原标题: 郑州医学整形美容做双眼皮开眼角多少钱知道报
Wu Jiayao and Wu Jianfei are at opposite ends of China’s migrant miracle. One was there at the very beginning, and the other came on the scene only as the miracle began to fade. The lives of this father and daughter are like bookends to the economic transformation of China. What a difference a generation makes.吴佳瑶和吴建飞处于中国移民奇迹的两极。一个出现在最初阶段,另一个则只是出现在奇迹开始消退之际。这对父女的生活就像是中国经济变迁的序幕和尾声。一代人之间的差别可真大。Jiayao, 28, has a car, a flat, two degrees, a white-collar job and a money-market fund — not to mention a husband, a baby and the coveted right to live as a permanent resident of the ultra-modern city of Shanghai.吴佳瑶今年28岁,有一辆车、一套公寓、两张学位书,一份白领工作以及一份货币市场基金,更不用说还有一个丈夫、一个宝宝以及令人艳羡的超现代大都市上海的永久居住权。Jianfei, 50, has a simple one-storey home surrounded by peanut fields and drying corn cobs. He lives in an ancestral compound, alongside his octogenarian mother, in the village of Qinghu, in eastern China’s Jiangsu province. It used to take a whole day to travel from Qinghu to Shanghai by boat; now it takes a couple of hours using a vast suspension bridge and multi-lane tunnel. What a difference three decades make.吴建飞今年50岁,只有一间被花生地和干玉米棒包围着的平房。他现在与自己80多岁的老母亲住在江苏省青湖镇的一个老宅里(见上图)。在过去,从青湖坐船到上海需要一整天时间;现在有了巨大的吊桥和多车道隧道只需两个小时。30年见了多大的变化啊。In their own way, they are both foot soldiers in the migrant army that built the economic phenomenon that is China. This is the cohort that helped lay the foundation for a two-superpower world anchored at one end in Washington and the other in Beijing . But life in the trenches just isn’t what it used to be.他们分别以自己的方式,成为建设中国经济奇迹的农民工大军的步兵。正是他们这些人帮助为当今世界两个超级大国的格局打下了基础——这个世界的一头是华盛顿,另一头是北京。但是第一线的生活已今非昔比了。Jianfei spent a lifetime away from his wife and his mother, and from Jiayao, who was raised in the village while her father worked as a painter far away. Sometimes, like other migrant construction workers, he lived in the flats he was decorating, inhaling the fumes of the paint he applied during the day. They are flats like the one his daughter now lives in — except, he says, hers is even nicer. For much of her childhood he came home only once a year, even when he lived in Shanghai, now just a short car drive way.吴建飞一辈子都没有多少时间陪伴其妻子和母亲以及佳瑶。佳瑶在青湖长大,而他的父亲却在遥远的地方当油漆匠。与其他从事建筑业的农民工一样,他有时会睡在自己做装修的公寓单位,吸着自己白天涂的油漆的气味。他说,这些公寓就像他女儿现在的家,只是她的住房更高档一些。在佳瑶小时候的大部分时间里,吴建飞一年才回家一趟,即便他住在上海——现在两地只有很短的车程。Two decades later, he had enough money to pay for only half of his modest Rmb100,000 home. It is spotless, shining and decorated with colourful ceramic tiles but is furnished with only simple wooden benches and a couple of bamboo-covered lounge chairs in the sitting room.20年后,他攒了5万元人民币,然后又借了5万,才买了一套房子。新家干净整洁,光线充足而且还铺着色瓷砖,但客厅里的家具只有简单的木凳和一对竹藤躺椅。Though Jiayao went to university on a scholarship, the cost of raising her left Jianfei having to borrow half the money for his new house. The only signs of prosperity are the motorcycle parked in the sitting room, and a modest washing machine tucked next to the lavatory hand basin.吴建飞和他用一辈子的打工积蓄在家乡盖的房子 尽管佳瑶靠奖学金上了大学,但抚养她长大仍让吴建飞捉襟见肘,他买新房的一半资金不得不靠借债。表明他生活还不错的仅有迹象是客厅里停放的托车,以及卫生间洗手池旁边的一台中档洗衣机。Jianfei’s was the first generation of young men from his village sent out to labour as migrant workers, building the Chinese dream. As part of the village’s construction team — a vestige of the days when the Communist party gave everyone a job and told them when and where to do it — he was sent to work in Shanghai, collecting a meagre annual payout of Rmb200.吴建飞是他的村子里第一代外出打工、建设中国梦的年轻人中的一员。作为村里建筑队——国家对个人大包大揽时期遗留下的产物——的成员,他被派到上海干活,当时年收入只有区区200元人民币。Four years later, he moved to Xinjiang province to help build worker accommodation at the vast Karamay oilfields in the far north of the country. It took a week to get home, on a special migrant worker train, but at least the pay was 10 times what was available in Shanghai. Jianfei spent 11 years in Xinjiang.4年后,他到了新疆,在中国西北巨大的克拉玛依油田帮助建造工人宿舍。从那里乘坐农民工专列火车需要一周时间才能回家,但最起码报酬是上海的10倍。吴建飞在新疆呆了11年。And, thanks to that sacrifice, the daughter whom he seldom saw graduated from high school, received an undergraduate and a masters degree in Shanghai, became a teacher in one of the city’s most prestigious high schools and then a human resources professional in an ecommerce company.得益于这种牺牲,他那很少见面的女儿从高中毕业,在上海完成了本科和研究生学业,成为该市最知名高中之一的教师,随后又跳槽至一家电子商务公司从事人力资源工作。While her father still refuses to use an ATM machine, and keeps his cash stashed in the house, she saves in a money-market account and uses Alipay, the Chinese online payments service, to do her shopping, making most of her purchases online. She likes to dabble in investments, sometimes on behalf of her parents.尽管她的父亲仍拒绝使用自动取款机,将现金藏在家里,但佳瑶却会购买货币基金,使用中国在线付务付宝(AliPay)来购物,大量使用网购。她喜欢尝试投资,有时还帮父母投资。