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时间:2019年08月19日 05:54:28

Han Yu (768~824), called Han Changli or Han Wengong, courtesy name Tuizhi, was the master of Chinese prose, outstanding poet, and the first proponent of what later came to be known as Neo-Confucianism, which had wide influence in China and Japan. 韩愈(768~824),字退之,也叫韩昌黎或韩文公,中国散文大家、杰出诗人,首倡对中国和日本有广泛影响的宋明理学。An orphan, Han initially failed his civil service exams because the examiners refused to accept his unconventional prose style, but he eventually entered the bureaucracy and served in several high government posts.韩愈是个孤儿,起初因考官不接受其非传统的文风而科考落地,但是他最终进了官场,做了高官。At a time when the popularity of Confucian doctrine had greatly declined, Han began a defense of it.当时,儒家学说已如昔日黄花盛况不再,于是韩愈开始捍卫儒学地位。He attacked Daoism and Buddhism, which were then at the height of their influence. So outspoken was he that he castigated the emperor for paying respect to the supposed finger bone of the Buddha; this act of criticism almost cost Han his life and caused him to be banished to South China for a year.韩愈攻击当时盛极一时的道教和佛教,非常直率地批评了皇帝对所谓的佛骨舍利的尊敬;此举差点要了韩愈的命,他因而被流放到南方过了一年。In defending Confucianism, Han ed extensively from the Mencius, the Daxue (;Great Learning;), the Zhongyong (;Doctrine of the Mean;), and the Yijing (;Classic of Changes;; known to many as Yijing-Ching), works that hitherto had been somewhat neglected by Confucians.为了捍卫儒学,韩愈广泛引用《孟子》、《大学》、《中庸》和《易经》里的话。这些书已经有点被当时的儒生忽视了。In so doing, he laid the foundations for later Neo-Confucianists who took their basic ideas from these books.就这样,韩愈为后来的宋明理学家(他们的基本思想是从这些仔里得来的)奠定了基础。Han advocated the adoption of ;ancient style;, the free, simple prose of these early philosophers, a style unencumbered by the mannerisms and elaborate verse-like regularity of the pianwen (“parallel prose;) style that was prevalent in Han#39;s time. 韩愈提倡写作古文。古文是早期哲学家使用的一种自由、简单的散文文体,这种文体并未受阻于汉代流行的辞藻华丽、崇尚对句等形式的骈文。His own essays (e. g. On the Way, On Man,and On Spirits) are among the most beautiful ever written in Chinese, and they became the most famous models of the prose style he espoused.韩愈自己的论文(《原道》、《原人》和《原性》)也在中国最优美的文章之列,并成为他所提倡的文体的范文。In his poetry also, Han tried to break out of the existing literary forms, but many of his efforts at literary reform failed.在写诗方面,韩愈也试图突破原有的文学形式,但是他在文学改革方面的许多努力都失败了。He is considered the first of the renowned ;Eight Masters of the Tang and Song;. At his death the title of president of the ministry of rites was conferred upon him, as well as the epithet “Master of Letters;, both great honours.韩愈被尊为“唐宋八大家”之首,去世时被追封为礼部尚书(应该是吏部侍郎),谥号“文”。 /201601/420560

