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2019年11月21日 03:57:31|来源:国际在线|编辑:国际乐园
On a diet? Then consider sitting by the window the next time you eat out.你正在节食减肥吗?那么,下次去外面吃饭的时候,你应该考虑坐在餐厅的橱窗旁边。A new book claims that where you sit in a restaurant can affect how many calories you consume.一本新出版的书告诉我们,你在餐厅里坐的位置或可能影响你摄入的卡路里数值。The researchers measured and mapped the layout of each restaurant and then used meal checks to track what diners ordered and how it related to where they sat.研究者们对每家餐厅的桌椅布置进行了测绘,然后通过菜单记录食客们所点的饭菜,研究他们点的饭菜与餐厅座位的相互关系。The results were telling: people sitting farthest from the front door ate the fewest salads and were 73 per cent more likely to order dessert.研究结果显示:座位离正门最远的食客吃的沙拉是最少的,而且他们点甜品的几率比其他食客高73%。Those seated at a dark table or booth ate heavier food and ordered more of it, while diners seated at high-top bar tables ordered more salads and fewer desserts.坐在光线阴暗的两人桌边或坐在多人桌边的食客吃的更加油腻,点的东西也更多,而坐在吧台的高脚凳上的食客吃的沙拉比较多,吃的甜点比较少。#39;The darker it is, the more ;invisible; you might feel, the less easy it is to see how much you#39;re eating and the less conspicuous or guilty you might feel,#39; Professor Wansink explains in the book.辛克士在书中这样写道:“进餐的光线越暗,你就越感觉自己是‘隐形’的,人们不容易察觉你吃了多少东西,你就会感到自己并不显眼,负罪感也会减少。”In contrast, #39;seeing the sunlight, people or trees outside might make you more conscious of how you look, might make you think about walking or might prompt a green salad.#39;相反,“看到橱窗外的阳光,行人或者树木,会让你更在意自己的形象,也许会让你想要去散散步,或者让你想点个清淡的沙拉。”And if there are TV sets in the restaurant, steer clear. Professor Wansink found that the closer a table was to a screen, the more fried food the diners ordered.如果餐厅里有电视,赶紧躲开。辛克士发现,食客坐的桌子离电视越近,他们点的油炸食物就越多。The researchers also noted that slim diners chewed around 15 times per mouthful, three chews more than heavier diners. By eating more slowly, the diner consumes less in the time it takes for the brain to register satiety.研究者们还注意到,身材苗条的食客们每吃一口食物大概咀嚼15次,比身型肥胖的食客们多咀嚼三次。由于吃饭速度比较慢,苗条的食客在大脑感到满足所需要的时间理摄入的食物更少一些。 /201411/341977

Keeping a busy social life amongst lots of friends may keep people slimmer than spending several hours on a tmill, according to scientists。科学家研究发现,与在跑步机上锻炼几个小时相比,忙于参加朋友们的社交活动可能更有利于保持苗条身材。Scientists believe social activities can release a brain chemical that converts white fat into brown fat. Brown fat burns calories to generate heat, while white fat stores calories and makes us fatter。科学家认为,社交活动能使大脑释放一种化学物质,将白色脂肪转化为棕色脂肪,后者可以燃烧卡路里,产生热量,而白色脂肪却储存卡路里,使人长胖。Converting white fat into brown fat is very difficult, normally requiring long-term exposure to cold conditions or activating part of the body#39;s nervous system. However, scientists from Ohio State University think that having a busy social life is an even more effective way of carrying out this conversion。白色脂肪转化为棕色脂肪出奇地难,通常需要长期暴露在寒冷的环境中,或者激活人体部分神经系统。但俄亥俄州立大学的科学家认为,繁忙的社交生活能更有效地进行这一转换。Tests on mice showed that those lived in large communities and had more space and toys lost half of their abdominal weight in four weeks, even if they ate more than those in boring, lonely environments. Researchers said that social stimulation aids weight loss。在老鼠身上进行的试验发现,尽管比生活在单调、孤独环境中的老鼠的食量大,但那些生活在大环境中、拥有更多空间和玩具的老鼠,四周后腹部脂肪竟然减少一半。