2019年11月16日 04:10:48|来源:国际在线|编辑:挂号大夫
US Protesters Mark Iraq War Anniversary伊战五周年美国各地举行反战示威Demonstrations against the war in Iraq have been held across the ed States on the fifth anniversary of the U.S.-led invasion. Several thousand protesters gathered near major landmarks and federal buildings in Washington. 美国领导的伊拉克战争五周年这一天,美国各地举行了反对伊拉克战争的示威游行。几千名抗议示威者在首都华盛顿的主要景点和联邦政府大楼附近举行集会。In a rolling flourish of activity, protesters gathered near the White House, the Capitol, the Internal Revenue Service, and the American Petroleum Institute among other well-known landmarks to voice their anger over the continuing war in Iraq. Among them: New York resident Jim Anderson, who traveled to Washington to take part in the demonstrations.  在声势浩大的示威游行活动中,抗议示威者们在白宫、美国国税局和美国石油学会以及其他著名景点附近集会,以此表达他们对持续进行的伊拉克战争的愤怒。在抗议示威人群中,纽约居民安德松从纽约赶来华盛顿参加这次示威游行。"There are a lot of people out there who have no idea how much the war is costing us in terms of lives, in terms of damage to the Iraqi people and their culture, and in terms of direct cost to the American people in both appropriations and economic stress," he said.  他说:“还有许多人不知道,这场战争牺牲了多少条生命,给伊拉克人民和他们的文化造成了多大的损失,这场战争也直接消耗了美国人民的金钱,这包括战争拨款和经济困难。”Polls have shown a gradual erosion of popular support for the war effort in Iraq since Saddam Hussein's ouster. The low-point for approval of the war came a year ago, when opinion surveys showed roughly seven of 10 Americans opposed.  民意调查显示,自萨达姆.侯赛因被推翻,民众对伊拉克战争的持率在逐渐下降。对伊拉克战争的持率在一年前下降到最低点,当时的民意测验显示,10个美国人中有大约7个反对伊拉克战争。Although a majority of Americans continue to disapprove, pessimism over the war's chances of success appears to have moderated slightly since President Bush ordered a troop surge that is believed to have brought about a decrease in bloodshed in Iraq over the last nine months. 虽然大部分美国人继续反对伊拉克战争,但是自美国总统布什下令实行增兵计划后,民众对战争获胜的可能性所持的悲观态度稍微有些缓和。据信,布什总统的增兵计划在过去9个月里使伊拉克的暴力活动减少。But improvements on the ground in Iraq do not impress Sheila Morris, an educator from Minnesota who stood with a group of demonstrators near the White House. 但是,伊拉克地面战争的进展并没有影响来自明尼苏达州的教育人士莫里斯对战争的看法。莫里斯与一群游行者一起站在白宫附近举行抗议示威。"I know three people who have died in Iraq: a friend of mine's son and two of my son's friends," said Morris. "I blame the [Bush] administration and I also blame the Congress for just laying low [not acting to end the war] and not paying attention." 莫里斯说:“我认识的人中有3个人死在伊拉克:我的一个朋友的儿子和我儿子的两个朋友。我把这怪罪于布什政府,我还怪罪国会没有采取行动停止战争,也没有关注此事。”Polls show a majority of Americans favor withdrawing from Iraq. But surveys also show that, among those who want to bring the war to an end, opinion is split on whether to withdraw immediately or do so gradually over a period of months or years.  民意调查显示,大部分美国人赞成从伊拉克撤军。不过调查还显示,在持停战的人中,在是否立即撤军还是在几个月或几年内撤军的问题上存在着意见分歧。Asked about warnings by analysts that a sudden U.S. troop pullout could trigger a bloodbath in Iraq - and asked whether the ed States bears responsibility for the safety of the Iraqi people in the post-Saddam era - she says, "I do not know." 当记者问莫里斯关于分析人士所警告的立即撤出美军会造成伊拉克发生暴力血腥事件,以及美国是否应当为萨达姆死后的伊拉克人民的安全负责任时,莫里斯的回答是“我不知道”。She does, however, believe that it is important to voice her opinion through demonstrations. 