A Silicon Valley venture capitalist, locked in a battle with the State of California over access to a prime stretch of beach that was popular with surfers, swimmers and fishermen before he bought it and closed it, has proposed a price to restore public access: million.硅谷一位风险投资人曾买下一片优质海滩,并将其关闭。在那之前,那片海滩颇受冲浪和游泳爱好者以及渔民的欢迎。这名投资人围绕这片海滩的使用权与加利福尼亚州陷入了持久的纠纷。如今,这位投资人为重新向公众开放海滩开出了价格:3000万美元。About eight years ago, Mr. Khosla, a founder of Sun Microsystems, snapped up a prime 53-acre parcel of Martins Beach for .5 million. The parcel, about four miles south of Half Moon Bay on the San Francisco Peninsula, includes the beach and the road. And for a century, California’s State Lands Commission said, the land had been a haven for the beachgoing public.大约八年前,太阳微系统(Sun Microsystems)公司创始人之一维诺德·科斯拉(Vinod Khosla)花3750万美元,买下了马丁斯海滩一块占地53英亩的优质地。该地块位于旧金山半岛半月湾以南约四英里处,包含海滩和一条路。加州土地委员会(State Lands Commission)称,一个世纪以来,那里一直是海滩爱好者的天堂。At first, Mr. Khosla let people use the beach, but in 2010 locked the gate on Martins Beach Road and posted guards.起初,科斯拉是允许公众使用那片海滩的,但2010年,他锁上了马丁斯海滩路上的大门,并部署了保安。Now, for the first time, lawyers for Mr. Khosla have proposed in negotiations with the state to restore public access for almost the amount that Mr. Khosla paid for the land.在就重新面向公众开放一事与加州政府开展谈判期间,这是科斯拉的代理律师首次提出,用一笔与科斯拉当初买地的价钱几乎相当的金额解决此事。But the commission’s executive officer, Jennifer Lucchesi, said in a telephone interview, “We do not agree with that value, and we believe the value is significantly less than that.” Ms. Lucchesi added, “We have not seen any backup documentation to support the million value.”但州土地委员会行政主管珍妮弗·卢凯西(Jennifer Lucchesi)在接受电话采访时表示,“我们不赞成这个价钱,我们认为那块地远不值这个价位。”她接着表示,“我们没看到任何补充性的文件,可以明那块地值3000万美元。”The commission planned to offer its own assessment, she said.她说,委员会计划给出一项自己的估价。The two sides are actually trying to agree on the value of a right of public use of Martins Beach Road, which leads from the highway to the beach, and access along the shoreline itself, Ms. Lucchesi said.卢凯西称,双方实际上是试图就马丁斯海滩路的公共使用权,以及让公众使用海滩的价格达成一致。马丁斯海滩路连接着一条公路和那片海滩。The talks were initiated under legislation that took effect in January 2015, she said. If the two sides cannot agree, the commission could resort to eminent domain, which allows the state to expropriate private property for public use.她说,谈判是根据2015年1月生效的一项法律进行的。若双方不能达成一致,该委员会可能会诉诸于国家征用权。后者允许政府征收私人地产用于公共用途。Mr. Khosla’s lawyer, Dori L. Yob, could not be reached for comment by telephone or email. But in her letter to the commission, dated Feb. 3, she said that Mr. Khosla’s limited liability companies, the legal entity that owns the property, closed the beach because demand was low, asserting that more than 10 cars showed up to use it only about 15 days a year.记者无法通过电话或电子邮件联系到科斯拉的律师多里·L·约布(Dori L. Yob)。但她在2月3日写给该委员会的一封信中表示,科斯拉名下的有限责任公司(即持有这处房产的法人),之所以关闭海滩是因为公众对其需求很低,称一年中去海滩的汽车超过10辆的时间只有大约15天。Ms. Yob said that while the current real estate market value of the land was million, the Martins Beach owners previously offered less expensive solutions to meet the “limited demand” for access as a way to avoid lengthy litigation and further expenses.约布称,这块地在当前的房地产市场上的价格是3000万美元,但马丁斯海滩的业主过去为满足公众对海滩的“有限需求”而提供的解决方案,成本没有现在这么高,这样做是为了避免漫长的诉讼和进一步的花销。“The cost to acquire the property is significant and should be weighed against the benefits,” she wrote. “There is no vital link to navigable waters at issue. There is not a significant demand for access to the property.”“买下这块地的成本较高,应对其效益加以衡量,”她写道。“我们讨论的道路,不是连接通航水域的重要通道。对进入那片地区的需求并不大。” /201603/428686

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced Monday it has lifted a 30-year-old lifetime ban on blood donations by gay men, allowing those who haven#39;t had sexual contact with other men in a year to do so.美国食品药品监督(食药监局)21日正式解除一项实施了30年的终身禁令,将禁止同性恋、双性恋男子献血的规定改为允许他们禁欲12个月后献血。With the decision, the ed States joined countries such as the ed Kingdom and Australia, which also have 12-month deferrals for men who have sex with men to donate blood.这项决定的做出使得美国的政策与英国、澳大利亚等国家的政策看齐。这些国家也允许同性恋禁欲12个月后献血。;In reviewing our policies to help reduce the risk of HIV transmission through blood products, we rigorously examined several alternative options, including individual risk assessment,; said Peter Marks, deputy director of the FDA#39;s Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research. ;Ultimately, the 12-month deferral window is supported by the best available scientific evidence.;FDA生物制品评估和研究中心主任皮特·马克斯表示:“为了使我们的政策有助于通过血液制品降低艾滋病传染的风险,我们严格检查了多个选项,包括个人风险评估。最终,科学据表明12个月是最好的空窗期。”People with hemophilia or related clotting disorders are also still deferred from donating blood. The rationale, however, has changed ;from preventing HIV transmission to ensuring that such donors are not harmed by the use of large bore needles during the donation process,; said the U.S. regulator.美国的负责人表示,血友病患者或有相关凝血障碍的潜在献血者仍禁止献血,这样做的原因是“出于对他们自身的保护,因为献血过程中使用的针头会对他们造成潜在的伤害”。 /201512/417738


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