研究者认为,社交的兴奋感有助于减肥。However, social activities make some people worried. Study author Dr Matthew During of Ohio State University said, ;I#39;m still amazed at the degree of fat loss that occurs... We often think of stress as a negative thing, but some kinds of stress can be good for your health.;然而,社交活动让一些人感到焦虑。研究报告的作者、来自俄亥俄州立大学的马修·迪兰士说:“能减掉这么多体重,我还是很吃惊的……我们通常认为压力有负面影响,但一些压力对健康是有好处的。”Explaining how new technology had threatened face-to-face socializing, he added, ;It#39;s not just a sedentary lifestyle and high calorie foods, but an increasing lack of social engagement.;在解释新科技如何威胁到面对面的社交活动时,迪兰士补充说:“这不仅会导致人们更喜欢坐着不动,吃更多高卡路里食品,而且还会使人们越来越疏于社交。”Co-author Dr Cao Lei said, ;Loneliness is a profound factor for cancer and death; it#39;s on par with cigarette smoking. Social engagement is very important.;合著者曹磊士说:“孤独是导致癌症和死亡的深层因素,相当于吸烟。参加社交活动非常重要。” /201507/385603

5.3D Printed Ears5.3D 打印耳朵We#39;ve had the technology to artificially restore hearing for decades, but internal implants do nothing for the visible parts of the ear. You#39;d think those big flaps (;pinnae;) on either side of your head would be easy to replicate, since they#39;re just skin and cartilage rather than complex organs. In reality, scientists have never done a good job with fake ears. Traditional replacements look and feel like plastic toys.But researchers this year came up with a new method that makes flexible, realistic ears out of real cells. Those cells come from rats and cows, and they form a collagen gel that can take the shape of any mold. When placed in a mold of a human ear—a mold assembled using a 3-D printer—the gel forms an ear in less than an hour. The artificial ear then just needs a few days growing in nutrients before it#39;s y to be implanted in a subject. These artificial ears will be a huge benefit to those who suffer injuries or who have microtia, a condition that keeps the ears from ever developing.我们发展出人工记录声音的技术已经有几十年了,但是人工植入器官在耳朵这一领域没有任何改变。你可能认为生长在头两边的肉块极易替换,因为它们只是皮和软骨,而不是复杂的器官。事实上,科学家在制作假耳上并没有做得非常出色。传统的替代耳朵看起来或感觉起来都像塑料玩具。但是今年,研究者提出一种新的方法,这种方法可以通过真的细胞制作出有弹性真实的耳朵。这些细胞来自老鼠和奶牛,可以形成胶原凝胶,按任何模具成型。当放入使用3-D打印技术制作的耳朵模型后,一个小时内那些凝胶形成了一只假耳。在移植到对象之前,人造耳朵只需要在营养成分中生长培养几天。这些人造耳朵对那些遭受过耳朵伤害或者耳朵停滞发育即患有小耳畸形的人来讲是巨大的福音。4.Noses That Smell Diseases4.闻疾病的鼻子Scientists may be working hard at making organs that match the body#39;s capabilities, but why stop there?When researchers at the University of Illinois set out to create a device that identifies chemicals by their scent, they didn#39;t settle for the sensitivity of the human nose. Instead, they created an artificial nose that uses the smell of bacteria to identify and diagnose specific diseases.The result doesn#39;t look much like a nose—it#39;s a bottle filled with liquid nutrient that cultivates bacteria. But give the ;nose; a blood sample and let it sniff for a few days, and the bottle#39;s dots will change color to indicate what bacteria, if any, it identifies.科学家们在赋予人体器官原本能力方面投入很深,但是为何要仅限于此呢?当伊利诺伊大学的研究员着手建立一种靠嗅觉来鉴别化学物质的装置时,他们并不满足于提高人类鼻子的灵敏度。相反,他们发展出一种假鼻子,依靠对细菌的气味来鉴别和诊断某些疾病。产品看起来并不太像一个鼻子,而是一个瓶子,装满了培养细菌的营养液体。但是给这个;鼻子;一个血液样本,让它嗅上一段时间,这个瓶子的斑点会改变颜色来表示它鉴别出的细菌种类。3.Artificial Pancreas3.