不过她相信,通过游行来表达她的观点是非常重要的。"I do not know if it [demonstrating] affects public opinion, but it keeps the awareness there," she said. 她说:“我不知道游行是否会影响民意,但是游行会让大家继续关注这件事。”Similar protests were mounted in cities, towns and college communities across the country. 美国全国的许多城市、城镇和大学社区举行了很多类似的抗议示威活动。200803/31334In testimony to a congressional committee, a ed Nations official has expressed renewed concern about conditions facing Iraqi refugees who have fled to neighboring countries. 联合国一位官员在美国国会作时再次对逃到邻国的伊拉克人的处境表示担忧。Deputy ed Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Craig Johnstone, says the Iraq refugee situation remains the largest in the world. 联合国难民事务副高级专员克雷格.约翰斯通说,伊拉克难民人数继续是世界上最多的。Four to five million Iraqis are estimated to have fled their country, many to Syria, Jordan and Lebanon, although Johnstone says exact figures are difficult. 他说,估计有400万到500万的伊拉克人逃离了伊拉克,许多人逃到了叙利亚、约旦和黎巴嫩,但很难掌握确切人数。The U.N. official says there is now a somewhat improved asylum situation in neighboring countries, with diminished threats, at least for the time being, of forced return. 约翰斯通说,伊拉克邻国的难民局势现在有所改善,遣返的威胁至少目前已经消失。At the same time, Johnstone says Iraqis who have fled their country, many of them well-educated, face difficult and desperate circumstances as urban refugees. 他同时说,出逃的伊拉克人很多都受过良好教育,是城市难民,他们面临艰难的绝境。;If you cant have a job, if you have no money you will starve to death as a well-educated person just as fast as somebody that has no education, and I think sometimes that gets lost on us because when we talk to these people they are extraordinarily articulate, very capable, they would provide an asset to any society in which they found themselves and yet they are in absolutely dire circumstances. It really is an amazing situation,; he said. 约翰斯通说:“(这些人)即使受过良好教育,但如果无法工作、没钱,就会象没有受过教育的人一样面临死亡。我们有时会忽略这点,因为当我们同在这些人交谈时,会觉得他们特别会说话、很能干,到哪个社会都是财富,能够立足。但是他们的境遇绝对悲惨。这很让人吃惊。”Forty seven percent of Iraqi refugees are women facing particularly difficult circumstances. Johnstone says women make up 20 percent of all heads of families, taking care of children because so many men have been killed in some way in conflict in Iraq. 47%的伊拉克难民是境遇尤其艰难的妇女。约翰斯通说,因为很多男人在伊拉克冲突中丧生,高达20%的家庭只剩下母亲单独照顾孩子。Despite progress in negotiations with host governments that has allowed increasing numbers of refugee children to attend school, Johnstone points to a climate of fear among Iraqi parents that doing so will make them more vulnerable to forced return at some point.尽管与东道国的协商取得了进步,使得更多的难民孩子能够上学,约翰斯通指出,伊拉克的父母们还是存在恐惧心理,他们担心这样做的话,在某种程度上会让他们变得更加脆弱而不敢回国。The Bush administration has faced sharp criticism over the number of Iraqis approved for resettlement in the ed States, with reports last month ing State Department statistics that U.S. admissions had declined since last October. 布什政府因为批准接收伊拉克难民到美国定居的数量问题而受到强烈批评。1月有报导援引美国国务院的统计数字显示,美国接收的伊拉克难民去年10月以来有所下降。Johnstone, an American, hopes that will change, but he is skeptical. ;One can afford to be skeptical looking at the slow start that they have. I do see that the Department of Homeland Security is far more mobilized today then it was two months ago on the issue,; he said. 约翰斯通希望这会改变,但是他对此持怀疑态度。约翰斯通说:“当人们看到开始时进展缓慢,都会感到怀疑。