Now the flood of migrants to the cities has eased, and many of those who previously only squatted there — living in prefabricated hostels on construction sites or in fume-filled empty flats or in squalid warrens of rented rooms — are buying flats, getting married and settling down in cities forever.如今涌向城市的农民工大潮有所减退,许多早先只是暂住城市的农民工——住在工地上的预制板房或者散发着浓厚油漆味的空房间,或者租住肮脏拥挤的屋子——买了房,结了婚,在城市里定居下来。What a difference a generation makes: the generation that separates Jiayao and her father. China, and its migrant miracle, will never be the same again.佳瑶和她父亲之间的这一代人见了多么巨大的变化。中国及其移民奇迹将再也不会和过去一样了。 /201510/402448Not long ago, Larry Page watched the Disney film “Tomorrowland.” He didn’t like it.不久前,拉里·佩奇(Larry Page)看了迪士尼电影《明日世界》(Tomorrowland),表示不喜欢。“The reason I went to the movie is that I was interested in a version of the future that would be positive, because that’s so seldom portrayed in science fiction or movies,” Mr. Page, the co-founder of Google and the chief executive of its parent company, Alphabet, told shareholders in June. But while Mr. Page is an optimist’s optimist, like many critics he thought “Tomorrowland” failed because of the very way it flirted with utopia. “I came away from that and said, ‘It’s not a very good story, because it’s not dark,’ ” he shrugged.佩奇是谷歌的联合创始人,也是其母公司Alphabet的首席执行官,今年6月他对股东说:“我看这部电影是因为科幻小说或电影很少描述乐观的未来世界,所以我对它怎么描绘乐观未来很感兴趣。”但是,尽管佩奇是乐观主义者中的乐观主义者,他也像许多批评者一样,认为乌托邦情调是《明日世界》的败笔。“看完后,我觉得‘这不是一个好故事,因为它不黑暗,’”他耸耸肩说。Mr. Page hit on a central problem with attempts to imagine the future in the positive way that many in Silicon Valley see it: A perfect future makes for a dull story. So how do you dramatize the sunny possibilities of technology in a way that would ring true for a tech founder, but that also doesn’t bore the rest of us?在想象未来时,硅谷有很多人都抱有乐观积极的心态,但佩奇这番话指出了它的一个核心问题:一个完美的未来会让故事变得平淡无奇。那么,你要如何对这种阳光明媚的可能性进行戏剧化,既让科技公司创始人感到真实,又不会让其他人觉得无聊呢?I’d urge Mr. Page to watch “Steve Jobs,” the director Danny Boyle’s new biopic about the late Apple impresario. The film, which stars Michael Fassbender as Mr. Jobs, is nominally a story about a tech visionary who is unpleasant to just about everyone around him. Yet surprisingly, “Steve Jobs” ends up presenting Mr. Jobs in a positive light, partly because it accepts that his products did change the world for the better, in just the ways he’d promised they would.我建议佩奇看看《史蒂夫·乔布斯》(Steve Jobs),导演丹尼·伊尔(Danny Boyle)为已故苹果掌门人新拍的传记片,由迈克尔·法斯宾德(Michael Fassbender)扮演乔布斯。表面上,这部电影讲述了一个有远见的科技领袖的故事,周围的人都觉得他很难相处。然而奇怪的是,《史蒂夫·乔布斯》最终以正面的视角呈现了乔布斯,部分上是因为这部电影承认,乔布斯的产品确实让世界变得更美好,就像他自己的承诺那样。“Steve Jobs” will be seen by many as an attack on Mr. Jobs — his family and his former colleagues have harshly criticized it — but that is just half the story. The film ultimately suggests that the deeply unpleasant behavior of people in the tech industry may be worth putting up with because of what they sometimes manage to create, often in spite of themselves. It is one of the few pop cultural depictions of the tech industry to buy into Silicon Valley’s essential worldview: an aggressive optimism that is willing to roll over just about everything and everyone in its path in the service of what it sees as the more important goal of building tomorrow.很多人将把《史蒂夫·乔布斯》视为对乔布斯的攻击,他的家人和前同事已经严厉批评了这部电影,但这只是故事的一半。这部电影最终表明,高科技从业者那些让人极为不快的行为可能是值得忍受的,因为他们自己虽然不讨人喜欢,他们创造出来的东西却很出色。在流行文化对高科技产业的描绘中,只有极少数像这部电影一样,认同了硅谷的基本世界观:一种强势的乐观主义,朝着建设未来的目标前进,掀翻路上一切阻挡它的事物与人,因为它认为它的目标更加重要。The film, which opens in limited release this weekend and more widely on Oct. 23, is the most sophisticated take yet in a growing body of movies, TV shows, novels and other cultural takes on Silicon Valley. Based on a screenplay by Aaron Sorkin that is loosely adapted from Walter Isaacson’s authorized biography of Mr. Jobs, this is the third major film about the Apple co-founder. There was also “Jobs,” the 2013 movie starring Ashton Kutcher, and, this year, “Steve Jobs: The Man in the Machine,” the documentarian Alex Gibney’s critical take on Mr. Jobs.这部电影将于本周末在有限范围内公映,将在10月23日进行更为广泛的公映。有关硅谷的电影、电视剧、小说及其他文化作品中在不断涌现,而该片是其中最成熟的一部。影片以艾伦·索尔金(Aaron Sorkin)的剧本为基础,是第三部有关这位苹果联合创始人的电影。索尔金的剧本大略参照了沃尔特·艾萨克森(Walter Isaacson)那部得到乔布斯授权的传记。阿什顿·库彻(Ashton Kutcher)2013年出演了电影《乔布斯》(Jobs)。今年,纪录片导演亚历克斯·吉布尼(Alex Gibney)执导了批判乔布斯的纪录片《史蒂夫·乔布斯:机器人生》(Steve Jobs: The Man in the Machine)。Beyond Apple, there’s “Silicon Valley,” the HBO comedy about the travails of a start-up, and “Halt and Catch Fire,” the AMC drama about the brutal personal computer business of the 1980s. Then there was “The Social Network,” the 2010 film about the history of Facebook, which Mr. Sorkin also wrote. Even stories not nominally about the industry feature cameos by tech billionaires, who have become easy stand-ins for the powerful forces unleashed by technology — see “Book of Numbers,” the recent acclaimed novel by Joshua Cohen, or the Google-like founder who’s the chief villain in the film “Ex Machina.”