the most retrograde diamonds-are-a-girl#39;s-best-friend brand of transactional romance: ;If you liked it, then you should have put a ring on it.; Or consider ;***Flawless,; on the new album, which throws together a dizzying mix of sounds and signifiers. There#39;s a clamorous trap beat and pitch-shifted vocals; there are shout-outs to Houston (;H-town vicious;) and to Jay Z#39;s record label, Roc Nation (;My Roc, flawless;). There are coarse mean-girl threats (;Bow down, bitches!;) and a sampled snippet from a TEDx talk by the Nigerian novelist Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie titled ;We Should All Be Feminists,; which wags a finger at mean-girl threats: ;We raise girls to see each other as competitors.; The intersperses an excerpt from 10-year-old Beyoncé#39;s appearance on the TV talent show ;Star Search; with the current-day Beyoncé, clad in Kurt Cobain flannel, executing a spectacular dance routine in a dank basement surrounded by skinheads. It#39;s all tied together by a refrain — ;I woke up like this!; — which, among other things, does double duty as a boast about effortless beauty and a mantra of enlightenment. What does Beyoncé mean? What doesn#39;t she mean.碧昂斯的歌充满了这样的矛盾。比如《单身女士》,它是一首对活跃的女性主义团结的赞歌,但是它赞同最退化的“钻石是女孩最好的朋友”式的交易型恋爱:“如果你喜欢它,那你就应该在上面放个戒指。”又如新专辑中的《***无瑕》(***Flawless),它把声音和信号令人眩晕地结合在一起。其中有喧闹的打击乐和音高不断变化的唱腔;有对休斯顿的呼喊(“堕落的H市”),也有对Jay Z唱片公司Roc Nation的赞美(“我的Roc,完美无瑕”)。既有刻薄女孩的粗俗威胁(“鞠躬,贱人!”),也有尼日利亚小说家奇玛曼达·恩格兹·阿迪切(Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie)在TEDx大会上的演讲片段,演讲题目叫《我们都应该做女权主义者》(We Should All Be Feminists),它不赞同刻薄女孩的威胁:“我们养女孩就是要互相竞争。”音乐录影带把碧昂斯10岁时在电视才艺表演节目《明日之星》(Star Search)中的片段与如今的碧昂斯的镜头穿插起来,现在的她穿着科特·柯本(Kurt Cobain)式法兰绒衣,在一个阴湿的地下室跳舞,周围全是光头青年。一句副歌把这些联系到了一起——“我醒来就变成这样了!”——这句话和其他很多内容一样,有双重意义,既是对自己天生丽质的吹嘘,又像是开悟的咒语。碧昂斯意味着什么?她意味着一切。 /201409/329821

When Adam Liu decided to research his family roots, he had no problem tracing his grandmother’s family back to Ireland and England from his home computer in Sydney, Australia. But he soon hit a wall with the great-grandfather who left China to seek his fortune in Singapore in the 1890s.生活在澳大利亚悉尼的刘先生(Adam Liu,刘为音译)想要探寻家族根源,他毫不费劲地用家中的电脑搜索到,祖母的家族来自爱尔兰和英格兰。但在寻找有关曾祖父的信息时,他一无所获。他的曾祖父在19世纪90年代离开中国去了新加坡。He decided to hire a tiny start-up called My China Roots based near Beijing’s Confucius Temple. It offers bespoke ancestry searches for overseas Chinese seeking insight into where their forefathers came from, and what drove them to leave.刘先生决定请一家名为“中华家脉”(My China Roots)的小公司来帮他寻根。“中华家脉”是一家规模很小的初创公司,办公地址在北京孔庙附近,为海外华人提供定制寻根务,帮助他们探寻自己的祖先来自哪里、以及当初离开中国的原因。“You want to have a real, tangible connection to where you stand in the context of history,” says Mr Liu, who first became curious about his roots when he was assigned to draw a family tree in school.刘先生说:“人会希望切实地触摸自己与历史的联系。”他第一次对自己的家族根源产生兴趣,是在有一次学校布置作业、让他们画下自己的族谱时。The Chinese diaspora numbers 50m whose ancestors settled the trading posts of southeast Asia over the past 200 years but also voyaged to places further afield, such as Manchester, home to Britain’s largest Chinese community, and the crowded streets of New York’s Lower East Side.全世界有5000万华侨华人。