我的确感到国土安全部今天在这个问题上要比以往更加积极。”Subcommittee chairman, Democratic Congressman William Delahunt, is among lawmakers who say the ed States bears a special obligation. ;This sad reality imposes a moral responsibility on this administration and this Congress, for we cannot deny that the proximate cause of this human tragedy is the invasion of Iraq and its aftermath. It is believed by many that this is an American-made crisis,; he said. 众议院民主党派籍分会主席德拉亨特是认为美国对此负有特别责任的议员之一。德拉亨特说:“本届政府与国会对这个悲惨现实负有道义责任,因为我们无法否认,造成这个人类悲剧的可能原因是伊拉克战争和战争带来的后果。很多人相信这是美国制造的危机。”Republican Dana Rohrabacher disagrees, saying the problem is not Americas alone but an international humanitarian issue. 共和党议员罗尔巴赫尔不认为这是美国的错。她说,这不仅仅是美国的问题,而是一个国际人道问题。U.N. statistics show a decline in the number of Iraqis returning home in recent months. 联合国统计数字显示,返回家园的伊拉克难民近几个月来有所减少。International Organization for Migration (I.O.M.) official Rafiz Tschannen says that as internal displacement rates in Iraq have significantly declined, in part due to improved security, the rate of internal displacement now slightly exceeds the rate of return from other countries. 国际移民组织官员钱能说,随著伊拉克安全局势的改善,伊拉克国内的流离失所率显著下降,现在仅稍高于从邻国返回人员的比率。Whether or not refugee flows out of Iraq pick up again, Tschannen says insufficient international financial contributions place Iraqis in jeopardy. ;Funding remains insufficient. IOM has barely received 28 percent of its -million appeal for IDP [internally displaced people], with the U.S. too often being the largest donor, and the one whose support has been the most consistent. But lack of funding remains,; he said. 那么伊拉克难民到底会不会再次逃离伊拉克呢?钱能说,国际财政援助不够,让伊拉克人境遇危险。钱能说:“财政援助还是不足。国际移民组织要求为国内流离失所人员提供8千5百万美元援助,只有28%得到了满足,而且美国是最大的援助国,美国也一直都持援助计划。但是现在还是缺钱。”In his testimony Tuesday, Deputy U.N. refugee commissioner Johnstone said Jordan and Syria have shouldered most of the Iraqi refugee burden, and should be thanked for their generosity. 联合国难民事务副高级专员约翰斯通在听会上说,约旦和叙利亚承担了大部分伊拉克的难民负担,应该感谢他们的慷慨。But despite their support, he says the international community must take advantage of a window of opportunity to step up financial assistance, and take advantage of improved security in Iraq, to deal with the refugee situation, keeping in mind that new refugee flows are always a possibility. 但是他说,尽管有约旦和叙利亚的持,但是国际社会还是必须利用目前的机会来增加财政援助,并利用伊拉克安全局势的改善,来应对难民局势。国际社会应该时刻不忘,永远可能发生新的难民潮。200802/27981

S. Africa's Zuma Fails to Confirm Party Candidate for President非国大主席似为副手出任总统铺垫  Despite promising to do so, African National Congress president Jacob Zuma has failed to name the party candidate to replace President Thabo Mbeki. Zuma appeared to anoint his deputy for the job. 尽管非国大党主席祖马此前做出承诺,但是他没有提名该党的候选人来取代总统姆贝基。祖马好像在为他的副手担任总统的职务进行铺垫。Jacob Zuma failed in his first address since forcing the ouster of Thabo Mbeki, to categorically answer the question of who his party will nominate to become president of the country. All Zuma was willing to do, was hint that the party's deputy, Kgalema Motlanthe, might be a good choice.  在迫使姆贝基下台之后的第一次讲话中,祖马没有明确回答他的党将提名谁担任总统。祖马所要做的是暗示非国大副主席莫特兰蒂可能是个好的人选。"