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阿克苏市祛斑多少钱和田市膨体隆鼻多少钱We humans pride ourselves on having large, supple brains. Butwhile our brains are larger than those of most other animals, itappears that over time our presence can result in smaller-brained animals having cerebral growthspurts.我们人类为拥有大的,灵活的大脑而自豪。然而,尽管我们的大脑比大多数动物大,但是,经过一段时间,我们的存在似乎会让大脑较小动物的大脑突然生长。Scientists have found that certain small mammals-including some species of shrew, vole, bat,gopher, mouse and squirrel-have larger brains when they live near or around people in bothurban and rural areas.科学家们发现某些小型哺乳动物─包括某些种类的鼩鼱、田鼠、蝙蝠、囊鼠、老鼠、松鼠─不论是生活在城市还是农村,当它们比邻人类而居时,大脑会变大。For example, one study found that the brains of urban-dwelling white-footed mice and meadowvoles are about six percent larger than their rural cousins.例如,一项研究发现居住在城市的白足鼠和草甸田鼠,他们的大脑比它们的乡下亲属大出6%。Meanwhile, as habitats have become developed, rural dwelling shrews and bats have also evolvedlarger brains over the past century.同时,随着栖息地的扩展,在过去的一个世纪里,居住在农村的鼩鼱和蝙蝠的大脑也变大了。Scientists speculate that the larger brains of some city living animals are due to those crittershaving to adapt to and survive in places populated by lots of people.科学家们猜测, 一些生活在城市的动物大脑变大,是因为他们不得不在人气旺的地方适应并生存下来。After all, it stands to reasonthat raising baby mice and voles in busy urban and suburban places requires as much brain poweras possible.毕竟,可以理解老鼠和田鼠要在繁华的城市和郊区生儿育女是挺费脑子的。As for the rural animals whose brains have grown, it could be that human development in ruralareas has forced animals such as bats and shrews to forage farther afield, and that patrolling largerhunting grounds requires more brain power.至于生活在农村的动物大脑变大,这可能是因为人类在农村的发展已经迫使像蝙蝠和鼩鼱这样的动物到更远的野外觅食。在更大的狩猎区巡查,更费脑力。An important underlying point of this research is that even an organ as complex as the brain iscapable of significant evolution over relatively short periods of time.这项研究的潜在关键是,即使像大脑这样复杂的器官,也能在相对短的时间里发生重大进化。 201402/277475石河子市开韩式双眼皮多少钱 Hi Don, whats new?嗨,唐,有什么新鲜事吗?Everything!一切都是新鲜的!What do you mean?你是什么意思?The clouds, the grass, this pencil, my chair...白云,草地,这铅笔,我的椅子…Have you been hitting the bottle?你喝醉酒了吗?No.没有。Dont tell me youve had a religious epiphany.不要告诉我你已经有了宗教顿悟。No, its nothing like that.不,不是这样的。Then what?那是什么呢?I got contact lenses to replace my glasses, and its like Im seeing the world through new eyes. Its miraculous.我用隐形眼镜来替代我的眼镜,就像我是有了双新眼睛看世界。这很神奇。Actually Don, theres nothing miraculous about it.实际上是这样的,唐,没有什么奇迹可言。Do tell.你告诉我吧。Well, like glasses, contact lenses work by bending light rays just the right amount to make the object come into focus on the retina at the back of the eye.嗯,比如眼镜,隐形眼镜的工作原理是通过弯曲光线达到适合以使物体成为在眼睛后面的视网膜聚焦。Sometimes the eyes natural lens has an imperfection or may not be shaped properly, which can make your vision blurry or distorted.有时眼睛的自然晶状体有缺陷或塑形不正确,这就造成你的视力模糊或失真。Depending on your vision, the right kind of lens helps your eye focus light properly and project a clear image onto the retina.取决于你的视觉,合适的眼镜会帮助你的眼睛进行合适的聚焦之后在视网膜上形成一个清晰的影像。Ok, fine, but why do contacts make things seem so clear?好,很好,但为什么隐形眼镜使事物看起来很清楚呢?Patience, young patience.耐心,小伙子耐心听完。Glasses have whats called an optical center, which means that objects appear clearest when viewed through the center of the lenses.眼镜有所谓的光心,这意味着通过镜片的中心时物体会变得最为清晰。But when youre wearing glasses and you move your eyes to the side, or up, or down, things can seem slightly distorted or blurry.但是当你戴上眼镜,你的眼睛到一边,或上、下,事物会变得似乎稍微扭曲或模糊。So because contacts are right on the eye and move with the eye, theres no optical center.所以因为隐形眼镜恰巧在眼睛上而眼睛移动的时候没有光心。Right. Put another way, the entire contact lens is the optical center.就是这样。换句话说,整个隐形眼镜就是光心。So no matter which way you move your eyes, objects appear in perfect focus.