人工胰腺The pancreas produce insulin, and if yours don#39;t, you need to inject yourself with the hormone manually. Diabetics are therefore trapped in a stressful routine of continually checking their blood sugar and then shooting insulin whenever the need arises.Artificial pancreas, however, knock insulin into your body automatically. The device looks much like a regular insulin pump, which slips you insulin continuously through your skin, but this one monitors your blood sugar at all times and adjusts itself accordingly. So even when the wearer sleeps, there#39;s no danger of falling into shock if their sugar drops too low. Unlike several items on this list, artificial pancreas aren#39;t still in some early development stage. The device very much exists and got FDA approval for sale this past September.胰腺产生胰岛素,如果你的胰腺没有这样做,你需要人工注射胰岛素。因此,糖尿病患者必须进行的日常事例是检查他们的血糖,并且在必要时注射胰岛素。但是人造胰腺能够自动释放胰岛素到你的身体里。这个装置看起来像一个规律的胰岛素泵,它可以穿透皮肤连续地释放胰岛素进入身体。而且它一直监视血液里的血糖含量,并根据血糖含量调整胰岛素释放量。所以,即使携带该设备的人睡着了,也不会有血糖降至很低而晕倒的危险。不像这篇文章中其他的人造物品,人工胰腺并不处于前期研究阶段,这个装置确实存在,而且在今年9月份得到了FDA的销售许可2.Artificial Eyes2.人工眼睛As we pointed out earlier, we#39;ve long been able to restore hearing to the deaf, but restoring sight to the blind is a much more complicated matter. When people lose their sight, their retinas no longer send signals from their photoreceptors to their brains. To make an artificial eye, we#39;d need to understand how the retina processes those signals, and that#39;s a code scientists just haven#39;t been able to crack.Not until recently anyway. But scientists at Weill Cornell Medical College have at last managed to—at least with mice and monkeys. This produced artificial retinas, whose chips convert images into electronic signals and whose tiny projectors convert electronic signals into light. These artificial eyes have indeed restored sight to blind mice. And the follow-up experiments on monkeys offer a lot of hope for eventual trials on humans because monkey and human retinas work similarly.我们前面已经指出,我们已经能够让聋子听到声音,但是让盲人看见画面是更复杂的事情。当人们失去视力,他们的视网膜不再把光感受器的信号发送给大脑。为了制造人工眼睛,我们需要了解视网膜是如何取得这些信号,而这正是科学家尚未解决的关键之处。直到最近,Weill Cornell Medical College的科学家们至少在老鼠和猴子身上实现了这一点。这种人造视网膜,它的芯片可以将画面转换为电子信号,而它的微型投影机可以将电子信号转化为投影光线。这些人工眼睛,确实恢复了盲鼠的视力。猴子的视网膜工作原理和人类的非常相似,因此随后在猴子上进行的试验给了最终的人类试验以成功的希望。1.Fingers That Store Digital Files1.手指存储器When Finnish programmer Jerry Jalava had a motorcycle accident in 2008, he faced a double tragedy. First, he lost his finger, an obvious problem for anyone who types for a living. Second, he had to deal with a medical team who thought they were comedians—learning of his profession, one surgeon joked that Jalava should go out and buy a ;USB finger drive.; Rather than strangling the doctor (difficult, due to his injury) Jalava took the corny line as inspiration. He decided to go ahead and actually build a prosthetic finger that contains two gigabytes of digital storage. He can now jack his finger into a computer just by peeling back the nail to expose the USB plug. He can also remove the entire finger at any time and hand it to a friend to use.The next step? Jalava plans to upgrade the finger with an RFID tag and add wireless support. He also wants to add more memory, which seems pointless to us. If he needs more storage, he has nine other fingers he can chop off and replace with flash drives.