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泉州市新阳光女子医院几楼千龙信息石狮市中医院妇产科

2019年10月15日 16:45:59
来源:四川新闻网
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泉州人流最安全医院If you want to impress a man, don#39;t try to be funny。如果你想给一个男人留下好印象,那么不要试图太有趣。Research shows that men aren#39;t hugely attracted to witty women。研究表明,机智幽默的女人对男人没有太大的吸引力。Given the choice of a female who makes him laugh, or one that laughs at his jokes, he will choose the latter。如果让男人选择让她笑的女人还是听他的笑话笑的女人,他会选择后者。Luckily, women aren#39;t too worried about their jokes being appreciated. They, it seems, like men who make them smile。幸运地是,女人不太担心她们的笑话会不会被欣赏。他们似乎更喜欢让她们笑的男人。It is thought that women see the ability to make people laugh sign of intelligence – and men have evolved to show off how good they are with words。女人把让人们笑的能力当做是聪明的标志,男人已经演变的擅长卖弄他们对文字的操控能力是多么的游刃有余。The University of Miami researchers quizzed more than 80 men and women about how much importance they placed on having a partner who could make them laugh。有个让他们笑的对象到底有多重要?迈阿密大学的研究员采访了80多位男人和女人。The answers revealed that women like men make them laugh, while men want to go out with women who appreciate their humour。显示,女人喜欢让他们笑的男人,然而男人想要跟欣赏他们的幽默的女人约会。Given that women tend to be more choosy, men are under pressure to make them laugh。考虑到女人们变得更加挑剔,男人也有逗她们笑的压力。Miss Hone, who is close to completing her PhD, said: #39;Given that humour requires high-level linguistic capacity, women are thought to use humour production as a sign that a man is a mentally-capable suitor.#39;将要获得士学位的Hone说:‘鉴于幽默需要高水平的语言能力,女人把幽默作品看做是男人是个充满智慧的追求者的标志。’However, she said that funny women shouldn#39;t despair. There is also hope for bachelors who never remember punch lines。然而,她说,有趣的女人不应该绝望。还有希望,还是有很多单身汉不会妙语连珠的。This is because her results were based on averages – and not everyone will have the same taste。这是因为她的结果是基于平均值的,并且不是每个人的品位都是相同的。 /201507/384651泉州新阳光妇产医院地址查询General Description概述Among the Han people,which constitute a vast majority of China#39;s total population,the passage into adulthood is no longer celebrated,except in those very, very traditional families. In ancient times,this ceremony marked a person#39;s transition to adulthood and was generally referred to as the capping or hair-pinning ceremony.汉族占中国人口的绝大多数。在汉族人中,除了那些非常传统的家庭,成人礼已不再举行。在古代,这一仪式标志着一个人进入了成年阶段,通常被称为“冠礼”或“异礼”。This ceremony started from the dan society of the long past and continued to be held until the Qing Dynasty(1644一1911).The Manchu rulers then felt that this ceremony of the Han people had become“hypocritical; and meaningless and thus mandated that this ceremony,which had lasted for thousands of years,should be abolished. From then on the Han people have to enter the stage of adulthood without knowing it. Nowadays,it is mainly in those minor ethnic groups fihat this life passage is still celebrated. In some parts of China,this ceremony is experiencing a revival.这一礼仪始于远古的氏族社会,一直延续到清朝(1644一1911)。清朝的满族统治者感到汉族的这一礼仪已经变成了一种虚文假醋,无足轻重,于是一纸令下,终结了汉族绵延几千年的成人礼。从此后,汉族人只能在“不知不觉”中进人成年。现在,中国的成人仪式主要集中在一些少数民族。有些地方,汉族的成人礼也在渐渐复兴。Capping and Hair-Pinning冠礼和异礼The capping and hair-pinning ceremony of the ancient times was originally intended to prevent non-adults from getting married and later evolved into a moral test on adults#39; marriage qualifications.古代的成年礼本意是为了禁止与未成年的异性通婚。冠礼是成年礼的一种高级的代表形式,也可以说是对成年人婚姻资格的一种道德审查。