But I went further to say, we do not run short of comrades to undertake that task," Zuma said. "We have got experienced ministers who are there, including the deputy president of the ANC who is part of the cabinet, who if given that task, will equal it." 他说:“但是我还要说,我们不缺担任这一职务的同仁。我们内阁中有经验丰富的部长,其中包括担任内阁成员的非国大副主席,如果他被征召担任总统的职务,一定会胜的。”Zuma urged South Africans not to be apprehensive, but did not offer them the certainty they hoped for in the wake of Mr. Mbeki's resignation. 祖马呼吁南非人民不要担心,但是在姆贝基辞职后,他并没有给南非人所希望的安定感。Motlanthe, who is believed to have been born in 1949, came to the ANC through the Black Consciousness Movement of slain activist Steve Biko. He was jailed by the apartheid government for his political activities for about 10 years. 据信,莫特兰蒂生于1949年,他通过遇害的活动人士比科领导的“黑人觉醒运动”加入非国大。他因政治活动被南非种族隔离政府监禁了大约10年。While in jail he forged relationships with several ANC leaders, paving the way for his future in the organization. After his release from prison he joined the trade-union movement, and became secretary general of the National Union of Mineworkers. In 1997 he was elected secretary general of the ANC, and last year became the party's deputy president. 在监狱里,莫特兰蒂和几名非国大领导人建立起关系,从而为他在这个组织里的未来铺平了道路。在从监狱释放之后,莫特兰蒂加入了工会运动,并且成为“全国矿工工会”的秘书长。1997年,他当选为非国大秘书长。去年,他成为非国大副主席。He is among those leaders of the ANC who believe Zuma was unfairly targeted by the prosecuting authority and is a strong supporter of the ANC president. Even so, he enjoys broad support across most factions in the ANC because of his calm approach to party disagreements and is considered a peacemaker. 莫特兰蒂和其他非国大领导人认为,祖马受到检察部门的不公平调查。他也是非国大主席祖马坚定的持者。尽管如此,莫特兰蒂因为温和的对待非国大的党内分歧,得到非国大大多数派系的广泛持。莫特兰蒂被认为是个善于调解争端的人。Parliament is expected to meet Thursday to elect a new president who will remain in office until scheduled general elections around April of next year. The ANC is likely to win that election, although experts say with a reduced majority, at which time Jacob Zuma is likely to become president of South Africa. 南非议会预计将在星期四举行会议选举新总统,新总统的任期将到定于明年4月前后举行的大选为止。非国大可能赢得选举,但是专家说,非国大由于多数地位被削弱,届时祖马可能会成为南非总统。200809/49971

Egypt Strike Fizzles Amid Tight Security埃及工人罢工一天 当局强力压制   In Egypt, a one-day labor strike calling for higher wages has had mixed results amid a security crackdown.  埃及工人罢工一天,要求提高工资。随着罢工被保安人员镇压,罢工也产生了不同的结果。Some people refused to go to work out of solidarity with the calls for higher wages, but others said they stayed home because they were simply afraid of trouble. 一些人呼吁,如果得不到更高的工资,他们就拒绝工作。但是另外一些人说,他们呆在家里是只是因为他们害怕惹上麻烦。Protests planned for several locations failed to materialize after the Interior Ministry threatened on Saturday to prosecute anyone who took part in any sort of public demonstration. Amid heavy police deployments around Cairo, only one small rally took place. 抗议者们计划在几个不同地点举行示威游行,但是他们却无法实施这些计划,因为在这之前,埃及内政部星期六威胁说要处罚任何参加任何形式公开示威游行的人。在开罗周围部署着大量警察的情况下,抗议者们只举行了一个小型的集会。Surrounded by a thick cordon of riot police, a few hundred protesters stood on the front steps and roof of the Lawyer's Syndicate in downtown Cairo, waving Egyptian flags and chanting slogans about economic justice.  在开罗市中心,几百名抗议示威者被大量防暴警察组成的警戒圈包围,他们站在律师联合会的前门阶梯和房顶上,挥舞着埃及国旗,呼喊着经济正义的口号。Shoe store employee Mustafa Shaaban held up a sign calling for more rights. 