所以无论以何种方式移动你的眼睛,物体都出现完美的焦点。And thats why everything seems so much clearer!这就是为什么一切都显得那么清晰多了!Like this eraser, and this envelope. . .比如这块橡皮擦,这信封…I get it, Don.我懂了,唐。201309/256512Are aliens going to eat us?外星人会来吃我们吗?Thats more of a science fiction question.这更像是科幻小说里的才会出现的问题。But science does havesomething to say here, and sometimes purely imaginativequestions are great tools for helping us think about how the realworld works.但是在这个问题上我们还是可以寻求科学的。很多时候像这种纯粹异想天开的问题却能够帮助我们更好地思考,更好地认识这个世界。First, its not strictly impossible.首先,严格地说,这也不无可能。Many scientists agree that theMilky Way galaxy is probably brimming with living things.许多科学家都认为系里可能到处都是生物,That doesnt mean any of them aresmart enough to build interstellar spaceships, but lets assume they are.但这并不是说它们就有能力建造星际间飞船。退一万步说,就算它们有这个能力来建造星际间飞船,Still, why are theyunlikely to eat us?可是,它们又为什么要吃我们呢?One reason lies in energy itself.原因之一就在于能量本身。The point of eating is to take in usable energy.吃东西最主要就是为了摄入可用的能量。A lion will expend a lot of energy running down azebra because, once it is caught, the calories contained in the meal far outweigh those expended in the chase.一头狮子可以耗掉大量的体力去追捕一匹斑马,那是因为一旦抓住了那匹斑马,它能摄入的斑马肉里的能量大大超过了他在追捕过程中消耗的能量。If this werent true–say, if the zebras body only had the caloric contentof a grape–then the energy expended would outweigh the energy gained, and the lion wouldlose out.如果以上都不成立,假如斑马肉里所含能量很少—少到根本就无法补充狮子追捕所耗能量,那么这头狮子也只能是白白耗掉体力了。Any alien predators would face the same problem.既然有这样的说法,那么食肉的外星人也会面对同样的问题。The amount of energy expended in building aspace program, fueling rockets, to say nothing of getting from one star to another, would behuge.建造一个空间计划,制造燃料火箭都需要消耗很多能量。更不用说从一个星球飞至另一个星球需要消耗更多的能量!For any realistic technology it would far outweigh the benefit of just munching on people.It would be like climbing Mount Everest in order to pick a few berries.与其猎食人类,还不如将那些能量用于更有实际意义的科技开发。其实猎食人类就像是辛辛苦苦攀上珠穆朗玛却只为摘些果子一样大材小用,劳民伤财。Some day we ourselves may travel to other planets. But any species that goes to such lengthsmerely to find food will find itself quickly exhausted.也许某一天人类能够踏上其他星球的土地。但是,任何一个为寻觅食物而踏上其他星球的物种终将认识到如此行径只会消耗掉自己的能量——自取灭亡。 /201408/318062和田比基尼脱毛价格

五家渠市耳部整形多少钱Science and technology科学技术3D printing三维压制A third-world dimension第三世界的发展空间A new manufacturing technique could help poor countries as well as rich ones一项新的制造技术能够对贫困国家有所帮助,就像对那些富有国家的帮助一样。EVERY summer, Seattle holds a raft race in Green Lake, a park that is the eponymous home of the water the rafts must cross.每年夏天,西雅图都会在绿湖举行一场木筏比赛,参加比赛的木筏必须渡过这个湖,这里的公园因其湖水而闻名。Entries for the Milk Carton Derby have to be made from old plastic milk bottles.参加这场同城牛奶盒比赛的木筏必须是由旧的塑料牛奶盒制成。The result is a wonderfully Heath-Robinson collection of improvised craft.结果,你就会看到一场奇妙的希思-鲁宾逊简易工艺展。But this year one stood out: the entry from the University of Washingtons engineering department actually looked like a boat.但是今年,有一个参赛的木筏特别引人注目:这个木筏是华盛顿大学工程系做的,看起来真的像一只船。The students who built it, Matthew Rogge, Bethany Weeks and Brandon Bowman, had shredded and melted their bottles, and then used a 3D printer to print themselves a plastic vessel.制造这个木筏的学生—马修罗格、伯斯尼威克斯和布兰登伯曼,把他们收集的塑料盒切碎后再熔化,再使用一种三维压印技术压印成一种塑料容器。No doubt the Milk-Carton-Derby rules will be tightened next year—though in the end, the team came only second.毫无疑问的是,同城牛奶盒比赛的规则明年会更加严格—虽然最后,这个队只赢得了第二名。But they did come first in a competition that mattered more.但是,他们在比赛中首次出现的意义却更重大。On October 19th they won 0,000 in the 3D4D Challenge, organised by a charity called techfortrade.在10月19日,他们在由一个称为技术为了贸易更美好的慈善组织组织的三维-四维挑战赛中赢得了十万美元的奖金。3D printing is all the rage at the moment.三维压印目前正是风靡一时。Several varieties of the technique exist, using a wide range of materials as the ink.