When a young man reached 18 or 20 years old,the capping ceremony would be held. It consisted of several procedures. The hair of the young man should be done up and pinned. Then three caps of different materials which carried different meanings should be placed the youth#39;s head. This was called ;Three Caps Cer emony;.After this,the father or other seniors would appoint an alias to the new adult apart from his name. Only those men who had been through the“Three Caps Ceremony; and had an alias could get married in the past.一个年轻的男人十八岁或二十岁时,要举行冠礼。冠礼的程序可以分为三部分。首先要把参加冠礼的年轻人的头发盘起替上。然后给他戴上三顶不同材质不同含义的帽子,这一礼仪叫“三加”。“三加”之后,由父亲或其他长辈在其本名之外另起一个“字”,只有“冠而字”的男子,才具备日后择偶成婚的资格。The hair-pinning ceremony would be held when a girl was 15 years old. At the ceremony the mother or another senior did up and pinned the girl#39;s hair. This change of hairstyle meant that the girl had reached maturity and can be wedded.与男子的冠礼相对,女子的成年礼叫异礼,也叫加笋,在巧岁时举行,就是由女孩的母亲或长辈替她把头发盘结起来,加上一根簪子;改变发式表示从此结束少女时代,可以嫁人了。Teeth-Painting and Tattooing漆齿和纹身People from the Dai and Bulang nationalities celebrate the passage into adulthood through teeth-painting and tattooing. Those without painted teeth cannot engage themselves in socialising. Before his/her teeth are painted,the child usually smears them with some acid juice. And then some pine wood is lit to smoke the teeth. This may continue for several days until the teeth are all black.漆齿和纹身是傣族、布朗族等成人礼的组成部分。没有漆齿者不能公开参加社交活动。染齿前,需先用酸汁涂抹一遍牙齿,再点一束松明,以黑烟熏齿,连染数日,直至将雪白的牙齿染成墨黑色。Tattooing is only for men. There is folk saying among the Dai and Bulang people,“Frogs have patterns on their legs;how can men have no tattoos on their legs; Men are proud of their tattoos;those without tattoos will be looked down upon and regarded as cowards by girls. The tattooing ceremony is usually held when the bov is fourteen or fifteen.只有男人才会纹身。民间有谚语说:“蛙腿尚有花纹,男人之腿怎可没有花纹。”男性以纹身为荣,身上不刺纹者,会被姑娘们视为懦夫。纹身一般在十四五岁时进行。Changing into Trousers or Skirts换裙和换裤The Mosuo,Naxi,Pumi and Yi nationalities celebrate their passage of life into adulthood by changing into trousers or skirts.梭族、纳西族、普米族、彝族等都通过更换饰象征成年,女的换裙,男的换裤。When a Mosuo child reaches 13,the rite of passage into adulthood will be held. This ceremony usually takes place on the first day of the lunar new year. The boy stands beside the“male column; on the left of the main hall and the girl beside the ;female column; on the right, with one foot on pork and the other on a bag of grains,which means that they will be prosperous all along their life. Then the mother dresses her girl in a skirt and the uncle dresses the boy in adult men#39;s clothes. The rites of passage into adulthood held by the Naxi and Pumi people are similar to this.梭族孩子长到13岁,便要举行成年礼。成年礼仪式一律在农历大年初一凌晨举行。行礼时,男孩站在正房左边“男柱”下,女孩站在右边“女柱”下,一只脚踩着猪膘肉,一只脚踩着粮袋,象征终生吃用不尽。女孩由阿妈为其穿上裙子。男孩由舅舅为其穿戴簇新男装。纳西族、普米族的成人礼与此相似。Other Customs其他风俗There are other interesting customs concerning celebration of the passage into adulthood. For example the rite of passage into adulthood of the Jinuo people involves cattle slaying and saga-chanting. Boys of the Yao nationality have to pass about ten dangerous tests and take oaths not to conduct bad deeds. There are 56 ethnic groups in China and customs vary,it is simply impossible to discuss all of them.关于成人礼,还有其他一些有意思的风俗。比如基诺族举行成人礼时要杀牛唱诗;瑶族的男孩要通过近十项危险的考验,而且要发誓不干坏事。中国有五十六个少数民族,要讨论所有的风俗习惯是不可能的。 /201505/377070When little Myla Lawrie was brought home from hospital four months ago, a veritable sea of pink greeted her, with clouds of balloons filling the sitting room, along with cards, bunting and ribbons in every shade of girliness.  四个月前,小麦拉·劳里(Myla Lawrie)从医院被抱回家时,迎接她的是一片粉红色的“海洋”——起居室内飘满粉红色的气球,点缀着粉粉的卡片、幔幕和缎带,到处洋溢着粉嫩女孩的气息。  For this was a very special event in the Lawrie family. When Myla was born in October, she was the first girl to be born in her family since 1809.  对劳里家族而言,这是一件特别的大事件。小麦拉出生在十月,她是1809年以来劳里家族降生的第一个女孩。  The last time a midwife announced ;It#39;s a girl;, the Napoleonic war was still being fought, the motorcar was yet to be invented, and ;mad; King George III was on the English throne。  上一次产婆宣布“生了个女孩”的时候,还是拿破仑战争时期,那时候人们还没发明汽车,“疯癫的”君主乔治三世还在位统治英国。  No wonder her proud parents — Hannah, a 26-year-old midwife, and Mark, a 33-year-old professional golfer turned coach, from Maidstone in Kent — wanted to celebrate。  有了这些理由,小麦拉的双亲如此引以为傲,也就不足为奇了。她的母亲是24岁的助产士汉娜,父亲名叫马克,是一名职业高尔夫球员,两人都来自英国肯特州的梅德斯通。如今,他们想为这个新生命的到来庆祝一番。  ;When Mark and I first got together, he told me how everyone in his family, for five generations, had produced boys,; explains Hannah. ;He warned me that the chances of us ever having a daughter were pretty remote.;  汉娜说:“我和马克刚在一起的时候,他就告诉了我他们家族成员已连续五代都只生男孩。他提醒我说,我们拥有一个女儿的希望十分渺茫。”  True to form, when Hannah became pregnant in 2012, no one was surprised when Mason, who#39;s now three, was born。  事情不出所料,当2012年汉娜怀时,毫无悬念地迎来了他们的儿子——梅森。现在梅森已经三岁了。  Looking back over the family tree, Hannah could see why everyone was so convinced. The last girl to be born in the Lawrie family was Mason#39;s great-great-great Aunt Bessie, born more than 200 years ago in the same year as Charles Darwin。  回顾劳里家族的家谱,汉娜明白了为什么每个劳里家族的后代都对此深信不疑,劳里家族诞生的最后一名女性是马克的高曾姑母贝茜,她生于200多年前,和达尔文同年。  Bessie and her brother had had sons, and so the pattern had continued, all the way down to Mark and his brother Glenn. Mark has two other boys, ten-year-old Ben and seven-year-old Zac, from a previous relationship, while Glenn had one son, Reece, who#39;s 14.  贝茜和她的兄弟们生的都是男孩,于是这一现象开始流传下去,一直延续到马克和他的哥哥格伦身上。马克和前任还有两个儿子,十岁的本和七岁的扎克。格伦也育有一子,十四岁的瑞斯。  ;I even questioned whether there could be a genetic condition that meant Mark produced only male sperm,; says Hannah。  汉娜说,我甚至曾咨询过,是否因为遗传的关系,所以马克只能产生雄性精子。  ;I asked numerous doctors and consultants in the hospital where I work if this was the case, but was told time and again that it wasn#39;t. Every time a baby is conceived, the chances of it being a girl are 50/50, they told me — but in Mark#39;s family, for some reason, it never was.;  我还问了很多和我同院的大夫是否是这种情况,但每每得到的回答都是否定的。每一次受时,生男生女的机率都是各一半,但在马克的家族,不知为何却从来不是这样。  Desperate to improve their chances of having a girl, Hannah came across the Shettles Method, developed by an American doctor in the Sixties, which claims the timing of conception can help determine the baby#39;s sex。  为了提高生女儿的几率,汉娜采取了“薛德思法(Shettles Method:由薛德思士提出的一种帮助选择婴儿性别的怀方式)”。该方法是由一名美国医生在六十年代提出的,主张怀的时间有助于决定婴儿性别。  This is based on evidence that male sperm (Y chromosome) are faster, weaker and have a shorter lifespan than female sperm (X chromosome), which are slower but survive for longer. This means that having sex before ovulation, rather than during, should increase the likelihood of conceiving a girl, as only the female sperm will survive long enough to penetrate the egg。  该观点基于雄性精子(即Y染色体)与雌性精子(即X染色体)相比游动速度更快,但生命周期更短且活性更低。