除了苹果公司,HBO喜剧《硅谷》(Silicon Valley)还讲述了一家初创公司的艰辛之路,AMC电视剧《奔腾年代》(Halt and Catch Fire)呈现了20世纪80年代蓬勃发展的个人电脑产业。然后还有2010年上映的讲述Facebook历史的《社交网络》(The Social Network),电影剧本也来自索尔金。甚至名义上与该行业无关的故事中也会出现科技业出身的亿万富翁这样的配角,他们已经成为科技释放的强大力量的简单替身——比如乔舒亚·科恩(Joshua Cohen)最近推出的广受好评的小说《数字》(Book of Numbers),或者《机械姬》(Ex Machina)里的大反派——一个谷歌式企业的创始人。It’s easy to explain the bumper crop of pop-cultural takes on the tech industry. Like finance in the 1980s, technology has lately become not just a source of widesp economic angst, but one of social and cultural angst. And a small class of tech founders have become the most powerful figures of our time. Techies are the “New Establishment,” as Vanity Fair calls them. The magazine even hosts an annual conference devoted to the emerging group of titans who seem certain to one day preside over every aspect of how we buy, watch, , chat, eat, sleep, dream — if they don’t aly.取材自科技行业的流行文化作品的盛行并不难解释。就像80年代的金融业一样,科技业近来不仅引发了广泛的经济担忧,还激起了社会文化方面的焦虑。一小群科技创始人成了我们这个时代最有影响力的人物。正如《名利场》杂志(Vanity Fair)所说,科技宅是当今的“新贵”。该杂志甚至还主办年度会议,专门讨论这帮新出现的巨头。即使现在没做到,这些人似乎也肯定会在将来某一天主导我们购物、观影、阅读、聊天、吃饭、睡觉、做梦的方方面面。And if the recent movies and TV shows about the tech industry are anywhere near accurate, we are all in for a heap of trouble. The tech founders who will rule our future are shown as hapless and comically myopic, inspired either by a desire for world domination or by petty efforts to relieve their social anxieties.如果近期有关科技业的影视作品哪怕有那么一点接近真相,我们所有人都在劫难逃。在这些作品里,将会配我们未来的那些科技业创始人既可悲,又短视得可笑。激励他们的不是主宰世界的欲望,就是为缓解社会焦虑而做出的可怜之举。What is unusual about “Steve Jobs” is its search for a more authentic motivation for the villainies that we associate with tech billionaires like the Apple founder. “Steve Jobs” is not very kind to Steve Jobs. He is presented as a man who spent years denying paternity of his daughter and who later only grudgingly paid for her support. At every turn, he treats employees and colleagues as expendable cogs in his corporate game, often without understanding the damage he inflicts on those around him.《史蒂夫·乔布斯》的不同之处在于,它试图为苹果公司创始人这样的科技业巨富身上的恶行寻找更真实的动机。影片本身并未恭维史蒂夫·乔布斯。他被刻画成了一个多年不认自己的女儿、后来也只是勉强付抚养费的人。每时每刻,他对待员工和同事就像是自己商业游戏里无足轻重的蝼蚁,常常意识到不到给身边的人造成的伤害。Yet unlike many across the business world, the Steve Jobs in this film is not motivated mainly by ego and greed. Instead, what really gets him going is an insatiable desire to “put a dent in the universe,” as Mr. Jobs often put it. Silicon Valley’s insistence on changing the world is usually pilloried in the news media. But here, Mr. Jobs’s mission is accorded respect — and his behavior, the film implies, can be ultimately tolerated because of what he built.但不同于商界的很多人,这部影片中激励史蒂夫·乔布斯的,主要不是自负和贪婪。就像乔布斯本人经常说的那样,真正让他不断向前的,是“在宇宙中留下印记”的强烈愿望。在新闻媒体上,硅谷对改变世界的执着常常会受到抨击。但在这部电影里,乔布斯的使命受到了尊重,而且按照片子的意思,正是因为打造出来的产品,他的行为最终可以被容忍。Part of the film’s success in this regard rests on Mr. Sorkin’s decision to set the story on the development of the personal computer, a technology whose eventual importance is no longer a matter of dispute. Mr. Jobs’s other great product, the touch-screen smartphone, may one day prove more thoroughly world-changing, but at the moment, it raises almost as many fears as it does hopes, and the film wisely stays away from it.在这一点上,影片的成功部分在于索尔金决定根据个人电脑的发展来讲述整个故事。这项技术最终的重要性已毋庸置疑。或许有一天,乔布斯另一款伟大的产品——触屏智能手机——会明更彻底地改变了世界,但目前,它引发的忧虑和激起的希望不相上下。影片明智地避开了它。The personal computer, though — who could argue that it hasn’t proved groundbreaking? To show Mr. Jobs’s ability to see the future, Mr. Sorkin es Mr. Jobs’s best argument for the personal computer almost word for word. Humanity’s greatest strength, Mr. Jobs once noted, is that we’re tool builders. A condor is the most mechanically efficient animal on the planet, but a human being on a bicycle blows the condor away.但就个人电脑而言,谁能说它还没明具有开天辟地的意义?为了表现乔布斯预见未来的能力,索尔金几乎一字不差地引用了乔布斯为持个人电脑给出的最有力的理由。乔布斯曾指出,人类最厉害的地方是能发明工具。从机械的角度来说,秃鹰是地球上效率最高的动物,但骑上自行车后人便能把秃鹰甩在身后。“What a computer is to me is it’s the most remarkable tool that we’ve ever come up with,” Mr. Jobs said. “It’s the equivalent of a bicycle for our minds.”“在我看来,电脑是我们发明出来的最非凡的工具,”乔布斯说。“它相当于我们大脑的自行车。”The ultimate importance of the personal computer hangs over every conflict in the film. When Mr. Jobs harangues his staff, when he puts the company ahead of his supposed friends, when he shows little regard for his family in the service of building what’s next, he implicitly holds an ace card with the audience who knows how things eventually turned out. Sure, he may have been terrible to be around, but in the end, wasn’t he right about the importance of that dent in the universe? And if he hadn’t been as obnoxious about his aims, would the dent have been as large?