利用几种不同的现有技术,再加上大范围的原料—称之为墨水就可以操作了。One of the most popular methods, though—and the one used by the team—works by extruding a filament of molten plastic.尽管,最流利的一种方式—就是那个参加比赛的队伍使用的,只是挤压成一条熔化后的塑料细丝。In the case of the teams printer, this plastic was high-density polyethylene from milk bottles.就这个参赛队伍的印刷技术来说,这种塑料是由牛奶盒提炼出的高密度聚乙烯。The print head makes repeated passes over the thing being printed, leaving a plastic trail as it does so.打印头重复地打压着半成品,当它重复这样的过程后,只留下一条塑料丝。It thus builds up a three-dimensional structure.最后,就生产出了一个三维产品。3D printing is now taken seriously by manufacturers as an alternative to cutting, bending, pressing and moulding things.制造商们正在认真考虑三维压印技术,想用它来替代切割、弯曲和压制成型机器。It is also a popular hobby among those of a geeky disposition.而且,它在那些古怪的配制中也算比较受欢迎了。What it has not been used for so far is to help people in poor countries improve their everyday lives.只是,到目前为止它还没被应用于贫困国家,帮助那里的人们改善他们的生活。Mr Rogge, Ms Weeks and Mr Bowman intend to employ their prize money to do precisely that.罗格先生,威克斯女士和伯曼先生打算用他们的奖金去实现这个目标。They plan to form a firm that will, in partnership with a charity called Water for Humans, custom-build composting toilets and rainwater collectors.他们打算与一家称为为人类提供生活之水的慈善组织合作,创建一家专门生产自动堆肥厕所和雨水收集容器的公司。The partnership will look for suitable local entrepreneurs in poor countries and will train them how to build, use and maintain the printers.他们的合伙人将会在那些贫困国家中寻找当地合适的企业家,并且会训练他们怎样组装、使用和保养压印机器。Once the technology is established for toilets and water collectors, other products will be introduced.一旦这种技术应用于厕所和集水箱,那么将会产生一系列的其它附属产品。The local partners will know what products are needed and how much people are prepared to pay for them—and therefore what is worth making.当地的合作者瘵会了解,这里需要什么样的产品,这里的人们愿意花多少钱来购买—因此这是值得试试的。The operation will thus run on a commercial basis.这种运作将会基于一种商业操作模式。But the software that controls the printers will be open-source and available to all, as will many of the designs for things the printers can make.但是,控制压印机器的软件将会成为公共资源,所有人都可以使用,就像当时设计这种压印机器时的设想一样。That way, the technology can sp.这样的话,这种技术将能很快传播开来。A trial will begin soon in Oaxaca, Mexico.墨西哥的瓦哈卡将会很快进行这种试验。The crucial point about the teams printer is that it combines size and cheapness.威克斯小组的压印机最关键的一点是,它的大小正合适而且价格很便宜。Printers used by hobbyists are not expensive, but they are small.供业余爱好者使用的压印机并不贵,而且很小巧。Many would find it hard to make anything larger than a coffee cup.许多人发现这个机器做出的东西都没一个咖啡杯大。Those used by engineering companies cost serious money—and even they might balk at printing an object the size of the Milk Carton Derby boat.那些工程公司使用的压印机成本很高—甚至他们也无法压制出像同城牛奶盒比赛中那样大的木筏。The teams printer is built around a second-hand computer-controlled plasma cutter.那个参赛队伍的压印机是由一台二手电脑控制的空气等离子切割机做出来的。This directs the movement of an extruder that melts flakes of plastic into a thin stream which can be squirted out as required.电脑控制着挤压机里的一切运作—即先熔化塑料,再挤压成细细的液体状,当需要时就可以喷射出来进行压制。It is able to create things with dimensions of up to 2.5 metres by 1.2 metres by 1 metre.这种机器可以生产出长2.5米,宽1.2米,高1米的物品。Appropriately, many of its parts were themselves manufactured on a desktop 3D printer.产品的许多部分还是来自于原材料,只是经过了一台台式三维压印机的处理而已。The ink is cheap, too. High-density polyethylene is as common as muck—literally, for a lot of it ends up on refuse tips.墨水也很便宜。高密度聚乙烯很常见,就像随处可见的泥土一样—就是这个意思,因为垃圾堆中有大量这种材料。Chop it up, though, and it is grist to the mill.但是,一定要记得剁碎它,这对压印机很重要。Mr Rogge estimates that if he and his colleagues had printed their boat from commercial plastic filament it would have cost them 0.罗格先生估计,如果他和他的同事利用商业塑料丝来制作这条船的话,那么成本会高达800美元。Instead, 250 clean, empty milk bottles set them back just .20.相反,他们用250个干净的,空牛奶盒只花了3.2美元。Some technical questions remain.不过,还有一些技术问题。High-density polyethylene shrinks when it cools.