在过去200年里,他们的祖先不仅在东南亚各贸易城市定居下来,还有些走得更远,来到了曼彻斯特(那里有英国最大的中国城)和纽约下东区的拥挤街区。“The overwhelming majority left for non-pleasant reasons. Whether poverty or political it was never pleasant,” says Huihan Lie, My China Roots founder and the descendent of Dutch-speaking Indonesian Chinese who moved to the Netherlands after Indonesia’s independence.“中华家脉”创始人李伟汉(Huihan Lie)的祖辈是印尼华人,说荷兰语,在印尼独立后移民到了荷兰。李伟汉说:“大多数华人都是迫不得已才离开的。要么是因为贫穷,要么是因为政治方面的原因,总之回想起来绝不让人愉快。”Ancestry.com reported revenues of 0m last year selling services to North Americans, Australians and others researching their roots. Businesses focusing on European ancestry are basically data providers, offering electronic searches of material from Ellis Island or centuries of marriage, death and census records.家谱网(Ancestry.com)去年报告营收5.4亿美元,其业务是向北美、澳大利亚和其他地区的华人提供寻根务。在欧洲提供寻根务的公司主要是数据提供商,提供从埃利斯岛(Ellis Island,指美国移民局——译者注)搜索的资料,以及多个世纪的婚姻、死亡和人口普查资料。Chinese ancestry research, by contrast, is “hard to scale up”, Mr Lie discovered.李伟汉发现,相形之下,中国的寻根务则“很难做大”。Chinese families record their births and deaths in the jia pu, or ancestral book, which can stretch across centuries. Most are maintained by the clan or temple in the ancestral village, not by any public authority, which makes it hard to compile digital databases. Many vanished during a century of war and attacks by early communists, including the fanatical Red Guards.中国人在家谱里记录族人的出生和死亡,记录的时间跨度可达数个世纪。家谱大多由古老村庄中的宗祠祖庙、而不是公共机关管理,因此很难编制数字化数据库。许多家谱在一个世纪的战争中遗失了,还有许多被狂热的红卫兵等初期共产主义者毁掉了。“There’s a lot of personal history that’s so easily destroyed,” says Mr Lie, who tries to make his clients’ ancestors “come alive” with descriptions of their surroundings and the political context of their lives.李伟汉说:“很多个人历史很容易就被毁灭了。”他试图通过描述当时的环境和他们生活的政治背景,还原客户祖先的生前情景。Some online ancestry websites offer advice for overseas Chinese – for instance, by explaining the limited online databases of jia pu and other records – but few sell search services. And those records are inaccessible for people such as Mr Liu who do not Chinese.有一些在线寻根网站为海外华人提供建议,比如对网上有限的家谱资料和其他记录进行解释,但很少有网站会代客户进行寻找。像刘先生这样的华人也不会中文,因此也看不懂那些记录。The task is complicated by the short list of Chinese family names (the top 100 account for about 85 per cent of all Chinese, compared with about 25,000 relatively common British surnames) and the unwillingness of many emigrants to confide in their assimilated children.中国人的姓相对较少(100个大姓就占了所有中国人的85%,而英国人有2.5万个常用姓),许多华人移民也不愿把家世告诉已经被异乡同化了的子女,这两点让寻根变得更加困难。Most jia pu fail to record the full names of wives or daughters, in effect limiting most searches to the father’s line.大多数家谱未记录妻子或女儿的全名,导致大多数搜索只能局限于父系。My China Roots’s small team of researchers act like detectives, identifying villages through local historical associations and interviewing elderly residents to determine how the family has fared since the client’s ancestor left home. When the team visited Mr Liu’s ancestral temple in inland Jiangxi province, they discovered a lineage that stretched back 3,000 years.“中华家脉”的研究员人数很少,他们的工作方式好像侦探——通过地方史志机构找到祖村,探访年长居民、打探客户祖先离乡后整个家族的变迁。研究员们造访刘先生老家位于江西省的宗祠后发现,刘氏家族的谱系可追溯至3000年前。To expand, Mr Lie is training a network of promising young provincial researchers.为扩大业务,李伟汉正在培养一批年轻有前途的乡土研究员。