当芬兰程序员Jerry Jalava 2008年遇到车祸,他面临双重悲剧。首先,他失去了他的手指,对于靠打字生存的人来说是个大问题。其次,他必须跟一个幽默感过剩的医疗小组打交道。了解了他的遭遇后,一位外科医生竟然提议Jalava应该出门去买个;USB手指驱动器;。但是Jalava并没有拒绝医生的建议(出于伤情的实际情况考虑,拒绝很困难),而是将这个建议作为自己的期待。他决定试一试,并且真的在植入的手指里放入两千兆字节的数字存储器。他现在只需将指甲剥掉,露出USB插头,即可将手指插入电脑连接。他也可以在任何时候拿掉整个手指,并且借给朋友使用。下一步呢?Jalava打算给手指带上RFID标签以进行升级,并且增加无线持功能。他想扩充容量,方法自然是很无厘头的。如果他想有更多空间,他还有9个手指可以切掉换成移动存储器呢。翻译:郑静 前十网 /201507/384413

When Michelle Tam was growing up in Menlo Park, Calif., in the 1980s, her family sipped broth with dinner every single night.20世纪80年代,米歇尔·谭(Michelle Tam)在加利福尼亚州门洛帕克长大,那时她家每晚都煲汤。“We were full-on Cantonese,” Ms. Tam said, explaining that a light soup with herbs and perhaps a vegetable or two is an integral part of many traditional Chinese meals, acting as a digestive, a palate cleanser and a drink. “My mom used to make me go to the butcher and ask for the bones to make broth, which was totally embarrassing.”“我们是地道的广东人,”谭说。她解释说,带有药草和一两片蔬菜的清淡骨汤是很多中国人传统一餐中必不可少的一部分,它能帮助消化,清洁味蕾,也是一种饮料。“以前,我妈经常让我去肉铺要骨头炖汤,搞得我很难为情。”Today, Ms. Tam writes and illustrates the popular Nom Nom Paleo blog, one of many sources devoted to Paleo eating, the diet du jour that is an exercise in eating “like our ancestors,” as adherents describe it, by which they mean the hunter-gatherers of the late Stone Age.如今,谭是Nom Nom旧石器饮食客的主。这个热门客是专门研究旧石器饮食的众多资源之一。追随者们把这种日常饮食习惯形容为“像祖先那样”饮食,他们说的祖先指的是石器时代后期的采集狩猎者。One of the cornerstones of the diet is “bone broth,” the clear, concentrated meaty elixir that home cooks and chefs have known more or less forever as stock. Those ancestors probably made theirs by dropping fire-heated rocks into the stomachs of whatever animals they managed to kill. The subsequent invention of the pot made soups, stocks and broths staples in virtually every corner of the culinary world.这种饮食的基础之一是“骨汤”。这种清澈、浓郁、多肉的灵丹妙药被称为高汤,长期以来,各种家庭厨师和大厨们对它或多或少都有了解。祖先们做骨汤的方法很可能是把用火烤热的石头放入他们杀死的任何猎物的胃里。锅发明之后,汤、高汤和骨汤成为世界各地烹饪界的一道主食。Recently, this prehistoric food has improbably become a trend beverage, ranking with green juice and coconut water as the next magic potion in the eternal quest for perfect health. Like other health foods that have taken off in recent years — yogurt, quinoa — broth combines mystical connections to the ancient world and demonstrable nutrition benefits in the modern one.最近,这种史前食物不可思议地成为一种流行饮品,和蔬菜汁、椰汁一起,成为人类在不断追求完美健康的道路上发现的新魔力药水。和近些年受热捧的酸奶、藜麦等其他健康食物一样,骨汤既与古代社会有神秘联系,也在现代社会具有可明的营养益处。“I would never have thought I’d be the person who makes homemade stock,” said Ms. Tam, who now saves bones from grass-fed beef and frequently produces batches of stock in her pressure cooker. She used to grab a box of shelf-stable stock when making soup or stew, figuring that organic was a good substitute for homemade. Now, she’s a convert to the real thing: the clear, bright, essential flavor that only fresh stock, made from high-quality ingredients, can provide.“我原本从没想过自己会成为自制高汤的人,”谭说。现在她把草饲肉牛的骨头存起来,经常用高压锅炖好几轮高汤。过去,她经常购买耐储存的汤冻,用来煲汤或炖菜,还认为这种有机食品是自制高汤的优良替代品。现在,她转向了真正的高汤:只有用高品质的食材现做的高汤才能带来清澈、透亮、纯粹的风味。