影片中,个人电脑的终极重要性弥漫在每一场冲突中。每当乔布斯滔滔不绝地教训员工、把公司置于本该是朋友的人之上、或是为了打造接下来的新产品而几乎无暇顾及家庭时,他手里隐隐握着观众这张王牌,因为我们知道事情的最终结果。当然,他大概是对身边的人不好吧,但到最后,他对宇宙中那道印记的重要性的认知难道有什么不对吗?况且,如果他对自己的目标没有执着到令人生厌的地步,那道印记还会这么大吗?During an argument late in the movie, Steve Wozniak, Apple’s co-founder, who, like everyone else, often clashed with Mr. Jobs, tells him: “Your products are better than you are, brother.”在影片快结束时的一场争吵戏中,苹果联合创始人史蒂夫·沃兹尼亚克(Steve Wozniak)对乔布斯说:“老兄,你的产品比你本人好。”和其他所有人一样,沃兹尼亚克常和乔布斯起冲突。“That’s the idea,” Mr. Jobs responds. The tech industry may be peopled with many petty, ruthless, self-important weirdos. But look at the products, not the people. In the future, only the products will matter.“正是我想要的,”乔布斯回答。科技业可能是有很多心胸狭隘、冷酷无情、妄自尊大的怪胎。但要看产品,而不是看人。将来,重要的也只有产品本身。 /201510/403008Research has found that adults today have fewer friends than they did in the 1980s, and that more people say they have no one to discuss important stuff with.研究发现,相比于20世纪80年代,如今的成年人朋友更少,并且越来越多的人表示,他们甚至没有一个能与之讨论重要事情的朋友。A new, small study suggests that singing is an effective way to make new friends because it helps us bond quickly with others.一项新的小型研究表明,唱歌是结交新朋友的有效方法,因为唱歌能使我们和其他人快速凝聚在一起。For the study, led by Eiluned Pearce, Ph.D., at Oxford University, researchers looked at participants, ages 18 to 83, in adult education classes organized by the Workers#39; Education Association in the UK. Eighty-four participants were enrolled in one of four singing classes; 51 participants were enrolled in one of two creative crafts classes or a creative writing class.这项研究由英国牛津大学的艾伦德·皮尔斯士领导,由研究人员对参与者进行观察——这些参与者来自英国工人教育协会组织的成人教育班,年龄在18岁到83岁之间。84位参与者被分到四个歌唱班,51位参与者被分到两个创意工艺品班和一个创意写作班。Over a period of seven months, the classes met weekly. During the first, third, and final months, researchers asked participants to indicate how close they felt to their classmates.在为期七个月的研究中,班级同学每周见一次面。在第一个月、第三个月和最后一个月中,研究人员会对参与者进行询问,让他们说明他们和同学的亲密度。Results showed something surprising. Although participants in all the classes felt closer to their classmates by the study#39;s end, participants in the singing classes developed that closeness much more quickly.研究结果令人惊讶。尽管在学习结束的时候,所有班级的参与者都觉得与同学的关系更为亲密,但是歌唱班参与者们的亲密关系则发展得更为迅速。As for why exactly singing facilitates fast group bonding, the researchers say one possible reason is that everyone does it at the same time. Compare that to creative writing or crafting, where everyone is working on an individual project. Another potential cause, according to the researchers, is that singing involves muscular effort, which triggers the release of certain molecules that can make us happier and more willing to cooperate.至于歌唱为何能够促进一个群体快速凝聚,研究人员称,可能是因为歌唱时所有人都在同时做这件事情,而在创意写作班和工艺品班,每个人都在单独做自己的事情。调查人员称,另外一个潜在的原因是唱歌会涉及到肌肉活动,而这会释放出某些使人更快乐,更乐意与人合作的化学分子。The takeaway here is that singing can be a great icebreaker among large groups of strangers (remember office karaoke night?), which can facilitate individual friendships down the line.这里的重点是,对于一大群陌生人来说,唱歌可能是最好的打破坚冰的方法(记得办公室卡拉OK之夜吗?),这能够大力促进人们友谊的发展。;Really close relationships still depend on interactions between individuals or much smaller groups,; Pearce said , ;but this study shows singing can kick start the bonding process.;“个人或是更小团体之间真正亲密的关系,还取决于相互交流,”皮尔斯说,“但这项研究表明唱歌能够成为友谊之路的开端。” /201511/407234

Marriage is much more complicated than love – different backgrounds, lifestyles, habits and values can lead to quarrels and misunderstanding when a couple weds.婚姻比恋爱要复杂的多。情侣步入婚姻殿堂后,不同的背景、生活方式、习惯和价值观都可能导致争吵和误解。Recent news of a middle-class Shanghainese woman who broke up with her peasant boyfriend over Spring Festival went viral on Chinese social media. The 26-year-old local girl was dating a migrant worker from a poor village in Jiangxi Province, but after being invited back to his ancestral home for a traditional Chinese lunar new year holiday, she immediately dumped him once she saw the humble dinner prepared by his relatives. She even publicly shared her experience on the Internet, along with a photo of the food she was served. What are foreigners#39; take on the incident?最近,一则上海中等家庭女生,春节和农村男友分手的新闻在中国媒体上闹得沸沸扬扬。这个26岁的上海女生与从江西贫穷农村来上海工作的男生谈恋爱,男友邀请她去老家过年,但在看到男友家人准备的简朴年夜饭后,女生立刻决定分手。她还在网上公开了这段经历,附上了一张年夜饭的照片。那么外国朋友们对这件事都持什么样的看法呢?Howard Whiteson from the UK said it was wrong of the girl to suddenly leave. ;It lacks sensibility. She knew her boyfriend was from a village. So she should have accepted the food, then broken up at a better time,; he said.来自英国的霍华德·怀特森表示,女生突然离开的做法是不对的。“太无情了,她知道男友家是农村的,所以她应当接受那顿饭,然后找一个更合适的时机分手。”他说。