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;In the years that followed the Prophet Muhammad#39;s death in 632, the caliphs were essentially the political and religious leaders of the Muslim community. All Arab Muslims in the first century of Islam, realised that this was a new state-that what went on before wasn#39;t really relevant. These caliphs were not the successors of the Byzantine emperors or of the Sassanian king of kings. They might look to these people for solutions to administrative problems-how you collect money, and indeed what sort of money you make-but they wouldn#39;t see themselves as performing the same sort of role. This was a new dispensation.;公元632年,穆罕默德去世之后,哈里发成为穆斯林最重要的政治及宗教领袖。在伊斯兰历的最初一百年内,所有的阿拉伯穆斯林都意识到他们处在一个全新的国度,之前的一切都不重要。哈里发不是拜占庭皇帝的继承人,也不是萨珊王朝万王之王的继承人。他们也许会借鉴这些帝王管理国家的经验,比如如何收税,收哪些税,但他们并不认为自己与前人扮演着同样的角色。这个制度是全新的。One of the administrative solutions that Abd al-Malik borrowed from the Byzantine emperors was how to manage the currency. Up until now, the new Islamic empire had used hand-me-down coins from the pre-conquest era, or imported, and especially Byzantine, gold coins, but Abd al-Malik quickly saw what every chancellor of the exchequer has seen since, namely that there#39;ll be economic instability if a ruler does not control the quantity and the quality of his own money supply. He understood that coins are literally the stamp of authority, asserting the dominant power in the society using them-and that power was now his.阿卜杜勒马利克向拜占庭皇帝借鉴的管理手法之一便是货币管理。在此之前,新伊斯兰帝国所使用的货币要么是占领区的前朝传下来的,要么是从伊斯坦布尔进口的金币。但阿卜杜勒马利克很快意识到,如果不去控制货币的数量与质量,就会出现经济动荡。他也了解到货币是权力的印章,是向它所流通的社会表明统治权的手段,而统治权如今在他手中。It#39;s worth remembering that in the pre-modern world, coinage was often the only mass-produced item in use, and it was therefore a hugely significant element in the visual culture of a society-money was a billboard for the boss. And so the boss, Abd al-Malik, was stamped on this first overtly Islamic coinage. The Leader of the Faithful had ousted and replaced the emperors of Byzantium.在前现代社会,货币几乎是唯一一种在日常生活中被大量制造并流通的物品,因而也是一个国家视觉文化中最重要的因素。因此,阿卜杜勒马利克本人的形象出现在了伊斯兰第一款公开行的货币上。拜占庭皇帝被信徒的领路人取而代之。 Article/201508/394433Sources of folic acid include fortified foods叶酸的食物来源包括强化食品such as cereals, pastas, and bs, and green vegetables.如谷类,意大利面,面包,和绿叶蔬菜等For many women, food sources alone are not sufficient对很多女性而言,食物来源还不够to meet folate needs;满足叶酸需求therefore, supplementation is advised.因此,建议用补品All women of child-bearing age所有的育龄妇女should consume at least 400 micrograms都应至少每天of folic acid each day.用叶酸400微克In a recent study, Amerian and Olbidat最近一项研究中 Amerian和reviewed how mandatory fortification of folic acidOlbidat研究了食物中的加强型叶酸into foods impacted the incidence如何影响of neural tube defects in Jordan.影响约旦地区新生儿神经管缺损事例的发生Like many countries, Jordan mandated fortification像许多国家一样,约旦规定of cereal foods with folic acid在杂粮食物中加入叶酸which led to an increase of approximately 30 to 70%这使得育龄妇女in the intake of folic acid叶酸用量among women of child-bearing age.提高了大概30%到70%In this population, 87% of the neural tube defects在该国人口中 87%的新生儿神经管缺损与were attributed to Spina Bifida.归因于脊柱裂A total of 61,447 live births between 2000 and 20062000年至2006年间 61447个at Princess Bedai Teaching Hospital were analyzed.新生儿在伯黛王妃医学院附属医院得以分析The authors looked at the prevalence这两个研究人员查看了of neural tube defects before,神经管缺损during, and after fortification.在营养加强前,加强中和加强后的情况In the period before folic acid fortification,在加强叶酸之前the incidence of neural tube defects was 1.85神经管缺损的发生率为每一千个婴儿中per 1000 live births.有1.85人患有此病During the introduction period of fortification,在加强叶酸的阶段the incidence dropped to 1.07该比率下降到1.07and in the period after fortification,叶酸加强阶段之后it had decreased to 0.95. In conclusion,该比率降至0.95。总之there was a significant decline of 49% in加强叶酸摄入量后the overall incidence of neural tube defects整个的新生儿神经管缺损率after folic acid fortification.下降了49%Maternal anemia due to iron deficiency由缺铁引发的母体贫血is a common pregnancy risk.是一种常见的怀风险Iron is essential for red blood cells铁元素对红细胞to deliver oxygen to the baby during pregnancy.在期把氧气输送给胎儿非常重要And during pregnancy, increased blood cells are needed而且在期需要提高红细胞的数量to meet the needs of the growing fetus.以满足不断生长的胎儿的需要Studies have shown that研究表明iron intake by non-pregnant women is often inadequate;未怀女性摄入的铁元素常常不足therefore, increasing iron intake因此,在前增加铁的摄入before pregnancy is necessary.是非常必要的Pregnant women need at least 27 milligrams妇每天至少需要27毫克铁元素of iron a day which is higher than这一数值要稍微高一些the 15-18 milligrams needed for non-pregnant women.和未怀妇女15至18毫克的需求量相比Iron is most available from red meats and chicken.铁元素的最常见的食物来源是红肉和鸡肉Plant sources of iron include spinach, kale,铁的植物来源包括菠菜,甘蓝菜leafy greens, beans, and fortified cereals.绿叶蔬菜,黄豆,加强型杂粮等However, the iron in these foods is poorly absorbed.但是,这些食物中的铁元素并未被很好地吸收Therefore, vegetarians and women who do not eat meat因此,素食者和不吃肉的女性should increase iron absorption应当增加铁的摄入量by combining plant-based sources of iron多吃含铁的植物with Vitamin C-rich foods,和富含维生素C的食物for example, try a spinach salad with Mandarin oranges例如,尝试一下蜜桔和菠菜的沙拉or cereal with strawberries.或是草莓与杂粮沙拉And in many cases, an iron supplement is necessary很多情况下,铁元素补品也是很必要的to ensure meeting the requirements能够满足人体for this important nutrient.对铁元素的需求 Article/201503/365301