高密度聚乙烯遇冷会收缩。That stresses the object being printed and can sometimes tear it apart.这个不足也反应到了压制出来的产品上,产品有时都能完全扯开。The students are therefore working on a second prototype that prints things faster, allowing the layers of plastic to cool almost simultaneously.因此,这些学生们正在努力制作第二个样品,以提高压制速度,而且确保让塑料层几乎能同时冷却下来。They are also experimenting with making things from other types of waste plastic that suffer less from shrinkage.他们也在试验用其它类型的废塑料制作产品,以减少收缩性。And until a production version of the printer is y and priced, it remains to be seen how competitive its output really will be with mass-produced items.在压印机生产出来的成品已经完全没有问题,而且定出合理的价格以前,这种产品与大批量生产的成品的竞争力谁高谁低还有待观察。Mr Rogge doubts, for example, that a 3D-printed bucket—even one made from milk bottles—will ever be cheaper than one made in a factory.罗格先生还不确定,比如说,一个三维技术压制出来的水桶—即使原材料是牛奶盒—的价格会低于工厂生产出来的水桶价格。Boats, though, could be a hit.虽然,木筏可能会是个创举。One of the judges at the 3D4D Challenge noted that many small vessels in West Africa are made from trees, such as teak, that are becoming scarce.在三维-四维挑战赛中的一位评委说,在西非,许多小容器就是由树木,比如柚木制成的,而这种木材也越来越少了。Making them from waste plastic instead would be an environmental twofer: rare species would be conserved and less rubbish thrown away.如果用废塑料制作这些容器将会对环境是一举两得:珍稀物种得到了保护,而且还减少了垃圾 /201401/272528图木舒克去眼袋多少钱 Science and technology科学技术The Arctic北极Tequila sunset龙舌兰日落Global warming may make the northernmost ocean less productive, not more so全球变暖可能降低最北部海域的活力,而不是使之更有生命力。ON SEPTEMBER 16th 2012, at the height of the summer melt, the Arctic Oceans ice sheet had shrunk to an area of 3.41m square kilometres, half what it was in 1979.2012年9月16日当天已经达到了夏季海洋冰面融化的温度,北冰洋的冰盖缩小到了341万平方公里,这个数字只有1979年冰盖面积的一半。And its volume had shrunk faster still, to a quarter of what it was in 1979, for the sheet is getting thinner as well as smaller.而且,冰盖的面积仍旧以越来越快的速度在减少,将来的面积仅仅只有1979年总面积的四分之一。One culprit is global warming, which is fiercer at the poles than elsewhere.造成这种情况的原因之一就是全球变暖,全球变暖的后果在两极地区更为明显。因为冰盖正在越来越薄,也越来越小。The worlds average temperature in 2012 was nearly 0.5°C above the average for 1951-80.2012年全球的平均温度比1951-1980年的平均温度高了约0.5°C。In the Arctic, it was up almost 2°C.而在北极,平均温度则高了近2°C。This sudden warming is like the peeling back of a lid to reveal a new ocean underneath.突然的变暖像一个被剥离的盖子一样,给人们呈现了一个新的海底世界。That prospect is sping alarm and excitement.这种情形正在向周围发出警报,也让全世界兴奋不已。Though most of the excitement has been about oil and gas, and the opening of sea routes between the Atlantic and the Pacific, some people hope for a fishing bonanza, too, as warmth and light bring ecological renewal to what is now an icy desert.虽然,最让人兴奋的是发现了石油和天然气,还有大西洋和太平洋之间海上航线的开通,但是还是有一些人希望,在人们通过温暖和光明对现在这个冰冷沙漠进行生态重建时,也能带来渔业的发展机会。But they may be disappointed.但是他们可能要失望了。At the moment, the waters around the Arctic account for a fifth of the worlds catch.目前,北极附近海域的捕获量占世界总和的五分之一。There are few fish, however, under the ice itself.然而,在北极冰面下很少有鱼。A fishing bonanza would require big ecological change.渔业的发展机遇将需要极大的生态改革。Arctic Frontiers, a conference organised at the University of Tromso in January, looked at how warming will change the ecology, to estimate whether it will bring one about.今年一月,由特罗姆瑟大学主办的北极前沿会议上,讨论了全球变暖将会对北极生态产生的变化,以预测是否有利于渔业的发展。The consensus was that it wont—not because the Arctic will change too little, but because it will change too much.达成的共识是—不,不是因为北极几乎没什么变化,而是因为北极的变化太大。Change and decay改革和衰退At first sight, this is counterintuitive.乍看之下,这简直违背常理。As the ice melts, more light can reach the water, and that means more photosynthesis by marine algae.当冰块融化时,水中将会有更多的光线,那就意味着海藻可能进行更多的光合作用。In the past, algae began to grow under the ice sheet in May and continued to do so until late September.过去,当五月来临时,冰下的海藻开始生长,整个生长期会持续到九月末。