It is a race against time. Mr Lie traced his mother’s roots to a village near Zhangzhou, the silk-trading city in China’s southern Fujian province that they left seven generations ago. But like much of China’s heritage, the 500-year-old clan temple that protected the family records during centuries of war and revolution is about to fall victim to an even more implacable force – economic development and the wreckers’ ball.这是一场与时间的赛跑。李伟汉追溯到,他母亲的祖先来自福建丝绸贸易古城漳州附近的一个村庄,他们在七代以前离开家乡。但如中国大部分传统事物的命运一样,那座已有500年历史、在几个世纪的战火和革命中保护了家族记录的宗祠,即将被一股更加难以阻挡的力量摧毁,那就是经济发展和拆迁队的破碎机。 /201409/331368

AT THE ACADEMY AWARDS earlier this month, Kerry Washington, the star of the A-TV series #39;Scandal,#39; wore a lilac Jason Wu gown, tailor-made to accommodate what she playfully called her little #39;accessory#39;-a growing baby bump.在3月份早些时候举行的奥斯卡金像奖颁奖典礼(Academy Awards)上,美国广播公司(A)电视剧《丑闻》(Scandal)中的明星凯丽#12539;华盛顿(Kerry Washington)穿了一条吴季刚(Jason Wu)设计的淡紫色礼,衣根据她日渐隆起的小腹量身定制,华盛顿戏称大肚子是自己的小“配饰”。These days, that#39;s just how stylish mothers-to-be are treating their bellies when it comes to dressing: as an exciting accouterment rather than an insurmountable style obstacle. These resourceful women are mixing non-maternity pieces from surprisingly pregnancy-friendly labels such as Alexander Wang and Rick Owens with a chicer-than-ever crop of maternity brands.如今,时尚准妈妈在穿衣时就是这样对待自己的小腹的:把它当成是有趣的装饰,而不是阻碍时尚的麻烦。这些聪明的准妈妈们把亚历山大#12539;王(Alexander Wang)和瑞克#12539;欧文斯(Rick Owens)等特别照顾妇需求品牌的非妇单品和妇装品牌的时髦剪裁进行混搭。#39;When you#39;re pregnant, your body is changing every day. The fashion just has to be able to evolve to fit that,#39; said Ms. Washington. In addition to custom-designed gowns from Thakoon and Balenciaga, the actress has worn maternity pieces, like a silk charmeuse tuxedo from the very un-maternity maternity label Hatch, as well as designer dresses she buys in large sizes and alters, like an A-line shift by Tory Burch and a cerulean Calvin Klein Collection cocktail number with a peek-a-boo shoulder. #39;Pregnant or not, your tailor is your best friend,#39; said Erin Walsh, Ms. Washington#39;s stylist, who added that the key to a flattering alteration (besides accommodating a growing midsection) is to accentuate the finer points of one#39;s figure-whether wrists, cleavage or legs.华盛顿说:“怀的时候,你的身体每天都在变化。时尚必须能够不断演变来适应这种变化。”除了塔库恩(Thakoon)和巴黎世家(Balenciaga)的定制礼,她还穿妇装,比如非常不像妇装的妇装品牌Hatch的一套查米尤绉缎燕尾,她还会买大号的名牌裙子来修改,比如Tory Burch的一条宽松连身裙和 Calvin Klein Collection的一件露肩天蓝色鸡尾酒会装。华盛顿的造型师埃琳#12539;沃尔什(Erin Walsh)说:“无论是否怀,你的裁缝师都是你最好的朋友。”她还说,除了适合越来越大的肚子,改出好衣的关键在于突出身体的细节――比如手腕、乳沟或者小腿。In the age of the Best-Dressed Baby Bump, it#39;s hard to fathom that Lucille Ball caused a scandal when she appeared pregnant on #39;I Love Lucy,#39; in 1952, or that Grace Kelly used her Hermès bag to shield her growing body from the press. #39;Things have changed so much over the last few decades,#39; said Violet Gaynor, a senior fashion editor at Instyle.com and co-founder of the Glow, a website that features at-home interviews with chic mothers like actress Jemima Kirke and Manhattan boutique owner Maryam Nassir Zadeh. Ms. Gaynor and her co-founder, Kelly Stuart, will be releasing the Glow#39;s first book in April. #39;There#39;s so much more of a celebration about being pregnant,#39; she added, #39;and more of a focus on stylish motherhood.