雌性精子虽然游动得较慢,但存活时间更长。这就意味着,排卵之前而非排卵期进行房事,会提高生女孩的机率,因为只有雌性精子具有足够的存活时间与卵子结合。  Hannah used ovulation kits to work out when she was ovulating. Love-making was allowed only early on in Hannah#39;s cycle. As soon as the kit showed she was approaching ovulation, intercourse was banned for the rest of the month。  汉娜用排卵试纸来确定自己何时排卵,只在她排卵前进行房事,一旦试纸显示汉娜开始排卵,这个月的其余时间就禁止性爱。  Hannah admits it was far from romantic, but says she wanted to give it their best shot。  汉娜承认这样做一点都不浪漫,但为了生个女儿,他们不容有失。  Hannah fell pregnant straight away but was convinced the technique hadn#39;t worked and that she was expecting another boy. The couple even sorted out all Mason#39;s clothes into age order y for when the new baby was born。  汉娜又怀了,尽管采取了这种方法,但她仍认为该方法不会奏效。这对夫妇甚至已经开始把马森的衣按年龄分类,为下一个儿子的到来做准备了。  Then, at the 20-week scan, they received the astonishing news that they were expecting a girl。  而后,在20周的B超检查时,他们得到了令人惊喜的消息——他们将拥有一个女儿。  ;I was in a state of disbelief,; says Hannah. ;I kept asking the sonographer if she was sure.;  汉娜说:“我简直不敢置信,反复问超声波性别检验师是否确定这回事。”  With three big brothers to look after her, Myla is never going to be short of protectors. Hannah says they are all very protective, but especially Mason, who tells people who pick up his precious sister to put her back immediately。  在三个哥哥的照料下,小麦拉一点都不缺人照顾,汉娜说,三个哥哥都对麦拉照顾有加,尤其是马森,一有谁把他抱起来,马森会让他马上放下小宝宝。  Hannah#39;s biggest worry now is that her daughter will turn out to be a tomboy。  现在汉娜最大的顾虑就是怕她的女儿会长成一个“假小子”。  Mark teases her, saying she#39;s bound to end up a professional golfer, but Hannah aly has plans to sign her up to ballet classes on her second birthday。  马克打趣她说,麦拉一定会接他的班,当一名职业高尔夫球手。不过,汉娜早已有了培养计划,她已经预备在女儿两岁后就送她去学芭蕾舞。  ;I really enjoyed dancing when I was a child, and I#39;d love for Myla to do the same,; she says。  “我小时候,真的特别喜欢跳舞,所以我希望麦拉也能这样。”汉娜说。  Hannah is also looking forward to the days when Mark and the boys go off to play 18 holes, and she is able to enjoy shopping trips with her daughter。  汉娜也期待着当马克和儿子们打高尔夫的时候,女儿能陪她一起购物逛街。  One thing she#39;s certain of, though, is that her family is complete。  如今,汉娜的心愿已经达成,她的家庭是圆满的了。  ;If I#39;d had another boy, I might have had another shot at a girl. But now that I#39;ve got one of each, I#39;ve got everything I#39;ve ever wanted.;  “要是这胎还是一个男孩的话,我也依旧会努力生个女孩,可现在,我已经儿女双全了,我的梦已经圆了。”  Hannah will never know if her ovulation kits did the trick. But whether by luck, or science, the 200-year Lawrie family boy spell has finally been broken。  排卵试纸到底有没有起作用,汉娜已不得而知。但科学也好,运气也罢,重要的是,200年来,劳里家族的“生男魔咒“终于被打破了。 /201502/359600泉州儿童医院产科

安溪县儿童医院网上预约系统泉州那家妇科医院好LEWISBURG, PA. — The 10 hibernating little brown bats hang from a corner of their tailor-made refrigeration chamber at Bucknell University like a clump of old potato skins, only less animated. In torpor, bats become one with their wintry surroundings, their body temperatures falling to just above freezing, their heart rates slowing to one or two beats a minute, their breathing virtually undetectable.宾夕法尼亚州刘易斯堡——10只冬眠的小棕蝙蝠倒挂在巴克内尔大学专为它们定制的低温舱室里面,仿佛几块陈土豆皮,只是几乎比土豆皮更缺乏生气。冬眠的蝙蝠会和周遭的冬日环境融为一体,体温降低至略微高于冰点,心率只有每分钟一到两次,呼吸几乎感觉不到。But suddenly, a male yanks himself free of the bunch and hops down to a dish on the floor. After taking a long, slow drink of water, the bat uses the claws on his folded wings to hoist himself along the wire mesh of the chamber, his motions angular, deliberative and spidery. A second bat rappels down for a drink, and then a third.