“Just because something is organic doesn’t mean it has the nutrition we’re looking for,” Ms. Tam said. “Or that it’s delicious.”“有机的东西里不一定具有我们想要的营养,”谭说,“也不一定美味。”The difference between stock and broth is elusive in the bowl but clearer in the kitchen. Many people use the terms interchangeably, but strictly speaking, both broth and stock include bones and meat, but stock has a higher proportion of bones to meat. And to those who have taken up “broth-ing,” it is the content of the bones — including collagen, amino acids and minerals — that is the source of its health benefits. Extracting the nutrients from bones is accomplished through long cooking and by adding some acid to the pot, like vinegar, wine or a bit of tomato paste, which loosens and dissolves the tough bits.高汤和骨汤的区别从碗里不大容易看出来,但是在厨房里看得比较清楚。很多人混用这两个词,不过,严格来讲,虽然骨汤和高汤都是用骨头和肉熬出来的,但是高汤中骨头的比例较大。对于用骨汤养生的人来说,骨汤的健康益处来自骨头中的成分,包括胶原蛋白、氨基酸和矿物质。从骨头中萃取这些营养素要靠长时间熬制,加入醋、葡萄酒或番茄酱等酸性物质能帮助溶解骨头中较硬的部分。Nourishing bone broth has even begun to replace espresso and chai in the to-go cups of the millions of Americans who have at least attempted the Paleo diet. (Coffee and tea, along with dairy products, legumes and grains, are forbidden.)营养丰富的骨汤甚至开始取代浓咖啡和印度奶茶,成为上千万对旧石器饮食(禁止食用或饮用咖啡、茶、奶制品、豆类和谷物)多少有点兴趣的美国人外带杯中的饮料。“When you talk to chefs about this, everyone’s head is exploding,” said the chef Marco Canora, who has just opened Brodo, a storefront window in the East Village attached to his restaurant, Hearth, where three different flavorful broths are dispensed in paper cups. Like an espresso drink, the broths at Brodo can be customized, with add-ins like grated fresh turmeric, house-made chile oil and bone marrow from grass-fed cattle, which transforms plainly delicious broth into a richly satisfying snack.“我跟大厨们谈起这个时,简直炸开了锅,”大厨马尔科·卡诺拉(Marco Canora)说。他刚在东村开了一个店面窗口Brodo,这个窗口是和他的餐馆Hearth连在一起的。他在这个窗口用纸杯售卖三种口味的骨汤。和浓咖啡一样,Brodo的骨汤也可以依照顾客的口味添加调料,比如磨碎的鲜姜黄、自制辣椒油或草饲肉牛的骨髓,这些东西能把清淡、美味的骨汤变成浓郁、可口的小吃。“Every chef knows how to make stock, everyone uses it as an ingredient, but it would never occur to anyone that you could sell it,” he said.“每个大厨都知道怎么做高汤,每个人都用它作原料,但谁也没想过,你能单卖高汤,”他说。But right now, it seems, you can. Belcampo, the year-old meat company that sells pasture-fed beef from cattle raised on its own ranch in Northern California, just started serving .50 cups of house-made bone broth as a side dish in its five butcher shop-restaurants. Online sources have sprung up to meet demand, selling frozen bone broth by the quart or by subscription.但是现在你似乎可以这样做。老牌肉类公司Belcampo售卖在北加州自己牧场上草饲的肉牛,现在它刚开始在自己的五个肉店餐馆供应3.5美元一杯的自制骨汤,作为一道配菜。网上也涌现出很多骨汤供应商,按夸脱或按订购量售卖。Mr. Canora turned to broth after he adopted a modified Paleo diet about five years ago, when at age 40 he found himself depressed, prediabetic, overweight and showing early signs of gout. “For 20 years, I smoked, I drank my face off, and 80 percent of my diet was b and butter,” he said. Like many chefs, he ate mostly standing up, late at night, and with an eye to consuming as many fatty pork products as possible.大约五年前,40岁时的卡诺拉发现自己情绪低落,糖尿病前期,超重,有痛风的早期迹象,于是开始采取略加改造的复古饮食法,开始喝骨汤。“有20年的时间,我抽烟,经常喝醉,80%的食物是面包和黄油,”他说。和很多大厨一样,他经常深夜吃快餐,只关心摄取尽可能多的肥猪肉制品。