;The girl#39;s reaction of leaving the table and immediately breaking up with her boyfriend is extreme and radical. Why didn#39;t she just share her feelings with her boyfriend instead of on her social media?; Cyril Saidah from France said.来自法国的西里尔·赛达表示:“这女生马上离席并立刻分手的反应太极端和激进了。她为什么不与男朋友交流,反而在社交媒体上发表感想?”;I think there would be a national outcry if it happened in my country, Ireland, especially how she posted it publicly to display his family#39;s poor situation. It reflects a big gap and little empathy between the rich and the poor in China,; said an Irish citizen in Shanghai.“我觉得如果这事发生在我的国家爱尔兰,一定会引起全国人民的强烈抗议,尤其是她公开表明男友家庭的贫困状况。这事反映了中国贫富之间巨大的差距和缺乏同情。”一位在上海的爱尔兰人说道。;I totally don#39;t agree with the reaction of the girl, because even if she didn#39;t want to continue dating this guy, she didn#39;t have to humiliate his parents,; said Olga Portnova from Kazakhstan.“我完全不同意这个女生的做法,即便她不想和男生继续谈恋爱了,也没必要羞辱他的父母。”来自哈萨克斯坦的奥尔加波特诺娃说。Some expats the Global Times spoke with are married to a Chinese spouse and have firsthand experiences when it comes to cultural differences. The Global Times also asked these same foreigners to expound on their impression of Chinese dating and marriage.谈到文化差异,环球时报采访了一些与中国人结婚的海外移民,他们有着最直接的体验。环球时报还邀请这些外国朋友谈谈他们对中国恋爱和婚姻的印象。;Compared to the West, people in China mostly marry for money rather than feelings. Most of the time it#39;s only because of their parents#39; influence. But this is like how France was 60 years ago, so eventually China will also change,; said Oscar.“与西方相比,中国人大部分为了钱而不是感情而结婚。大部分情况下,这仅仅是由于他们父母的影响。但这就像60年前的法国,所以中国最终也会改变。”奥斯卡说。;Making assumptions and having strong opinions can hurt opportunities for change. The girl should look at what the boy can become instead of where he came from and what he was in the past. Just because everybody uses AC power now does not mean they will in the future,; said Derek Cowburn from the US.“妄自猜测以及表达强烈意见可能会破坏改变的机会。这个女生应该看到男友的未来,而不是他来自哪里和他的过去。现在每个人都用交流电,但这并不代表他们在将来也会用。”来自美国的德里克库布伦说。;From my understanding, many times the choice in China is based on financial and education criteria before true love. But I believe everybody should be humble and respectful toward each other. Class differences should not be a deal breaker if the couple really loves each other,; said Saidah.“按照我的理解,中国很多婚姻都是基于经济和教育水平,而不是真爱。但我认为每个人应当对他人保持谦逊和尊重。如果这对情侣真的彼此相爱,家庭条件不同并不应当成为感情的阻碍。”赛达说。In the case of the Shanghai woman, it was obviously important for her to find a significant other who has a matching family background, but for the foreigners interviewed, this does not seem to be so important.对于这则新闻中的上海女生来说,很显然她认为找到一个家庭背景相当的另一半很重要,但对接受采访的外国人来说,这个条件似乎并没有那么重要。;I think it#39;s fine for people of different classes to date and marry. There are many examples of this in the West. If love is strong then class shouldn#39;t matter. But it can also eventually create conflict,; said Whiteson.“我认为不同阶层的人们相恋结婚挺好的。在西方国家这种例子很多。如果感情到位,阶层无所谓,但最终还是可能产生冲突。”怀特森说。;There is no reason people from different family backgrounds and classes should not date or marry. Most societies are not like the Indian caste system, in which there is no mixing allowed,; said Saidah. ;In French we even have a saying that goes #39;opposites attract.#39; Meeting and mixing with different people is very rewarding and helps us become more open-minded,; he said.“来自不同家庭背景和不同阶层的人不应当约会和结婚-这根本没道理。大多数社会并不像印度种姓制度那样,不允许不同种姓的人结婚。”赛达说。“在法国我们甚至有#39;不同阶层相互吸引#39;的说法。与不同的人种相识并结婚非常有益,使我们变得更加开明。”他说。 /201602/427124

The Sima family were a celebrated, old-established, and wide-ranging family from Henei (now Wen County in Henan) commandery.三国时期,司马家族来自河内(今河南温县)封地,也是古老、有名望的大家族。Sima Yi’s elder brother Sima Lang had joined Cao Cao early in the civil war, and Sima Yi, who first held office at the puppet court of Han, followed his brother in 208 and served on the staff of Cao Cao* s headquarters.司马懿之兄司马朗早年跟随曹操东征西战,司马懿在汉朝供职,公元208年跟随曹操,作为曹操的军师与吴、蜀交战。In 217 Sima Yi became a member of the suite of Cao Pi , an Heir Apparent, and he was also evidently a personal friend of Cao Pi.公元217年成为太子曹丕的幕僚和私人好友。When Cao Pi came to the throne, Sima Yi received steadily higher appointments.曹丕就位后,司马懿官就高位。A few months after Cao Pi ’s death in 226,Sima Yi took command in the field for the first time, driving back a secondary attack of Wu against Xiangy-ang, and in the following year he was given responsibility for military affairs on the Han River.公元226年曹丕死后,由司马懿指挥前线战役,在襄阳打败了东吴军队。次年,独领军权督战汉水流域。Sima Yi proved to be an energetic and competent general. And during the rules of Cao Pi, Cao Rui and Cao Fang he held command in the south against Wu, against in the west Shu-Han and controlled the power of Wei government.因其卓越的军事政治指挥才能,连续辅佐曹丕、曹敷、曹芳三帝,对抗东吴和蜀汉。成为魏国的实权人物。