突然,其中一只雄性蝙蝠一跃而起,跳到地板上的一只碟子前面。它不紧不慢地饮着水,半晌,才用它那折叠膜翼上的脚爪爬上舱室侧壁的铁丝网。它沿着倾斜的路线向上爬,仿佛深思熟虑的样子,那姿态有点像蜘蛛。第二只蝙蝠翩然而下,去喝水;然后是第三只。“Well, that’s a lucky break,” said Thomas Lilley, a tall and crisply composed postdoctoral fellow from Finland. “Multiple rounds of bat drama.”“真是太走运了,蝙蝠世界好戏连台,”托马斯·利理(Thomas Lilley)说道。这位清炯沉静的高个子学者来自芬兰,在这里做士后。As Bucknell’s de facto bat concierge, Dr. Lilley helps wild bats acclimate to life in captivity, a difficult task with an urgent spur. He and his colleagues are laboring mightily to understand white-nose syndrome, a devastating fungal disease that has killed at least six million North American bats since it first appeared in Albany a decade ago and that threatens to annihilate some bat species entirely.利理士是巴克内尔大学的蝙蝠大管家,他负责让野生蝙蝠适应笼舍的生活。这份工作很艰巨,又很紧迫。他和同事们下了巨大的工夫,研究一种叫做白鼻综合症的疾病。这是一种真菌引起的致命疾病,10年前在奥尔巴尼首次发现以来,北美地区至少600万蝙蝠死于这种病,一些种的蝙蝠几乎因而绝迹。Because the fungus attacks bats as they hibernate in caves, the researchers are exploring the complex biology of normal bat hibernation, and so-called arousal bouts turn out to be a big part of the puzzle, said Kenneth Field, an associate professor of biology.这种真菌是在冬眠期感染蝙蝠的,因此,科学家正在研究正常蝙蝠冬眠的复杂生理现象。其中被称为间歇性苏醒的行为成了揭开谜底的关键,生物学副教授肯尼斯·菲尔德(Kenneth Field)说。Hibernating bats will warm themselves out of torpor every week or two throughout the winter, for several hours at a stretch. Though researchers don’t yet understand the reasons for the thermal interludes, they have quantified just how important such thaws must be to bat survival.冬眠中的蝙蝠每隔一到两周,会醒过来几个小时。学者还不清楚这种体温升降周期的原因,但他们已经可以量化这种苏醒对蝙蝠生存的重要性了。“All the work that bats do during the fall, feeding nonstop and putting on fat until they’re like butterballs on wings, and 90 percent is spent to sustain the winter warm-ups,” said DeAnn Reeder, a professor of biology and one of the nation’s leading bat ecologists.“整个秋天,蝙蝠唯一的工作就是不停进食,储存脂肪,直到它们吃得好像黄油球长了翅膀似的,这些能量90%都被用在冬眠中的间歇性苏醒时了,”美国权威蝙蝠生态专家、生物学教授德安·里德(DeAnn Reeder)说。New research suggests that white-nose syndrome begins disrupting the arousal-torpor cycle long before any telltale white fuzz appears on the bat’s face and wings, and that the disorder really spins out of control when the bat’s immune system behaves in a distinctly unbatlike manner, mounting a zealous response against the fungal spores.新的研究显示,早在蝙蝠面部和翼上出现病态的白色绒毛之前,白鼻综合症已经开始扰乱它们的休眠觉醒周期。等到免疫系统开始出现迥异于正常蝙蝠的行为方式,对真菌孢子做出强烈反应,就已经病入膏肓了。Unbatlike because, as scientists are discovering, the bat immune system is astonishingly tolerant of most pathogens — a trait that could pose risks to people, but that also offers clues to preventing human diseases of aging, including cancer.之所以说这时的免疫系统异于正常蝙蝠,是因为科学家已经知道,蝙蝠的免疫系统对多数病原体有着惊人的耐受力。蝙蝠的这种特性会给人类构成威胁,但也为人类攻克衰老型疾病,包括癌症,提供了启示。Evidence is mounting that bats can serve as reservoirs of many of the world’s deadliest viruses, including the pathogens behind Ebola, Marburg and related hemorrhagic fevers; acute respiratory syndromes like SARS and MERS; and even familiar villains like measles and mumps.不断有据表明,蝙蝠可以成为世界上众多致命病毒的贮主,包括埃拉、马尔堡及引发相关出血热的病原体,还有烈性呼吸道疾病如SARS和中东呼吸道综合症的背后元凶。麻疹和腮腺炎也可由蝙蝠传播。Yet bats appear largely immune to the many viruses they carry and rarely show signs of the diseases that will rapidly overwhelm any human, monkey, horse, pig or other mammalian host the microbes manage to infiltrate.