“Twenty years ago, if you talked about health and wellness in chef circles, they would laugh you out of town,” he said. Now, chefs are beginning to understand that food has to be more than just delicious, he said.“20年前,如果你在大厨圈谈论健康,你会被他们笑话死的,”他说。他说,现在大厨们开始明白,食物必须不只是美味。After a bout of nutritional consultations, he emerged clutching a list of forbidden foods longer than he’d imagined possible.经过一轮营养咨询,他得到了一个禁食食物清单,这个单子比他能想到的还要长。In some ways, the Paleo guidelines echo the rules of culinary-simplicity gurus like Alice Waters, René Redzepi and Mr. Canora: use the best raw ingredients — grass-fed meats, wild plants and fish, natural sweeteners, pristinely fresh fruits and vegetables — and do as little to them as possible. In others, like the ban on b, whole grains, rice, butter, pasta, dried beans, fresh beans, cheese and cream, Paleo would seem to be the enemy of good food. Broth is one of the places where the two strands meet.从某些角度讲,旧石器饮食法的指导方针类似于爱丽丝·沃特斯(Alice Waters)、勒内·雷泽皮(René Redzepi)和卡诺拉等简朴烹饪宗师的原则:使用最好的原材料——草饲肉类、野生植物和鱼、天然甜味剂、天然新鲜的水果和蔬菜——尽量少加工。此外,旧石器饮食法还禁食面包、全麸谷物、大米、黄油、面食、干豆、鲜豆、奶酪和奶油,似乎是美食的对立面。而骨汤是旧石器饮食和美食的交汇点之一。The broths that were aly simmering on the stoves at Hearth, Mr. Canora said, helped him adjust to an entirely new way of eating, described in his new cookbook, “A Good Food Day.”骨汤在Hearth餐馆的炉子上慢慢煮炖着。卡诺拉在新烹饪书《一个美食日》(A Good Food Day)中说,骨汤帮他养成了一种全新的饮食习惯。“Broth was always my comfort food,” he said. Growing up with a Tuscan mother, he recalls that there was always fresh meat and poultry broth in the house. “Instead of sipping coffee all day and wine all night,” he said, “I started walking around with cups of broth, and that’s where the idea for Brodo came from.”“骨汤一直能给我带来慰藉,”他说。他的妈妈是托斯卡纳人。他回忆说,小时候家里总有鲜肉和鲜禽汤。“我不再整天喝咖啡,整晚喝葡萄酒,”他说,“而是走哪儿都端着骨汤。开设Brodo的想法就是这么来的。”But most “broth-ers” are not chefs who happen to have homemade stocks sitting around. They are conscious eaters who have stumbled onto what generations of cooks in other cuisines have long known: Broth made with plenty of bones contributes to well-being in ways that other foods don’t.不过,大部分“骨汤食用者”并不是本来手边就有自制高汤的大厨,而是偶然发现了其他烹饪法中历代厨师很久以前就知道的事情:用大量骨头炖出来的骨汤对健康的益处是其他食物无法提供的,所以他们开始有意食用骨汤。“It’s been known through history and across cultures that broth settles your stomach and also your nerves,” said Sally Fallon Morell, an author of the new book “Nourishing Broth.” “When a recipe has that much tradition behind it, I believe the science is there too.”“从古至今,在很多文化中,人们都知道骨汤能养胃、安神,”新书《营养丰富的骨汤》(Nourishing Broth)的作者萨莉·法伦·莫雷尔(Sally Fallon Morell)说,“如果一个食谱有漫长的历史,我相信它一定有科学道理。”Ms. Fallon, whose first book, “Nourishing Traditions,” has sold more than half a million copies, is a farmer in Maryland and a leader of the Weston A. Price Foundation, a group dedicated to promoting the benefits of preindustrial food and cooking. Dr. Price was an early-20th-century dentist who became preoccupied by the effects of traditional diets and postindustrial diets on dental health, and later on health in general. With the advent of low-tech diets like raw food, whole food and Paleo, the foundation has become increasingly visible, providing a central resource on topics like raw milk, biodynamic agriculture and the health benefits of animal fats. (On the website, a photo of a glowingly healthy family at the beach is captioned, “They are happy because they eat butter!”)