In 251, Sima Yi left his position to his eldest son Sima Shi, then forty years old. Sirria Shi embarked on a series of raids and campaigns against Wu and the non-Chinese people of the north, but he achieved no breakthrough.魏嘉平三年(251)司马懿卒,其子司马师掌权,司马师当时40岁,他率兵开展了一系列的伐吴和北方的少数民族的的战役,但没有很大突破。By 254 the emperor Cao Fang and supporters of the Cao family were threatening Sima Shi. Sima Shi, however, struck first, deposed Cao Fang, and set his cousin Cao Mao on the thro-neinstead.公元254年,魏帝曹芳及其持者危及了司马师的地位,司马师先发制人,废曹芳,立其侄曹髦为帝。In 260, there was one further conspiracy to preserve the dynasty, in which the twenty-four-year-old Emperor took a leading role, but it was defeated in a short skirmish, and Cao Mao was killed in the fighting. He was replaced by the last in the line of puppets, Cao Huan, and Sima Zhao could now concentrate upon the conquest of Shu-Han.公元260年,24岁的魏帝曹髦发起了一场维权的斗争,经过短暂的激斗,曹髦被杀,由曹奂即位。By 264 victory in the west was complete, and Sima Zhao took title as King of Jin. In the autumn of the year Sima Zhao died, he was succeeded by his eldest son Sima Yan, then thirty years old.司马昭放心南下征伐蜀汉,公元264年,打败蜀后,自封为晋王,同年秋司马昭死,其子司马炎时年30岁即位。That winter, on 4th of February 266, Sima Yan received the abdication of Cao Huan and took the imperial title for himself and remained Luoyang as capital which was the Western Jin Dynasty in Chinese history.公元266年2月4日,司马炎废魏帝曹奂,改国号为晋,都于洛阳,这就是中国历史上的西晋王朝。So the final triumph of Wei over Shu-Han was also the occasion for the overthrow of the Cao’ s family and replacement by the Jin Dynasty of Sima Yan.蜀汉战争的胜利也是推翻曹氏家族、开始司马家族统治的历史。At an early stage of the civil war, the warlords were concentrated on establishing efficient governing system and recovering the development of agriculture.三国初期,各国主要致力于整顿吏治,恢复社会秩序和发展经济。A-mong them Wei, in the north, especially gained excellent results.其中以曹魏的成就比较突出。In about 196, Cao Cao established a number of “agricultural garrisons” (tuntian) in the neighbourhood of Xu Chang city, his chief headquarters. There was arable land nearby which had been abandoned by refugees and was available to the government. Therefore it was sensible and appropriate that surplus people should be allocated the empty fields.公元196年,从曹操统一北方、在许昌(魏都)推广屯田制,当时 有大量的土地因战乱而荒废,同时又有许多没有土地的流民,用这些人来开垦闲散的土地是明智之举。The distinctive point about the new system, however, was that the farmers maintained a direct relationship with the government, namely, they were granted supplies and material assistance, and that they returned a regular share of produce to the imperial granaries and treasury. This practice progressively recovered the agricultural development.这一制度的好处在于农民和政府有了直接的联系,政府补贴和持农民种地,农民向国家交粮、纳税,生产逐渐恢复。Meanwhile, Cao Cao reformed the bureaucratic practice since the Eastern Han, for example, he promoted people to important position on their merit#39; s rather than on their family background.同时曹操又改革了东汉以来的许多弊政,推举有能力的人来朝中做官而不是依靠家庭背景。As the chief minister of Kingdom of Shu, Zhuge Liang adhered to clear and strict laws and be fair and hard in meeting out rewards and punishment. He also worked hard to develop agricultural production in Sichuan. He appointed special officials in charge of the ancient Dujiang Weir and had many more water works built.蜀国丞相诸葛亮法治严格,纪律严明,赏罚分明,此外还派人负责都江堰和许多灌溉设施的修建。For years of these practices, the agriculture and handicraft industry were restored and thriving. The kingdom of Shu was strengthened.使蜀国农业和手工业逐步得到恢复和发展,国力增强。To secure a peaceful environment for the kingdom ,he took care to improve relations with the ethnic minorities inhabiting south west area(present-day Guizhou and Yunnan province) and therefore strengthened the ties between the Han people and these ethnic minorities.特别是诸葛亮招抚西南夷(今贵州、云南等地),使少数民族地区得到开发,加强了民族团结。The kingdom of Wu faced the most quick development of population after the land reclamation system and the building of irrigating works.吴国由于实行屯田和兴修水利,人口有很大增长。The Wu kingdom includes 43 cities and 313 counties which are far larger than that of in Han era and above all, Wu owned a powerful fleet and navy with the cultivating of farmland, the development of agriculture, Wu enjoyed a long period of tranquility.吴东南地区很快得到开发,共得43郡313县,比东汉时大大增强。吴国土地开辟,农业发展,政治稳定,航海业发达。The wars in Three Kingdoms period were different from the confusion wars at the end of the Han Dynasty in that the purpose of the war lied in the reunification of the imperial China .三国时期虽然仍有不断的战争,但已和东汉末期军阀混战的性质不同,是顺应民心所向的统一战争。Among the famous wars there are Jing battle between Shu and Wu, Hanzhong battle in which Shu and Wei counteracted each other, the battle of Wei vanquished Shu and Jin dethroned Wu.其中比较著名的有蜀、吴争夺荆州的战争,蜀、魏争夺汉中的战争,和魏灭蜀、晋灭吴的战争。Wei held the most formidable military strength among the three kingdoms, therefore committed the duty of reunification.三国的军事实力以魏国最强,因此统一战争的主要任务最后落在魏晋方面。In 280, when Sima Yan, the Emperor Wu of Jin, defeated Wu and unified China, three kingdoms eras ended.晋武帝太康元年(280),晋灭吴。至此,三国时代宣告终结。 /201512/415724