Now, such growth starts in mid-March and continues until October.现在,海藻在三月中旬就开始生长,生长期会持续到十月。These ice algae, attached to the sheet itself, account for half the mass of living things in Arctic waters.这些依附于冰盖生长的冰藻数量占了北极海域生物中的一半。Much of the rest is unattached algae, known as phytoplankton, and tiny animals, known as zooplankton.而其它大多数是独立生长的海藻,被称为浮游植物,还有被称为浮游动物的小动物。Both sorts of plankton support, directly or indirectly, the fish and mammals that live in the Arctic Ocean.同时,这两种浮游生物都直接或间接地供养了生活在北冰洋的鱼类和哺乳类动物。And the plankton, too, are flourishing thanks to global warming.而且,由于全球变暖也让这些浮游生物大量繁殖。The Arctic phytoplankton bloom, which used to run from June to September, now runs from April to September.以前,北极浮游生物的大量繁殖期是六月到九月,而现在繁殖期则早在四月就开始了,直到九月才结束。The upshot is more plankton, farther north.结果是越往北,浮游生物越多。That attracts more fish.于是就吸引了更多的鱼类。In 2000 Atlantic cod were caught throughout the Barents Sea.2000年,在巴比伦海域捕获了大西洋鲟鱼。By 2012 their distribution was skewed towards the northern part of that sea.到2012年,这些浮游生物的影响更倾向于北极海域的北部地区。Stocks of capelin used to be concentrated south of Svalbard, at latitude 75°N.以前,大量的毛鳞鱼—是鲟鱼的食物—集中于北纬75度的斯瓦尔巴群岛南部。In 2012 this had moved to 78°N. Some found their way as far up as 80°N.而2012年,发现它们已经迁移到了北纬78度。还有些人甚至发现它们已经远移至北纬80度。Which all sounds most promising.这些似乎让大多数人看到了希望。But many researchers think it will not continue.但是,许多研究者认为,这种情况不会再持续下去。First, the central Arctic is too deep for some important species, such as the polar cod.首先,对某些重要物种来说,比如,极地鲟鱼北极中心的海域太深。Young polar cod are pelagic, meaning they live at or near the surface.年幼的极地鲟鱼是海洋生物,也就是说他们生活在或者接近海平面。Those one or more years old are benthic, meaning they live near the bottom. In the Beaufort that bottom is 200 metres down.那些一岁或者以上的鲟鱼是深海生物,他们生活的区域接近海底。In the central Arctic it descends to about 4,000 metres, which is too deep for polar cod to survive.在福尔,最深处就是200米以下。而北极中心的海底是约4,000米以下,那里对鲟鱼来说太深了无法生存。A second reason why there may be no bonanza is acidification of the ocean.渔业没有发展前途的第二个原因是海洋的酸化。When water absorbs carbon dioxide, it produces carbonic acid.当水吸收二氧化碳时会产生碳酸。More CO2 means oceans everywhere are becoming more acidic, but the phenomenon is particularly marked at high latitudes because cold water absorbs CO2 more ily than warm water does.更多的二氧化碳意味着海洋的各个地方都会变得更加酸化,但是这种现象在高纬度地区特别明显,因为寒冷的水会更易于吸收二氧化碳。The retreat of the ice also exposes ever more sea to do the absorbing.加上冰块的融化也暴露了更多的海水,加速了对二氧化碳的吸收。Cruises by the ed States Geological Survey and the University of South Florida over the past three years have found rising carbonic-acid levels north of Alaska.美国地质调查局和美国南佛罗里达大学在过去三年里的巡查发现,阿拉斯加北部海水的酸化程度在上升。They have also discovered that the shells of many organisms in the area are short of aragonite, a form of calcium carbonate that gives them strength, but whose formation acid discourages.他们也发现,这里许多生物的外壳缺少文石—一种让这些生物产生力量的碳酸钙形式—但是,它们体内的酸性形式阻碍了这种物质的合成。Weaker shells means fewer shelled organisms and less food for fish.不够强硬的外壳就表示带壳生物和供鱼类食用的生物越来越少。The most important reason, though, for thinking that global warming will not produce an Arctic feeding frenzy is that it may increase ocean stratification.但是,认为全球变暖不会使北极成为巨大“经济资源”最重要的原因是,它可能会加剧海洋的分层化。This is the tendency of seawater to separate into layers, because fresh water is lighter than salt and cold water heavier than warm. The more stratified water is, the less nutrients in it move around.这是一种海水分层的趋势,因为新鲜水比又咸又冷的水轻,而又比温暖的水重。海水分层程度越高,那么它的营养成分流动得就越少。Most free-swimming sea creatures are pelagic.大多数自由移动的海洋生物都是海面生物。Algae need light, so must live near the surface—as must the zooplankton and other animals that need the phytoplankton.海藻需要光线,所以必须生活在接近海面的区域—还有需要浮游植物的浮游动物和其它动物也同样如此。