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三明市治不孕不育哪里比较好福州做腹腔镜哪间医院好 Twenty years on, the debate about the Rwandan genocide in which up to a million people lost their lives still reverberates. The question of why Rwandans did this to each other and why the world stood by remains bitterly contested.20年前,多00万人在卢旺达大屠杀中丧生;20年后,关于它的辩论仍在回响。卢旺达人为何自相残杀?为何世界袖手旁观?这两个问题依然是激辩的焦点。What is not in doubt is that over a period of 100 days the most widesp horrific massacre of modern times took place as the victims perished, mostly killed by hand with machetes. And even as that history is still fought over, an even angrier, more contemporary dispute rages about the nature of today’s government that first took power in the genocide’s aftermath.但毫无争议的是,在为00天的时间内,发生了现代历史上蔓延最广的一次恐怖大屠杀,受害者大多数是被砍刀砍死。就在那段历史仍深陷争论之际,一场更为激烈、更为现代的争议正在上演,争议的主题是如何评价大屠杀后首次掌权的现政府的性质。Has it brought reconciliation, stability and recovery? Or merely substituted a new Tutsi minority for the ruthless Hutu regime that preceded it? Rwanda, and these questions, fundamentally influenced my years at the top of the UN. Five years after the killings, I joined the UN as head of its development agency, UNDP. Helping President Paul Kagame and his government overcome the legacy of lost life, lost capacity and lost growth was a permanent priority.它带来了和解、稳定和复苏?还是说,它只是用占人口少数的图西族的政权,代替了之前冷酷的胡图族政权?卢旺达和上面这些问题对我在联合国(UN)高层任职的数年产生了根本影响。大屠杀5年后,我加入联合国任开发计划署(UNDP)署长。帮助卢旺达总统保罗#8226;卡加Paul Kagame)及其政府克生命、生产力和经济增长损失带来的遗留影响,曾是我的长期工作重点。Among all of us there was a sense of exceptional obligation and reparation to a country that had been deserted at its moment of need by a UN Security Council that had simply lacked the courage to act. The world looked the other way. President Bill Clinton and Kofi Annan (then head of UN peacekeeping, before becoming secretary-general) have both eloquently acknowledged this.面对这样一个曾被遗弃的国家,我们所有人都怀有一种特殊的责任感,特别想去补偿它。卢旺达在需要联合国安理UN Security Council)干预之际,后者却完全缺乏行动的勇气。国际社会也对卢旺达视而不见。美国总统比尔#8226;克林Bill Clinton)和科#8226;安南(Kofi Annan,当时主管联合国维和行动,尚未成为联合国秘书长)都痛快承认了这一点。In Mr Kagame, I and others had a rigorously focused development partner. Per capita incomes have more than doubled since 1995 and growth has recently been a robust 8 per cent a year. This small country of 11.3m people has a disciplined leadership that many of its neighbours lack.对于我和其他人而言,卡加梅是个极为专注的发展合作伙伴。卢旺达人均收入995年以来翻了一番还多,近来经济每年增速达%,十分强劲。这个有1130万人口的小国拥有一个自律的领导层,这是它的许多邻国所不具备的。The trouble is that a government that deliberately prioritised development and inter-ethnic concord above its citizensfreedoms, as an antidote to the environment of Hate Radio and rampant populism that triggered the events of 20 years ago, now does not know how to slacken its grip. As the range of government opponents grows, the crackdowns become more severe.问题在于,为了化解“仇恨电台Hate Radio)和民粹主义猖獗的环境(它0年前大屠杀的导火索),卢旺达政府刻意将发展和民族和睦置于公民自由之上,结果是它如今不知道如何放松掌控。随着反政府的势力不断成长,镇压变得愈加严厉。