Everybody wants to be happy. Thus, the onslaught of lists enumerating various happy-making suggestions: Learn to let go! Live in the present! Don#39;t sweat the small stuff!每个人都渴望快乐的生活。于是,各种关于幸福秘诀的清单纷纷出炉:学会放手!活在当下!莫在小事上纠结!Which is all fine and good—there#39;s clearly nothing wrong with a positive outlook. But that list has been done to death ... and aren#39;t those peppy platitudes slightly obvious anyway? Instead, we offer an alternative list of habits—more concrete and backed by science—employed by those who#39;ve successfully located the bliss button.这些建议当然不错——毕竟每个人都想要有积极的人生。只是它们的内容都被说滥了……那些陈词滥调难道不是显而易见的吗?所以,今天我们给大家提供一份不一样的清单——它们就是那些幸福的人正在践行着的秘诀,这些秘诀更具体,且有科学依据。1. They go to parks漫步公园One study found that people who live in cities with more green space feel better than those surrounded by man-made materials. How much better? The happiness jump associated with green space is equal to about one-third the boost in well-being that people get from being married. In a similar vein, another study found that a five-minute dose of nature improves self-esteem; green areas with water were found to be the most beneficial.研究表明,住在城市绿地附近的人要比整日身在人造材料中的人幸福感强烈。有多幸福呢?打个比方说,与绿地相邻的人,其幸福感的提升幅度大概有人们结婚时幸福感的三分之一。同样,另有研究明,亲近自然哪怕五分钟,也有利于自尊心的提升;若绿地还能伴水那更是最好不过了。2. They live in Scandinavian countries生活在北欧国家Okay, so your place of residence may not be a habit so much as a circumstance, but this is interesting. According to the ed Nations General Assembly#39;s second World Happiness Report, Denmark is the happiest country, followed by Norway, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Sweden and Canada. Note that all of these are generally northern countries, what#39;s the deal? See number 3.好吧,也许你觉得居住的地方只能算环境因素,称不上是习惯,但事实并非如此。根据联合国大会发布的第二份全球幸福指数报告,幸福度最高的国家是丹麦,其次是挪威、瑞士、荷兰、瑞典和加拿大。注意,这些国家绝大多数都位于北欧。为什么会这样呢?看看下一条你就知道了。3. They practice #39;hygge#39;践行“修噶”文化Huh? Pronounced HYU-gah, Danes make it through their long dark winters with a healthy dose of this to maintain their position as the happiest place in the world. With no real equivalent in the English language, hygge is a cultural concept that revolves around intimacy, gratitude and family; it#39;s a kind of emotional coziness. As described by one Dane, ;It#39;s like a feeling, and it#39;s big at Christmastime. The candles, the food, being with your family.; But it lasts all year.啥?“修噶”读作“HYU-gah”,有了它,丹麦人才能度过漫漫冬夜。因为它,丹麦得以一直是世界上最幸福的国家。“修噶”是一个涉及亲密、感恩与家庭的文化概念,是一种精神层面的温馨舒适,英语中没有与之对应的词。有丹麦人这样描述“修噶”:“它可以说是一种感受,尤其是圣诞期间和家人围坐在一起时,伴着摇曳的烛光和丰盛的食物,这种感受尤为强烈。”不过对丹麦人来说,这种感受可以持续一整年。4. They have satisfying jobs—and if not, they quit有一份满意的工作——不满意就辞职It#39;s no surprise that workers who are happy with their work are happy with their lives. And in fact, a Gallup poll found that workers who were happily engaged and enthusiastic about work were happiest in life, with 71 percent of them describing themselves as ;thriving.; And it#39;s probably not that surprising that only 42 percent of poll respondents who said they were disconnected from their work described themselves as thriving. What#39;s surprising is that 48 percent of those unemployed see themselves as thriving; that#39;s 6 percent more than those with jobs; for many, being unemployed is happier than having a crummy job.工作顺利的人,生活也同样幸福,这不足为奇。美国盖洛普民意测验(Gallup poll)显示,那些工作专注有的人,生活中也是最幸福的,其中认为自己“朝气蓬勃”的人达71%。所以,当那些认为无法全身心投入工作的人中,只有42%认为自己有朝气,也在情理之中了。但令人惊讶的是,调查中有48%的无业者认为自己很有朝气,这比有工作的人还多出6%;对大多数人来说,与其干一份糟糕的工作还不如歇业在家。5. They smell the flowers嗅花香No, this isn#39;t an homage to the ;stop and smell the roses; cliche; it#39;s not about taking time for the delights in your life (although stopping and smelling the roses is a grand thing to do). It#39;s about floral scents and the effect they have on mood. Much research has been conducted on how floral scents can influence behaviors. In one set of experiments, researchers found that a floral-scented room led to increased happiness and friendliness. One researcher noted that the floral smell is an emotion manipulator and improves the mood. ;The floral odors can make you happy; floral odors promote social interaction, social approach kinds of behaviors,; said Jeannette Haviland-Jones, of Rutgers University.这么做可不是为了践行“停下脚步,享受生活”这一陈词滥调,它与花时间享受生活无关(虽然这确实很棒)。它就是与花的香气有关——利于调节情绪。许多有关于花香如何对行为产生影响的研究都明了这一点。比如,研究者通过实验发现,处在花香四溢的房间里,人们的幸福感与亲切感会随之上升。一位研究者认为,花香能够操纵情绪,改善心情。美国罗格斯大学的珍妮特·哈维兰德-琼斯说:“花香除了能够让人心情愉快,还能促进人际交往这种社会行为。”