Why should a brain start to generate为什么大脑在你停止进食时new nerve cells when you stop feeding it?开始产生新的神经细胞If you think about this in evolutionary terms, it makes sense如果从进化的角度来看是讲得通的if you#39;re hungry, you#39;d better increase your cognitive ability.如果你饿了 你得增强你的认知能力That will give you a survival advantage,如果你能记起食物的位置等等if you can remember where the location of the food is and so on.这就使你有了生存的优势It seems that fasting stresses your grey matter似乎禁食对你的大脑灰质施压the way that exercise stresses your muscles.如同锻炼对你的肌肉施压一样So hunger really does make you sharper?所以说饥饿确能使人更聪明吗Yes. We think so.我们想是的Mark#39;s research is starting to point towards a simple conclusion.马克的研究开始指向一个简单的结论Alternate day fasting has better effects on the brain隔日禁食法比起每日低热量饮食法than does a lower amount of daily calorie restriction.对大脑有更好的效果It#39;s true of mice,已被小鼠验but he needs to do proper human trials但他需要做恰当的人体测试to prove it#39;s true in us.来明这对我们也是如此重点解释:1.think about 考虑;回想例句:What do you think about that?你认为怎么样?2.so on 等等例句:This shop sells clothes, shoes, hats and so on.这商店卖衣,鞋,帽子等等。 Article/201511/410540

For most people, the ability to experience of building trust in relationships begins in childhood. As we grow older, the way we build trust doesn#39;t change much.对大部分人来说,在人际关系中建立信任的经历从童年就开始了。随着我们逐渐年长,我们建立信任的方式不会改变太多。You Will Need你需要Open lines of communication开放的沟通技巧Risk风险Listening skills沟通技巧Time时间New connections新的沟通方式Steps步骤STEP 1 Maintain open lines of communication1.保持开放的沟通技巧Make sure the lines of communication with the person whose trust you wish to acquire are open. Trusting relationships require that each party in the relationship be able hear the other the other.确保你跟希望取得信任的对象的沟通是开放的。值得信任的关系需要人际关系中的各方能够倾听对方的意见。The relationships formed in a strong team, in an enduring marriage, and in healthy families are held together by mutual trust.强健的队伍,持久的婚姻和健康的家庭中良好关系的建立都是以共同信任为基础的。STEP 2 Recognize the need for risk2.意识到需要冒险Recognize that the extension of trust always involves an element of risk. There is no guarantee that the other person is deserving of your trust, but once the trust has proven well-founded, it can create even greater levels of trust.要意识到建立信任总是存在风险因素。没有人能够保对方值得你的信任,但是一旦明信任是可靠的,可以打造更高水平的信任。STEP 3 Improve your listening sills3.改善倾听技巧Work on improving your listening skills. Give the other person your full attention when they are speaking, and stay focused on what they are saying. Give feedback aimed at showing you understood what they said.努力提高倾听技巧。当对方说话的时候,给予充分的注意力,集中精力倾听他们在说什么。不时给出回应,表明你理解他们说的内容。STEP 4 Share your thoughts and feelings4.分享你的想法和感受Take time to share your thoughts and feelings with the other person.花点时间跟对方分享你的想法和感受。STEP 5 Spend time with the other person5.和对方在一起Spend time with the other person, and be open to offering special time if the need arises.花点时间和对方在一起,如果有需要的话,接受邀请共度特别时间。STEP 6 Look for new ways to connect.6.寻找新的沟通方式Look for new ways to connect with the other person. After all, building good relationships to begin with is a better way to inspire trust than trying to win it back.寻找与对方沟通的新方式。毕竟,从一开始就建立良好的关系比重新赢得失去的关系是促进信任更好的方式。According to the social anthropologist Keith Hart, confidence in a relationship is based on strong evidence, while trust rests on limited evidence.根据社会人类学家Keith Hart所说,人际关系中的信心是以强有力的据为基础的,而信任则取决于有限的据。 Article/201502/358213

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