When they die, all these organisms sink to the bottom, where they become food for benthic creatures.当它们死亡时,所有这些生物都会下沉到海底,在那里它们会成为底栖生物的食物。Once they have been consumed their component molecules, including nutrients such as nitrates, phosphates and iron, are stuck in Davy Joness locker.一旦它们消耗掉这些成份分子,包括硝酸盐,磷酸盐和铁等营养成份,就会成为戴维-琼斯小柜子的装饰了。For the surface to be productive, the locker must be opened and the nutrients lifted back up, so that they can feed the growth of phytoplankton.因为要保持海面的多样性,小柜子必须要打开,滋养物会重新恢复生机,因此它们能够给浮游植物提供养份。Walking the plankton移动的浮游生物One of the most important ways this happens is by upwellings of water from the bottom—great churning columns caused by the collision of cold and temperate waters.产生这种情况最重要的一种方式是通过海底水的上升流—通过寒冷和温和水域的碰撞产生巨大的水柱。Two of the most important are in the Arctic: south of Greenland on the Atlantic side and south of the Bering Strait on the Pacific side.还有两种最重要方式的实现就在北极:大西洋岸格陵兰岛南部和太平洋一侧白令海峡南部。Nitrates are abundant at the surface in both places, which is why they are among the worlds richest fishing grounds.这两个地区的海面都有丰富的硝酸盐,这也是为什么这两处是世界上最大渔场的原因。There are few upwellings in the tropics, which are thus nutrient-poor.热带地区很少有上升流,因此缺乏硝酸盐。Stratification threatens this recycling system by suppressing the vertical movement of water.而海水分层会抵制水的垂直流动,从而威胁着这种再循环系统。And global warming encourages stratification because it turns the ice into a layer of fresh water that sits on the surface.而全球变暖却推动了海水分层,因为变暖会让冰融化成为覆盖着海面的新鲜水层。Imagine the ocean as a Tequila sunrise sitting on a warm bar.可以把海洋想象为坐落在一个温馨酒巴上的龙舌兰日出。The ice cubes at the top are melting away and the orange juice is sinking to the bottom.顶部的冰柱正在融化,桔汁慢慢滑到底部。At the conference, a paper by Jean-eric Tremblay and Marcel Babin of Laval University, in Quebec, described the effect by reporting the density difference of water at the surface and at a depth of 100 metres in different oceans.在这次会议上,魁北克拉瓦尔大学的让-埃里克-特伦布莱和马塞尔-巴宾提交的报告中,通过报告不同海洋海平面和100米深处不同的水密度,描述了这种效应。This density difference is an index of ocean stratification.这种水密度差就是海洋分层的标志。Parts of the Arctic seem to be getting badly stratified.北极部分地区的分层现象正越来越严重。In winter, there is almost no density difference in the North Atlantic and the Barents Sea—as you would expect given the upwelling there.北大西洋和巴伦海在冬天几乎不会出现水密度差—鉴于那里的上涌现象,人们会有所期待。But in summer, the northern part of the Barents Sea is even more stratified than the tropical Atlantic and Pacific.但是在夏天,巴伦海的北部比大西洋和太平洋热带区域的分层程度还严重。And the Beaufort Seas stratification is high in both summer and winter.波弗特海在夏冬两季的分层都很活跃。Dr Tremblay concludes that the replenishment of nutrients is aly limited by stratification, especially at high latitudes, and that global warming will make things worse.特伦布士的结论是,养份的补充已经被分层抵制,特别是在高纬度地区,加上全球变暖会让这种现象更加严重。For Arctic productivity, the consequences are likely to be dire.考虑到北极地区的生产力,这种后果可能更加可怕。Paul Wassmann of the University of Tromso looked at the production of organic matter by algae in different parts of the European Arctic, and used a climate model to predict the future.特罗姆瑟大学的保罗-威萨曼仔细研究了欧洲北极不同地区藻类产生有机物的过程,使用一种气候模型以预测未来的形式。The area is divided into five economic zones.这个区域会被区分为五个经济区。By 2050, according to the model, primary production is likely to have fallen in three of them, to be flat in one and to rise only in the Russian zone.根据这个模式,到2050年,其中三个经济区的初级生产量会下降,第四个会持平,只有俄罗斯经济区的初级生产量会上升。Primary production is measured as the weight of carbon fixed by photosynthesis per square metre of the Earths surface.初级生产量是衡量地球表面每平米光合作用固定的碳重量的指标。At the moment, in the most productive area of the Arctic, the Norwegian Sea, that figure is 142 grams a square metre a year.目前,在北极最有生产力的区域-挪威海,这个数字为每平米年均142克。The model predicts this will fall to 128 grams.而根据模式预测,这个数字会跌至128克。And by 2100, according to the model, things will be worse.到2100年,情况会变得更糟。By then, four of the five zones will have experienced a loss in primary production. Only Russia will benefit.到那时,五个经济区的四个会发生初级生产量大幅减少的现象。届时,只有俄罗斯还会从中受益。A warming Arctic will not, in other words, be full of fish.换句话说,变暖的北极不会满眼是鱼。It will simply be an ice-free version of the desert it aly is.它将还是现在看到的北方沙漠,不同的是浮在海面上的冰消失了。 /201310/260336伊宁注射丰太阳穴多少钱