6. They get dirty亲近泥土Commence making mud pies. Medical researchers in the U.K. found evidence that “friendly” bacteria found in soil may activate the immune system, boost the brain compound serotonin and help ward off depression.开始学着玩泥巴吧。英国的医学研究者实,泥土中存在的一些有益菌能够增强我们的免疫系统功能,促进大脑五羟色胺化合物(注:神经递质,能够影响情绪)的生成,帮助人们摆脱忧郁。7. They exercise适度锻炼We know you didn#39;t want to hear that, but fret not. The good news is that middle-aged women don#39;t have to run marathons or go all-out for the emotional benefits of physical activity to kick in. And in fact, a study found that moderate intensity exercise—as opposed to intense exercise—caused more women to report later that they were in a better mood and to have greater feelings of energy, psychological well-being and ;self-efficacy.;我们知道,你不想听这个陈词滥调,不过先别急。好消息是,中年女性为获得情绪上的放松,不用非要跑马拉松或是参加其他令人疲惫的体育活动。实际上,有研究表明,适度的锻炼要比剧烈运动更能让女性身心愉悦、活力充沛、精神充实;她们的“自我效能(注:指人们对自身能否利用所拥有的技能去完成某项工作行为的自信程度)”也会更强。8. They don#39;t try to be … happy?不去刻意追寻快乐Oops. Now that we#39;ve told you the secrets for happiness, we#39;re here to dash your dreams. A prominent study shows that making happiness a personal goal will actually stand in the way of your achieving it. The researchers found that women who valued happiness more reported being less happy and more depressed than women who didn#39;t place much importance on the goal.呃,既然已经把快乐的秘诀都告诉你了,我们再来将你的梦想打破。有个著名的研究表明,将追求快乐作为个人目标只会阻碍你获得快乐。研究人员发现,重视快乐的女性却很少能感受快乐,甚至会比那些不太在意追求快乐的人更忧郁。;Wanting to be happy can make you less happy,; said study researcher Iris Mauss. ;If you explicitly and purposely focus on happiness, that appears to have a self-defeating quality.;研究者艾丽斯·莫斯表示:“一味追求快乐反而会让你变得不快乐。如果你过于明确‘追求快乐#39;这一目标,最终只会尝到挫败的滋味。”So if you really want to be happy, try forgetting about it.所以说,如果你真想变得快乐,就忘了这事吧。 /201603/433903

The widely accepted notion that skipping breakfast might cause weight gain entered the Dietary Guidelines in 2010. However, it is based on scientific speculation, not certainty. Indeed, it may be completely unfounded, as an experiment in New York indicated.不吃早餐可能会长胖为人们普遍接受。这一观念也被写进了2010年版的《膳食指南》。然而,它却是基于科学猜测,并非出于定论。的确,纽约进行的一则实验表明,这个观念也许能被全盘推翻。;In overweight individuals, skipping breakfast daily for 4 weeks leads to a reduction in body weight,; the researchers from Columbia University concluded in a paper published last year.来自哥伦比亚大学的研究员们在去年发表的一篇论文中表示:;对于过重的人们而言,四周内每天不吃早餐能减少体重。;The Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee explained that in previous years, researchers generally conducted observational studies, in support of the notion that skipping breakfast might make one fat. Although this method is cheaper and easier to carry out, its weaknesses can lead scientists astray.膳食指南咨询委员会解释道,前些年研究员们为了印不吃早餐也许会使人长胖的观念,通常采取观测研究。尽管这种研究方法更廉价、更容易实行,但它存在的缺点却让科学家们的研究方向走偏。One of the primary troubles is confounders, which can lead researchers to make mistaken assumptions about causes. For example, suppose breakfast skippers have a personality trait that makes them more likely to gain weight than breakfast eaters. If that#39;s the case, it may look as if skipping breakfast causes weight gain even though the cause is the personality trait.混淆因素是主要问题之一,它们能让研究人员们对原因做出错误的猜想。举个例,倘若不吃早餐者更容易增重是源于其性格。如果情况便是如此,那么事实也许看起来是不吃早餐导致人增重,即使罪魁祸首是性格特征。In analyzing the results of observational studies, scientists make statistical adjustments to minimize the potential confounding factors that they can measure — age, alcohol consumption, exercise, employment, and the like. But the adjustments are imprecise, and there is no guarantee that the groups are not different in some other unmeasured way. Because of those weaknesses, many scientists prefer randomized controlled trials, which they often say provides the ;gold standard; in evidence.在分析观测试验的结果时,科学家们会对数据进行调整,力图减少他们所能测量到的潜在混淆因素,像是年龄、酒精消耗量、锻炼、就业率等。但这些调整是不精确的,而且也没人能保这样分组在其他某种未经测量的角度来看是一致的。因为这些不足,许多科学家们更倾向于做随机控制实验。他们总称这种实验方式能提供黄金标准作为据。When in the coming months the government unveils the 2015 Dietary Guidelines, it is unclear the advice on breakfast and weight gain will be included. The 2015 advisory committee issued a report that steered clear of the subject of skipping breakfast and weight.在未来的几个月内,美国政府要公布2015年的《膳食指南》,人们尚不知关于早餐和体重增加的建议是否会被纳入其中。2015年的咨询委员会发布的这份报告绕开了不吃早餐和体重这个主题。President of Millennium Prevention, a life sciences start-up company, and chair of the 2015 advisory committee, Barbara Millen said, ;The sentiment was we don#39;t have to say anything further about it. We didn#39;t want to focus on a laundry list of foods and meals. We were focusing on overall dietary patterns.;生物科学创业公司总裁兼2015年咨询委员会主席芭芭拉·米伦称:;我认为不吃早餐和体重之间的关系探讨并不是头号问题,我的观点是我们不需要再对它进一步讨论。我们不想要将重点放在食物和餐饮的细目清单上,我们的重心在整体的膳食模式。; /201510/403707

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