但是,蝙蝠对自身携带的这些病毒基本都可以免疫,很少得病。任何人类、猴子、马、猪和其他哺乳类宿主感染后都会很快病倒。Scientists have also learned that bats live a seriously long time for creatures of their small size. The insectivorous Brandt’s bat of Eurasia, for example, weighs an average of just six grams, compared with 20 grams for a mouse. But while a mouse is lucky to live for a year, the Brandt’s bat can survive well into its 40s — a disparity between life span and body mass that a report in Nature Communications called “the most extreme” of all mammals.科学家还发现,作为体型微小的动物,蝙蝠的寿命极长。亚欧大陆上的布氏鼠耳蝠,体重平均只有六克,一只老鼠也有20克。但老鼠活到一年已属长寿,而布氏鼠耳蝠却能活到40多岁。发表在《自然通讯》上的一篇文章称如此大的寿命与体重差异是所有哺乳动物中“最极端的”。Bats may be girded against cancer, too. “At this stage, the evidence is anecdotal,” said Lin-Fa Wang, a bat virologist at the Duke-NUS Graduate School in Singapore and the Australian Animal Health Laboratory in Geelong. “But of all the bat biologists I’ve spoken with, I’ve only heard of one or two cases of bat tumors.”蝙蝠可能还不会得癌症。“现阶段,还只有零星的据,”新加坡杜克-国大医学研究生院和澳大利亚吉朗的澳大利亚动物卫生实验室的蝙蝠病毒学家王林发(音译,Lin-Fa Wang)说。“但我和这么多蝙蝠病毒学家交谈过,我只听说过一两例蝙蝠得肿瘤的案例。”Researchers are scrutinizing bat DNA and the details of the bat vocation for clues to what sets the flying mammals apart from other members of the lactating clade. Preliminary findings indicate that bats’ apparent indifference to the viral throngs they harbor, together with their Methuselah-grade longevity, probably arose from the adaptations needed to grant them the power of flight.科学家正在研究蝙蝠DNA和蝙蝠生理机能的细节,希望找到是什么让这种会飞的哺乳动物显得如此与众不同。初步的发现显示,蝙蝠对体内的病毒显得若无其事,寿命又超长,这似乎都与它们适应飞翔生活有关。Bat experts argue that a keener understanding of bat biology could not only help prevent the next outbreak of Ebola or other cross-species “zoonotic” infection, but also offer a fresh take on immune and inflammatory disorders like diabetes or heart disease.蝙蝠专家认为,更深入了解蝙蝠的生理机能,不但有助于避免下一次埃拉或其他跨物种疫情的大爆发,而且也会给免疫系统和炎症类疾病如糖尿病和心脏病的研究提供一个新的角度。Scientists warn against misguided calls in some areas for the culling of bats as a way to combat the risk of viral transmission, and they urge the public not to succumb to old-fashioned bat phobia that long linked bats to witches, vampires, demons and cobwebs.科学家呼吁不要在一些地区盲目扑杀蝙蝠,以为那样做可以降低病毒传播的风险;而且他们也敦促公众,不要被传统的蝙蝠恐惧心理影响,因为历史上蝙蝠往往和巫术、吸血鬼、恶魔和蛛网联系在一起。Bats play essential roles in the environment, researchers said. Insectivorous bats are the top predators of night-flying insects, including mosquitoes: Dr. Reeder estimated that for every million bats killed by white-nose syndrome, 692 tons of insects go undevoured each summer. Fruit- and nectar-eating bats are major pollinators and seed dispersers.他们说,蝙蝠在自然环境中发挥着重要的作用。猎食昆虫的蝙蝠是夜行昆虫包括蚊子的头号天敌:里德估计,每有100万只蝙蝠死于白鼻综合症,一个夏季就会有692吨昆虫不能被消灭。摄食果实和吸食花蜜的蝙蝠是重要的传播花粉、散播种子的物种。“A politician in Australia said, ‘Bomb the bats,’ ” Dr. Wang said. “But if you do that, you’ll destroy the ecosystem and then you’ll get more infectious disease, not less.” The risks from wanton batricide could well be immediate: Recent research suggests that bats are likeliest to shed viral particles when they are under stress and their numbers are shrinking.王林发说:“澳大利亚一个政客说要轰炸蝙蝠。如果你这么做,你会破坏生态系统,结果传染性疾病会更多,而不是更少。”过量施用灭菌剂的危险很可能会即时显现:近期的研究显示,蝙蝠在承受生存压力和种群缩小的情况下最容易传播病毒。Besides, wherever you go, there they are. With some 1,200 species under the Chiroptera trademark, bats are the second-most populous mammalian order, after rodents. “One in every five mammals is a bat,” Dr. Reeder said.