法伦的第一本书《营养丰富的传统》(Nourishing Traditions)销售了50多万册。她是马里兰州的农民,也是韦斯顿·A·普里斯基金会(Weston A. Price Foundation)的主管。该机构致力于宣传前工业化的食物和烹饪法的益处。普里斯是20世纪初的一位牙医,他痴迷于研究传统饮食和后工业饮食对牙齿健康的影响,后来发展为研究这两种饮食法对身体健康的整体影响。随着生食、天然食物和旧石器饮食等低科技饮食的出现,该基金会越来越引人注目,成为生牛奶、生物动力农业和动物脂肪健康益处等话题的主要来源(该机构的网站上有一张照片,照片上是面色红润、健康的一家人在海滩上,图注是“他们很开心,因为他们吃黄油!”)。Although there are few reliable studies on the medicinal effects of broth, the foundation has done analysis that shows it may provide benefits for inflammatory diseases, digestive problems and even dopamine levels.虽然关于骨汤的药用效果几乎没有可靠的研究,但是该基金会的分析表明,骨汤可能有助于缓解炎症和消化不良,甚至能帮助提高多巴胺水平。Many Asian cuisines have a version of Long Life Broth, often a combination of whole birds and fresh or dried shellfish, with bones, feet and shells contributing their nutrients to the pot. In the 12th century, the “Jewish penicillin” cliché was born when the physician Maimonides wrote that chicken soup “is recommended as an excellent food as well as medication.” In the Caribbean, “cow foot soup,” rich with collagen, is eaten as a strengthening breakfast and for all sorts of ailments.亚洲的很多菜系中都有长寿肉汤,通常包括整只肉禽、鲜贝或干贝,再加入骨头、蹄和壳来增加营养素。12世纪,人们经常谈论的“犹太青霉素”诞生了,它指的是鸡汤。当时,医生迈蒙尼德(Maimonides)写道,鸡汤“被奉为优良食物,也被视为药物”。在加勒比地区,人们早餐常喝含有丰富骨胶原的“牛蹄汤”,认为它能强身健体,治愈各种小病。Korean seolleongtang and Japanese tonkotsu are broths that are thick and creamy with fats and myoglobin from bone marrow. In France, there are strict separations among stocks — light veal, dark veal, raw chicken, roasted chicken — but all of them are ideally of a perfect clarity, clear enough to the date on a coin at the bottom of the pot, according to French tradition.韩国的牛骨汤和日本的猪骨汤都浓郁柔滑,富含脂肪和肌红蛋白,它们来自骨髓。在法国,高汤有严格的分类——清淡小牛肉汤、浓郁小牛肉汤、生鸡汤和烤鸡汤——但是依照法国传统,完美的肉汤必须十分清澈,清澈得足以看清锅底硬币上的日期。But there is no need to be that picky, or to be on the Paleo diet, to appreciate a good broth. Making one is as easy as getting your hands on fresh, meaty bones — preferably including some knuckles or necks or another cartilaginous part — then covering them with water and simmering them patiently until the broth tastes good to you. Meat and poultry can go in the same pot (delicious batches of the stuff arise from such combinations). Aromatics are optional.品尝美味的骨汤不需要那么挑剔,也不必采取旧石器饮食法。煲汤很容易,弄些新鲜、多肉的骨头——最好含有关节、脖子或其他软骨——然后加水没过骨头,耐心地用小火炖,直至你觉得汤尝起来很美味。把畜肉和禽肉放在一起炖(这样的组合能炖出好几轮美味的汤)。可以加些香料。Last month, a steady stream of customers lined up at the Brodo window on a raw, wet afternoon, sipping and tasting, and somewhat dumbfounded that such a basic food could taste so good.上个月一个阴冷、潮湿的下午,Brodo的窗口前一直排着长队,顾客们品尝骨汤,为如此基本的食物能如此美味而感到有些惊叹。“My grandmother used to drink a jelly glass of chicken broth every day, even when it was broiling hot outside,” said Carl Hoffman, who stopped in on his way home from work at Beth Israel Hospital nearby. Estelle Hoffman lived to be 106, he said: “She called it her fountain of youth.”“我祖母在世时每天喝一杯鸡汤,甚至在滚烫的时候就开始喝,”卡尔·霍夫曼(Carl Hoffman)说。他在附近的以色列堂医院(Beth Israel Hospital)工作,在回家的路上顺便到这里买汤。他说,他祖母埃斯特尔·霍夫曼(Estelle Hoffman)活到了106岁,“她常说鸡汤是她的青春之源”。 /201502/358202

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