#39; Websites like the Glow offer mothers plenty of fashion inspiration-often with shoppable links.在比拼最佳妇着装的年代,很难想像1952年露西尔#12539;鲍尔(Lucille Ball)怀着身出现在《我爱露西》(I Love Lucy)中会引发丑闻,也很难理解格蕾斯#12539;凯丽(Grace Kelly)会在媒体面前用她的爱马仕(Herms)手袋遮住日渐隆起的肚子。Instyle.com高级时尚编辑及Glow网站联合创始人维奥莱特#12539;盖纳(Violet Gaynor)说:“这几十年来变化太大了。”Glow上有很多对时尚妈妈所作的家庭采访,比如演员杰米玛#12539;科克(Jemima Kirke)和曼哈顿精品店店主玛丽亚姆#12539;纳西尔#12539;扎德(Maryam Nassir Zadeh)。盖纳和她的联合创始人凯丽#12539;斯图尔特(Kelly Stuart)将会在4月发布Glow的第一本书。她说:“现在怀更多是一种庆祝,更多的关注点在时尚备。”Glow这样的网站会为妇提供大量时尚灵感――通常都会有购物链接。As the average age of first-time mothers continues to climb and the number of women having children in their 30s and 40s rises, ladies with a well-developed sense of fashion see no reason to sacrifice personal style when they#39;re expecting. And the fashion industry is responding.随着首次怀女性的平均年龄持续增大,三四十岁怀女性的人数越来越多,有着成熟时尚感的女性认为怀时没有理由牺牲掉个人着装风格。时尚行业也在做出回应。#39;There is this group of women who have more disposable income to spend. They have their own identity and style and are really looking to preserve that,#39; said Courtney Klein, a former partner at a Manhattan digital agency who recently launched Storq, a collection of layerable, curve-hugging basics designed to fit into women#39;s existing wardrobes-not replace them altogether. Storq#39;s stretchy modal pieces-skirt, dress, leggings, tank top-can be purchased separately, or as a complete set for 5, on the brand#39;s website. Ms. Klein, who is 28 weeks pregnant herself, has aly shipped orders to 30 states.曼哈顿某数字广告公司前合伙人考特妮#12539;克莱恩(Courtney Klein)说:“有一群女性有用不完的可配收入。她们有自己的身份和风格,而且非常希望能保持。”克莱恩最近推出了可分层穿的紧身基本款装品牌Storq,这些衣旨在融入女性现有的衣橱,而非取代所有的衣。在Storq的网站上,弹性莫代尔单品――半身裙、连身裙、打底裤、背心――可以分开购买,也可以以195美元的价格购买整套。克莱恩自己已怀28周,公司的订单已经发往了30个州。Ms. Klein is just one of the entrepreneurs helping to rewrite the script for pregnancy dressing. Ariane Goldman, who founded the label Hatch in 2011, said the word #39;maternity#39; is taboo in her office. #39;I think all of us just associate #39;maternity#39; with disposable pieces that will get you through this icky stage and that you#39;ll never want to wear again,#39; said Ms. Goldman. Instead, Hatch aims to provide pieces-at prices similar to what one may pay at, say, A Pea in the Pod, where many dresses hover around the 0 mark-that will live on in a woman#39;s wardrobe after pregnancy. The appeal of Hatch#39;s silky jumpsuits, gaberdine trenches and flowing dresses is apparent, whether a customer is pregnant or not.克莱恩仅仅是众多帮助重组妇装行业格局的创业家中的一位而已。2011年创立Hatch品牌的阿里亚纳#12539;戈德曼(Ariane Goldman)说,“怀”这个词在她的办公室是禁忌。戈德曼说:“我觉得大家都把‘怀’和一次性衣联系起来了,认为这些衣只是帮你度过这个难熬的阶段,然后就再也不会穿了。”而Hatch则是为女性提供能在期结束后继续留在衣橱里的衣,其价格和妇装品牌A Pea in the Pod差不多,该品牌的很多衣都在200美元左右。无论怀与否,Hatch真丝连体衣、华达呢风衣和飘逸长裙的吸引力都是显而易见的。Ms. Gaynor said the fashionable mothers she has featured on the Glow taught her the value of an #39;anything goes#39; approach. #39;They like to find what works for them and just go with it,#39; she said, #39;even if it#39;s not a traditional approach to maternity.