乌鲁木齐省妇保医院激光去胎记多少钱Ever heard of a man named Buckminster Fuller, or Bucky, as hisfriends called him?听说过一个叫巴克敏斯特·福乐的人吗?R.Buckminster Fuller was a twentieth centuryscientist, philosopher, inventor, and was also named a great architect.朋友们常叫他巴基。巴克敏斯特·福乐是二十世纪的科学家,哲学家,发明家,同时他也是一名伟大的建筑师。Part of what made Bucky so special was his concern for the planet and humanity.他如此特别的部分原因是他很关心地球和人类。When you have a shortage of resources, he said, you get war.他说当缺乏资源时,就会发生战争。Thus, he developed an idea called ComprehensiveAnticipatory Design Science.所以,他开创了一种观念,叫作“全面预期设计科学”。It’s a mouthful, but what it entails is his belief that to solve humanity’smajor problems.这个名字有点拗口,但它需要巴基的信念来解决人类主要问题。We have to look forward to the future; we have to anticipate what will becomeproblems as resources diminish, etc.我们必须展望未来;我们必须预期会出现的问题,比如资源减少等等。His goal? Quote:他是目标?“More and more life support for everybody, with less and less resources.”引用一句话:用最少的资源维持更多人的生活。He wasespecially interested in developing more efficient housing; that is, a new way of constructingbuildings so that they provide more housing space with the use of fewer resources.他对开发更高效的住房特别有兴趣;那是一种建造房屋的新的方式,用更少的资源提供更多的住房空间。One solutionhe came up with in the late 1940′s is the geodesic dome, the invention he is most famous for.上世纪40年代末,巴基提出了一个解决方法,即球型屋顶,这也是他最著名的发明。The geodesic dome is a structure shaped like a piece of a sphere.球型屋顶是一个形状像球体的结构。It’s made up of a complexnetwork of triangles, and the more complex this network the closer the comes to the shape of atrue sphere.它由一个复杂的网状三角形构成。网状结构越复杂,建筑物的形状就越接近于真实的球体。What’s so great about the dome is that it does exactly what Bucky wanted; that is,it has the highest ratio of enclosed area to external surface.圆屋顶额伟大之处在于它封闭区到外部表面的比例最高,那正是巴基想要的效果。In other words, it uses fewer materialsto create more housing space.换句话说,就是用更少的材料建造更多住房空间。201408/320555 South Korea’s education system韩国的教育体制The great decompression大减压There are perils for a country in having all your children working too hard for one big exam对一个国家来说,让所有孩子都为一场大型考试而精疲力尽是很危险的Oct 26th 2013 |From the print editionFEW countries have done better than South Korea over the past half-century. Within the span of a single working life, its economy has grown 17-fold, its government has evolved from an austere dictatorship into a rowdy democracy, and its culture, once scarred by censorship, now beguiles the world with its music, soap operas and cinema. Scholars enthuse about the speed and precocity of its “compressed development”.在过去的半个世纪,几乎没有国家表现得比韩国更好。在仅仅一代工作人口的时间跨度里,韩国经济增长了17倍。韩国政府也从严厉的独裁政权进化成了热闹的民主政体。韩国的文化原来被审查体制弄得千疮百孔,现在韩国的音乐、连续剧和电影席卷世界。学者们对这种快速且早熟的“高压发展”非常关注。The only people unimpressed by South Korea’s accomplishments may be South Koreans themselves. As our special report notes, the prosperity they enjoy has not relieved the competitive pressure they endure. To them, the country’s development is compressed in a different way. Its success is confined to a few big employers and industries. The country’s manufacturers are more impressive than its service firms, although these now generate most jobs. And in manufacturing its big, family-owned conglomerates (the chaebol) do far better than their small, hard-pressed suppliers.唯一对韩国的成就不以为然的大概只有韩国人自己了。正如本刊特别报道里所说,韩国人所享受的繁荣并没有缓解其承受的竞争压力。对韩国人而言,国家发展是通过其他方式实现的。韩国的成功仅限于几家大企业和大产业。