况且,无论你到哪儿,蝙蝠无处不在。在哺乳动物纲翼手目下面,有大约1200个蝙蝠的种,它们是仅次于啮齿目的第二大哺乳动物类群。“所有的哺乳动物,五分之一是蝙蝠,”里德说。They’re found on every continent but Antarctica and range in size from the Kitti’s hog-nosed bat — which at an inch long vies with the Etruscan shrew for the title of world’s smallest mammal — to the giant golden-crowned flying fox, with a wingspan approaching six feet and a soulful face that Raina Plowright, an infectious disease ecologist and bat expert at Montana State University, likened to that of a puppy dog.除了南极洲之外的各大陆上都有蝙蝠分布,它们的体型从仅有1英寸长的基氏猪鼻蝠(和小臭鼬并称世界最小的哺乳动物)到巨大的鬃毛利齿狐蝠,翼展接近6英尺,有一张表情丰富的脸,蒙大拿大学传染病生态学家和蝙蝠专家雷娜·普罗莱特(Raina Plowright)说样子就像小。Scientists traditionally have divided bats into two big suborders: the fruit-eating megabats and insect-eating microbats, deeming the groups so distinct they might have evolved flight independently.科学家传统上把蝙蝠分为两个亚目:食果实的大型蝙蝠和食昆虫的小蝙蝠,认为这两个群体如此不同,一定是彼此独立进化出飞翔能力的。Yet a recent genomic analysis in the journal Science reveals that the ability to fly dates to the earliest days of the bat lineage, some 90 million years ago, and that megas did not split from micros for another 10 million years, after which the micros alone evolved the capacity for echolocation, to help them hunt their insect prey.但是,不久前发表于《科学》杂志的一个基因组分析显示,飞行的能力早在蝙蝠大家族形成之初就已经具备了,那还是9000万年前的事,之后又过了1000万年,大蝙蝠才和小蝙蝠分道扬镳,那以后,小型蝙蝠才独立进化出了回声定位的功能,用来猎食昆虫。The new study also described other important traits that bats of both suborders share. For one thing, researchers found an “unexpected concentration” of genes involved in repairing damaged DNA. Those fix-it factors, the scientists proposed, are the bat’s solution to the blistering demands of flight.新研究还发现了两大类群之间更多相似点。比如,科学家发现了一个基因的“意外集群”,这些基因和修复受损DNA的需要有关。科学家认为,这些修复基因可能是根据飞行生活的高强度需求而产生的。When a bat flies, its heart beats an impressive 1,000 times a minute, and its metabolism ramps up 15-fold over resting rate. By contrast, said David Blehert of the ed States Geological Survey’s National Wildlife Health Center in Madison, Wis., the metabolism of a running rodent is seven times normal, “and that’s only for a short burst, whereas a bat can fly at 15-fold metabolic rate for hours.”蝙蝠飞行时,心跳达到惊人的每分钟1000次,代谢水平达到安静状态的15倍。相比之下,啮齿类动物奔跑中的代谢水平只是安静状态下的七倍,威斯康星州麦迪逊美国地质测绘局国家野生动物卫生中心的大卫·布莱赫特(David Blehert)说。而且那只是啮齿类“短跑时的能量消耗,蝙蝠却能以15倍的代谢速率飞行好几小时”,他说。All that fiery flapping ends up generating a huge number of metabolic byproducts called free radicals, which could mutilate the bat’s DNA were it not for its extra-strength molecular repair crew. And countering DNA damage happens to be a great strategy for overall health, which could explain bats’ exceptional longevity and apparent resistance to cancer.如此高能耗的振翅运动,其结果是产生大量代谢副产品,被称为自由基。如果不是有超强的修复基因,自由基就会破坏蝙蝠的DNA。而且,对抗DNA受损的机能碰巧还是一个伟大的健康策略,可以解释蝙蝠超长的寿命和抗癌特性。Other clues to bat exceptionalism can be found in its molecular profile. Immune factors that serve as the body’s first responders have been ramped up, while immune molecules that in most mammals turn aggressive at later stages of an infection are damped down in bats.蝙蝠的分子特征也揭示着它们的独特性。作为机体第一道防线的免疫因子被极大地加强,多数哺乳动物体内在感染后积极反抗的免疫分子,在蝙蝠体内却被弱化。As a result, Dr. Wang said, “when a virus comes in, bats are very efficient at handling it, but they don’t overreact.” And the overreaction of the body’s immune system, scientists have found, often proves far more dangerous than the viral infection itself.