Mr Kagame’s former intelligence chief Patrick Karegeya, who had accused him of dictatorial tendencies, was found dead allegedly assassinated in South Africa at the beginning of this year and Rwanda has a 20-year history of incursions into the neighbouring Democratic Republic Congo in pursuit of Hutu rebels. The details are contested by Mr Kagame who regularly denies his government’s involvement in such matters. But a regime that was born out of its heroic resistance to genocide has descended to one that is preoccupied with survival.卡加梅的前情报部长帕特里#8226;卡雷盖亚(Patrick Karegeya)曾批评前者有独裁倾向,他今年初被发现死在南非,据称是遭暗杀。卢旺达过去20年屡次侵入邻国民主刚果,追剿胡图族叛军。这些细节受到卡加梅的驳斥,他屡次否认他的政府卷入此类事件。然而,这个当初脱胎于对大屠杀的英勇抵抗的政权,已沦为一个只关注自身存亡的政权。The wider ramifications continue. The stain of Rwanda was the impetus for much of the demand for the doctrine of the Responsibility to Protect or R2P. This doctrine, adopted by the UN General Assembly in 2005, insists that when a government commits major crimes against its own people the world should try and stop it. In that sense, too, Rwanda’s legacy was misused. The doctrine has been stretched and twisted to justify interventions in Iraq and Libya.更深远的影响还在持续。卢旺达的污点促使许多人呼吁建立“保护责任Responsibility to Protect)原则。联合国大会(UN General Assembly)005年通过了这项原则,它主张当一国政府对本国人民犯下重大罪行时,国际社会应当努力阻止。但在这方面,卢旺达的遗产却遭到滥用。该原则被拓展和扭曲,为干预伊拉克和利比亚正名。When I moved from the development side of the UN to its political operations as Mr Annan’s deputy, the shadow of Rwanda came with me. If there was an abiding lesson for me of what had happened earlier in Rwanda, it was that UN officials had sleepwalked into catastrophe. In vain, UN colleagues in the field called the alarm. Their words fell on the deaf ears of officials in the rut of UN routine. When my turn came to be the New York point person for UN operations in difficult places I made my colleagues wear green wrist bands bearing the words “Never Again Whether it was Darfur or elsewhere we sought to ensure that there would not be another Rwanda.当我从联合国发展部门调动至政治部门担任安南副手时,卢旺达的阴影仍伴随着我。如果说卢旺达的经历给我带来了什么永恒教训的话,那便是联合国官员在梦游中走向灾难。联合国驻卢旺达的同事曾发出过警告,但徒劳无功。墨守联合国刻板流程的官员们对他们的警告置若罔闻。当我成为联合国总部主管在困难地区行动的负责人时,我让同事们戴上写有“Never Again”(绝不要重蹈覆辙)字样的绿腕带。不论是达尔富尔还是别处,我们都努力确保卢旺达的覆辙不会被重蹈。Yet events in Sri Lanka five years ago or in the Central African Republic today show that genocide has not been consigned to history. The Rwandan genocide may have once tugged at our conscience but the debate since over its causes and consequences and over the resulting doctrines of intervention has blurred our outrage. We and Rwandans need to demand of leaders everywhere: Never Again. I still wear my wrist band.年前斯里兰卡和今天中非共和国发生的事件表明,种族屠杀尚未成为历史。卢旺达大屠杀或许曾经刺痛过我们的良心,但之后对其原因和结果的争论——以及对随之而来的干预原则的争论——稀释了我们的愤怒。我们以及卢旺达人有必要要求各国领导人:绝不要重蹈覆辙。我现在仍然戴着我的腕带。来 /201404/286420福州省妇幼医院第三代试管好不好

福州输卵管检查去那里Eastern European nations reacted with shock and anger to Russia’s decision to abandon South Stream, its bn gas pipeline across the Black Sea into Europe, as shares in some of the companies involved in the project dived.东欧国家对俄罗斯决定放弃穿越黑海进入欧洲00亿美元“南溪South Stream)天然气管道项目表示震惊和气愤。一些参与该项目的公司股价跳水。Bulgaria, Serbia and Hungary said they had received no advance warning that Moscow was scrapping South Stream, even though they all had substantial financial and political capital invested in the project. Russia said it would export its gas to a trade hub in Turkey instead.