韩国制造业表现要比务业好得多,虽然现在后者提供大部分的工作岗位。而在制造业中,几家大型的家族式企业集团(即财阀)的表现要比拮据的小型企业好得多。Unsurprisingly, ambitious young South Koreans crave employment in the thriving bits of the economy. Medicine, law, finance and government remain popular, but the chaebol now take the cream. Like the civil service and the professions, Samsung, Hyundai and their peers tend to hire people straight from the best universities, with little chance of entry later in life. This creates a double bottleneck in the labour market. There are only a few appealing employers to choose from, and only one realistic chance to join them. So youngsters spend ages padding out their CVs and prepping for exams—especially for the test taken at 18 which determines your university.毫无疑问,雄心勃勃的韩国年轻人都渴望能在经济中的强势方谋一份职业。制药、法律、金融以及政府职位依旧受欢迎,但财阀才是最。跟公务员和专业人士招聘一样,三星、现代等大集团喜欢直接从顶尖大学中挑人,不给年纪稍大的人留下多少机会。这就给劳动市场造成了双瓶颈现象。有吸引力的雇主就这么几家,而想加入他们,比较现实的机会仅有一种。于是,年轻人花大把时间炮制自己的简历,不停备考,尤其是准备18岁时参加的大学入学考试。This seems like a small thing, and many Western countries would kill to have South Korea’s problem: it is hard to imagine British or American parents fretting that their teenagers work too hard.South Koreacomes at or near the top of most international comparisons of ing, maths and science. But there are costs. A lot of effort goes into costly credentialism, rather than deep learning. The system excludes late-developing talent: blossom at 25, and it’s too late. And in the very long term it means a smaller country. The expense of educating children for the test is one reason why South Korean women give birth to so few of them. With the lowest fertility rate in the OECD rich-country club,South Korea’s greying threatens to be as rapid as its growth.这看起来没什么大不了的,许多西方国家对韩国能有这种问题羡慕得要死:很难想象英国或美国的家长抱怨自己的孩子太努力了。在阅读、数学以及科学方面的国际对比中,韩国人就算不是最优,也是名列前茅。但这是有代价的。大量的精力花在了追求文凭,而不是深入学习。这种体制排斥了那些大器晚成的人:25岁才开窍,太晚了。从长远来讲,这会导致国家人口减少。孩子应试花费过大是韩国女性少生育的原因之一。韩国的生育率在经合组织发达国家中是最低的,老龄化威胁的增长跟经济增长一样快。The indirect cure for education fever教育狂热的间接疗法Other education-obsessed countries in Asia face a version of the same problem. In the pastSouth Korea’s government tried to help parents by banning out-of-class tutoring. (The president of Seoul National University had to resign after letting his own child dodge the ban.) But such pedagogical prohibition is illiberal, and was anyway ruled unconstitutional in 2000. The answer lies not in the schools but in the overall economy—and in creating a more open labour market where more firms are interested in hiring people later.亚洲许多对教育偏执的国家都有类似的问题。之前,韩国政府想帮父母一把,制订了禁止课外补习的政策。(首尔国立大学校长违反规定,让自己的孩子补习,最后只能辞职。)但是,这种针对教学方式的禁令是违背自由精神的,而且在2000年还被判为违宪。要解决问题,关键不在学校,而在整体经济——要构建更开放的劳动市场,让企业有兴趣雇佣年纪稍大的人。 The government should do three things. First, scrap regulations that divide the jobs market into permanent employees, paid more than they are worth, and temporary workers, paid less. Second, it should encourage more firms, including foreign ones, into industries now dominated by the chaebol, expanding the range of alternative employers. And third, it should push the chaebol to expand into services, which they have diplomatically refrained from doing. Retailing, tourism, local transport: all these need some chaebol clout and efficiency.政府能做的有三点。第一,现在就业市场里有长期雇员和临时雇员之别,长期雇员能得到与其能力不相称的高薪,而临时雇员的薪资则达不到应得的水平,必须消除造成这种差别的规矩。第二,政府应鼓励更多企业,包括外国企业,进入目前为财阀所掌控的行业,扩大求职者可选择的雇主范围。第三,政府要推动财阀进入他们目前不想插手的务业。零售、旅游、本地交通等行业都需要一些财阀参与,增进效率。South Korea has astonished the world with its compressed development. For the benefit of hard-pressed parents and hard-working youths, it needs a bout of decompression.韩国已经以其高压发展让世界刮目。为了那些钱包紧张的家长和紧张学习的年轻人,韩国需要减一减压。201310/262699伊宁哪家美容医院比较好昆玉丰胸医院哪家好



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