结果就是,“病毒侵入后,蝙蝠可以高效应对”,王林发说。“但它们不会反应过激。”科学家发现,这种过激反应经常比病毒感染本身更危险。Researchers suggest that changes to the bat’s immune system originated as part of the heightened demand for DNA repair, and later proved valuable for its general life strategy.科学家认为,蝙蝠免疫系统的变化源于这种对修复受损DNA的高强度需求,后来也成为它们日常生存中的有价值的功能。Bats often live in colonies of hundreds of thousands. They travel long distances and are exposed to a staggering array of pathogens. They cannot afford to be flustered by every freeloading microbe, and for the most part, they do not.蝙蝠往往是数十万只结成群体生活。它们长距离飞行,接触到多种多样的病原体。如果每次染上一种微生物,它们都反应过激,蝙蝠会受不了。事实上它们也很少反应过激。That makes the lethality of white-nose syndrome that much more confounding. “Here we have an animal that can survive some of the scariest viruses we know,” Dr. Blehert said, “and it’s undone by a common soil fungus.”这就让白鼻综合症的致命性越发令人不解。“这种动物不怕我们已知的最可怕的病毒,一种普通的土壤里的真菌却能要了它的命,”布莱赫特说。He and his colleagues have found that, starting at the earliest stages of infection, afflicted hibernating bats begin burning twice as much energy as unaffected bats. Dr. Reeder and her colleagues have shown that bats with white-nose come out of hibernation twice as often as healthy bats.他和同事发现,在感染的最初阶段,冬眠的蝙蝠消耗的能量达到健康蝙蝠的两倍。里德和同事们也发现,染上白鼻病的蝙蝠从冬眠中苏醒的次数是健康蝙蝠的两倍。And while normal bats spend much of their arousal time resting, “sick bats don’t,” she said. “Instead, they’re grooming constantly, so their arousals are even more costly.” The ultimate blow may come from the bats’ immune response to the fungus, which preliminary evidence suggests is unusually strong.正常蝙蝠醒来后大部分时间安静不动,但“染病的蝙蝠不是这样,”她说。“它们不停地梳理毛发,因此它们消耗能量也更多。”最后的打击可能来自免疫系统对真菌的反应,初步研究发现,这种反应通常很强烈。“And that,” Dr. Field said, “could be what’s dooming the bats.”“那可能就是导致蝙蝠死亡的原因,”菲尔德说。 /201502/357414泉州做两侧子宫肌瘤手术多少钱China#39;s ban on the harvesting of organs from executed prisoners for transplant will not cause the shortage of donated organs, an expert said on Wednesday. Huang Jiefu, head of the country#39;s human organ donation and transplant committee, made the remarks at a press conference on the sidelines of the annual session of the National Committee of the Chinese People#39;s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) in Beijing。3月11日,在京举行的全国政协记者招待会上,全国政协常委、中国器官捐献与移植委员会主任黄洁夫表示,中国取消死囚作为器官移植来源不会造成器官捐赠短缺。;The ban is aimed at addressing the problem of organ shortage,; Huang, also a member of the Standing Committee of the CPPCC National Committee said. ;The more respect we pay to death-row prisoners, the more voluntarily donated organs from citizens we will have.;。“取消死囚器官来源就是为了解决器官短缺的问题,”黄洁夫表示,“我们给予死囚更多的尊重,就会有更多公民自愿参加捐赠。”Voluntary donation from Chinese citizens has become the major source of organs for transplatation, accounting for 80 percent of the total donated organs in 2014, Huang added。他又称,2014年,80%的器官移植来自于公民自愿捐赠,公民器官捐赠已经成为器官移植的主要来源。Statistics show that nearly 1,000 body parts were donated by about 380 citizens in the first two months this year, an increase of 50 percent compared to the same period in 2014.数据显示,今年年初的两个月内,中国公民捐献器官大约有380例,接近1000个器官,与2014年同比增长了50%。China announced to ban the harvesting of transplant organs from executed prisoners on January 1, 2015, demanding all hospitals stop using organs from death-row prisoners。中国宣布从2015年1月1日起,全面停止使用死囚器官作为移植供体来源,所有医院将不得再使用死囚器官。 /201503/363731泉州无痛人流多少钱

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