保加利亚、塞尔维亚和匈牙利称,他们没有收到莫斯科方面放弃南溪项目的提前预警,即便他们都对该项目投入了大量财务和政治资本。俄罗斯表示,将把天然气输送到土耳其的一个中转站。South Stream is so far the biggest casualty of the falling-out between Russia and the EU over Moscow’s military involvement in Ukraine.南溪项目成为俄罗斯和欧盟因俄方军事干预乌克兰闹翻以来迄今最大的牺牲品。The project, backed by Russia’s state-controlled gas group Gazprom, was designed to bring Russian gas into Europe bypassing Ukraine. It gained momentum after a series of price disputes between Moscow and Kiev last decade led to supply cuts for some of Gazprom’s European customers.该项目此前得到俄罗斯国有控股的俄罗斯天然气工业股份公Gazprom)的持,其设计宗旨是绕开乌克兰向欧洲输送俄罗斯天然气。俄乌之间过0年里曾爆发一系列价格纠纷,屡次导致Gazprom的一些欧洲客户天然气供应中断,这一背景曾经增强南溪项目的势头。But there were fears in Brussels that the pipeline would cement Gazprom’s domination of the European gas market. The European Commission insisted other gas suppliers be given access to South Stream, arguing that the idea of Gazprom both supplying the gas and owning the pipeline violated EU competition rules.但欧盟委员会(European Commission)担忧,该管道将巩固Gazprom在欧洲天然气市场的霸主地位。欧盟委员会坚持南溪项目应当允许其他天然气供应商参与输气,称Gazprom既供应天然气又拥有管道的构想违背了欧盟的竞争规则。However, the project was backed by several countries in south-eastern Europe, which saw it as improving their energy security. They also looked forward to earning money from transit fees for Russian gas crossing their territory.然而,该项目得到了欧洲东南部几个国家的持,他们认为这条管道有利于自己的能源安全,也期待获利于俄罗斯天然气的过境运输费。Countries in the region lost another key supply option last year when the rival EU-backed Nabucco project that would have carried gas from Azerbaijan into the heart of Europe was scrapped.去年,南溪项目的竞争者、欧盟持的拟将天然气从阿塞拜疆输往欧洲腹地的纳布科(Nabucco)管道项目被放弃,已经使该地区国家失去一个重要的供应选项。来 /201412/346741 U.S. senators welcomed an overhaul of Americas visa waiver program contained in a massive federal spending bill expected to pass both legislative houses in the coming days.美国参议员欢迎对免签项目进行全面审 这一计划包含在预计未来数天内将获得通过的大规模联邦开法案中。Once approved, the measures would constitute the full Congress first concrete steps to boost domestic security following the terrorist attacks in Paris and California.一旦获得通过,这些举措将使得美国国会首次可以采取切实步骤来加强国内安全。此前,在法国巴黎和美国加州接连发生了恐怖袭击。Under the overhaul, most nationals from more than three dozen countries would retain the ability to travel to the ed States without a visa. They would be excluded from the program, however, if they have traveled to Syria, Iraq, Iran or Sudan in the last five years.按照这项全面审查计划,来0多个国家的绝大多数公民将保持免签前往美国的能力。但是如果他们在过去5年中曾经前往叙利亚、伊拉克、伊朗或者苏丹,他们会被排除在这个项目之外。The legislation also aims to strengthen information-sharing among governments, and empowers the Department of Homeland Security to terminate a countrys participation in the visa waiver program if its data sharing is deemed inadequate.这项立法还旨在加强各国政府之间的信息情报共享,授权美国国土安全部在数据分享缺乏的情况下,中止某个国家免签的资格。The House of Representatives overwhelmingly approved the changes last week. Attaching them to a massive yearlong spending bill will help speed them to President Barack Obamas desk to be signed into law.美国国会众议院上周以压倒性多数批准了这些调整变动。把这个审查项目加入大规模的年度开法案之中,将有助于使之加速被奥巴马总统签署成为法律。来 /201512/416443福州哪家医院做人工受孕好宁德检查男性不育哪家医院最好

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