#39; For Ms. Gaynor, whose daughter was born last summer, that meant not only investing in the ubiquitous J. Brand maternity jeans, but resurrecting favorite pieces from her closet, like a generously cut Emilio Pucci dress that once belonged to her grandmother. Another of her favorite looks was a long white Alexander Wang slip dress, which she bought a few sizes too big, that wraps under the bust.盖纳说,Glow上的时尚准妈妈们让她知道了“随意搭”穿衣风格的价值。于去年夏天生下女儿的她说:“她们喜欢研究自己穿什么好,然后就会那样穿,即使那并不是传统的妇着装。”对盖纳来说,这意味着不光要买普适的J. Brand妇牛仔裤,还要从衣橱里挖出自己最喜欢的衣,比如曾经属于祖母的一条剪裁宽松的璞琪(Emilio Pucci)连身裙。她最喜欢的装扮还有一条亚历山大#12539;王的裹胸吊带裙,这条裙子她买大好几个尺码。#39;There#39;s something reassuring about still being able to shop in a regular store when you#39;re pregnant,#39; said Meredith Melling, who recently left her longtime post as a Vogue editor to co-found the fashion consultancy firm La Marque. Ms. Melling, whose second child is due this weekend, said she has relied on American Apparel unitards and oversize cardigans, as well as items from Zara, which she buys big and has tailored to fit her growing body. For special events, Ms. Melling swears by vintage clothing. Unlike with current-season wares, she said, there are no preconceptions about styling or fit and little risk of another (un-pregnant) woman appearing in the same dress. However, for the very special occasion of the La Marque launch in January, Ms. Melling wore a current Marc Jacobs dress with a drop-waist-a universally flattering silhouette for party-going pregnant gals. #39;It was a way to feel a bit more elevated, like my former fashion self,#39; she said.梅雷迪思#12539;梅林(Meredith Melling)最近刚辞掉做了很久的《时尚》(Vogue)编辑工作,与他人合伙创立了时尚咨询公司La Marque。她说:“怀的时候还能在普通商店里买衣,给人一种很安心的感觉。”第二个孩子刚刚出生的梅林说,她喜欢American Apparel的连体紧身衣和大号开衫,还有Zara的单品,她会买大号,然后进行修改,以适应自己的体型变化。参加特殊活动时,梅林很信赖复古装。她说,和当季时装不同,复古风格没有款式或合身的先入之见,而且与其他(未怀)女士穿同一条裙子的可能性也不大。不过,在1月份La Marque成立的特殊场合,梅林穿了一条当季的马克#12539;雅各布斯(Marc Jacobs)低腰裙――这种款式对参加派对的妇来说很讨喜。她说:“这样会让自己觉得更高贵些,就像以前那个时尚的自己。”Kate Davidson Hudson, co-founder of the luxury accessories website Editorialist, recently traveled to Milan and Paris Fashion Weeks while she was more than five months into her pregnancy. She found herself packing pieces from designers who favor boxier shapes, including a snakeskin-printed shift dress from Stella McCartney. #39;There are ways to play around with sizing with contemporary and designer brands so you still feel like yourself, but don#39;t look like a sausage squeezed into a runway look,#39; said Ms. Davidson Hudson, adding that it#39;s better to wear more fitted items as your bump grows, counterintuitive as it may seem. #39;You almost need something body-con when you get to seven or eight months, to define the belly,#39; she said. A body-skimming knit dress from the designer Rick Owens that had languished in her closet for seasons proved pivotal during her first pregnancy, in 2011. In addition to his edgy aesthetic and penchant for leather, Mr. Owens is known for his neutral color palette and use of forgiving fabrics.奢侈配饰网站Editorialist联合创始人凯特#12539;戴维德森#12539;赫德森(Kate Davidson Hudson)最近怀着五个多月的身去米兰和巴黎参加时装周。她发现自己选择了偏爱箱型款式的设计师的作品,包括斯特拉#12539;麦卡特尼(Stella McCartney)的一条蛇皮图案宽松直筒连衣裙。她说:“有很多方式可以对当代和设计师品牌的东西进行发挥,从而让自己感到自信,但不要弄得像一根香肠塞进T台时装里一样。”她说随着肚子越来越大,穿衣最好越来越合身,这点看似违背常理。她说:“到了七八个月的时候差不多就需要贴身的衣了,好让肚子的轮廓显现出来。”她有一件设计师瑞克#12539;欧文斯设计的修身针织连衣裙,已经闲置在衣橱好几年了。结果这条裙子在她2011年第一次怀期间起到了关键作用。除了敏锐的审美和对真皮的偏爱,欧文斯还以中性色系和常用宽松面料而闻名。Laure Heriard Dubreuil, founding partner of the Miami boutique the Webster, is also a fan of Mr. Owens, as well as Azzedine Ala#239;a bodysuits, for expecting moms. #39;I learned that it#39;s better to wear tighter clothes,#39; said Ms. Heriard Dubreuil, citing a particularly ill-advised oversize gown that made her feel frumpy at a formal event. #39;Most of [Owens#39;s] pants or skirts have elastic bands, so you can wear them low-waist,#39; added Ms. Heriard Dubreuil, whose son was born in January. #39;The drop crotch of his pants also works well, so you have a cool look.#39;迈阿密Webster精品店创始合伙人劳雷#12539;埃里亚尔#12539;迪布勒伊(Laure Heriard Dubreuil)也是欧文斯的粉丝,她也很喜欢阿瑟丁#12539;阿拉亚(Azzedine Alaia)的紧身衣。她说:“我听说最好是穿紧一点的衣。”她提到有一次参加正式活动时,听了别人糟糕的建议穿了一件大号裙子,最后让自己觉得很上不了台面。她说:“欧文斯大多数的裤子或裙子都有松紧带,所以可以低腰穿。低裆剪裁的裤子也很不错,会显得很酷。” 埃里亚尔#12539;迪布勒伊1月份生了一个儿子。Slip dresses are another of Ms. Heriard Dubreuil#39;s go-tos. After falling in love with a long bias-cut version she found at C. Madeleine#39;s, a vintage store in Miami, she had her tailor reproduce it in several other colors. She wore the original (and her copies) under a Balenciaga leather jacket or long cardigan from Acne. #39;They are perfect when you#39;re pregnant, because your cleavage looks beautiful and you show your belly,#39; she said.吊带裙也是埃里亚尔#12539;迪布勒伊喜欢的装扮。她在迈阿密古着店C. Madeleine#39;s发现了一条斜线剪裁的吊带长裙后非常喜欢,于是让自己的裁缝用好几种颜色仿制了同款。她里面穿着这条裙子(以及仿制的那几条),外面穿巴黎世家的皮夹克或者Acne的长羊毛开衫。她说:“怀的时候这样穿很完美,因为你的乳沟看起来很美,而且肚子也显出来了。”Looking good may be directly correlated to feeling great, but so is being physically comfortable-especially in your third trimester. Nadiyah Bradshaw-Spencer-a production director for the Manhattan clothing label Suno-is due this month with her first baby. She#39;s long since abandoned her suede Nicholas Kirkwood stilettos in favor of ankle boots from the same designer with a small, foot-friendly block heel. Actress Ms. Washington appreciates comfort as well. #39;It#39;s been fun to explore how to fuse comfort and fashion in a different way,#39; she said. #39;That#39;s why tailoring is so important.#39;穿着漂亮可能会让自己感觉很好,但身体的舒也同样重要――尤其是在最后三个月的时候。曼哈顿时装品牌Suno生产总监纳迪娅#12539;布拉德肖-斯宾塞(Nadiyah Bradshaw-Spencer)第一个孩子的预产期是三月份。她早就抛弃了那双小山羊皮的Nicholas Kirkwood细高跟鞋,改穿同样品牌但穿起来更舒的粗跟及踝靴。演员华盛顿也很注重舒适度。她说:“探索将舒适和时尚结合起来的不同方式很好玩,这就是为何剪裁如此重要。”Ms. Heriard Dubreuil, of the Webster, made concessions to comfort during pregnancy too, swapping her heels for sneakers from Pierre Hardy, and ditching her heavy bags for Olympia Le Tan clutches. As she prepared recently to travel to Paris for Fashion Week with her son, the new mother said she was packing those sneakers, but that the Olympia Le Tan clutches were staying at home. #39;Unfortunately,#39; said Ms. Heriard Dubreuil, #39;they can#39;t fit the diapers.#39;Webster的埃里亚尔#12539;迪布勒伊在怀期间也对舒适做出了妥协,她把高跟鞋换成了皮埃尔#12539;哈迪(Pierre Hardy)的球鞋,沉甸甸的大包也换成了Olympia Le Tan小手包。最近准备带儿子参加巴黎时尚周时,这位新妈妈说她带上了那些球鞋,但把Olympia Le Tan手包留在了家里。她说:“可惜这些手包装不下尿布。 /201404/284299

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