一家鞋店的雇员沙班举着一块标语牌,他呼吁要赋予他们更多的权利。He said he did not go to work because food and other things have become so expensive that he can no longer afford them. He said he had to go on strike, asking "What is next?"  沙班说,他没有去工作是因为食品和其他物品的价格贵得买不起。他说,他不得不继续罢工,他的问题是“下一步该做些什么?”But across town in the impoverished Imbaba neighborhood, most shops were open as usual. The narrow streets of the marketplace may have been less crowded than usual, but most workers and business owners there said going on strike was a luxury they simply could not afford. 但是,在城市另一边的贫穷的印巴巴镇的附近地区,大部分商店像往常一样开门营业。市场上狭窄的街道可能不像往常那么拥挤了,但是那里的大部分工人和商人说,继续进行罢工是一件奢侈的事情,因为他们罢不起工。A clothing store employee said some people had warned him to keep his shop closed because there could be trouble, but he decided to open it up and work because he needs the money. 一家装店的雇员说,一些人警告他停止营业,不然可能会有一些麻烦,但是他决定继续开门营业,因为他需要钱。Another shop worker agreed that food prices were too high and wages too low, but he saw little point in striking.He said, "We are all sick and tired of the situation, but what can we do?"The strike call originated in the Nile Delta town of Mahalla, north of Cairo, where 25,000 factory workers had planned a strike for higher wages and other demands. 这次罢工最初在开罗北部尼罗河三角洲的迈哈莱城镇爆发。在那里,2万5千名工人计划举行罢工,他们提出得到更高的工资和其他一些要求。But that was called off - partly because one faction of workers said the government had met their demands, and partly because security forces descended on the factory overnight to ensure the machines kept running. 但是,这次罢工却被取消了,部分原因是一些工人说政府已经满足了他们的要求,还有部分原因是保安部队连夜占领了工厂,以确保机器的继续运转。By then, the call had gone out to make the work stoppage nationwide, although nobody is entirely sure who was behind it.  在那之前,号召罢工的消息开始外传,使罢工在全国范围内发生,尽管没有人能够完全确定是谁在幕后操纵了罢工活动。A group dedicated to the strike on the Facebook social networking Web site attracted more than 66.000 members, and activists were sending out cellphone text messages and e-mails urging people to stay at home. 一群决心举行罢工的人在社交网站脸谱(Facebook)上吸引了6万6千多名成员加入该组织,活动人士发送手机短信和电子邮件,敦促人们呆在家里不去上班。The national strike was backed by several minor political parties, but the leaders of the influential Muslim Brotherhood issued conflicting statements that left many confused about where the group stood on the issue. 一些少数派政党持这次全国性的罢工,但是具有影响力的穆斯林兄弟会的领导人们发表了一些相互矛盾的声明,致使许多人对该党派在罢工问题上的立场产生困惑。American University of Cairo Professor Joel Beinin, a historian who studies labor movements, said calling for a strike is a politically risky move."If you call for a general strike and not much happens, it reduces your credibility and I think the Mahalla workers understood that and backed away from it for that reason," said Joel Beinin.Earlier, police arrested a number of activists for handing out flyers urging people to strike. Beinin said the lack of organization is nothing new for the Egyptian opposition and is partly a symptom of the political environment here."Because the repressive apparatus of the state is so pervasive and people, many people, are so intimidated by it that it is very difficult to stand up openly and say we are organizing this for this place and this time, and consequently there is a lot of rumors, a lot of un-clarity, and as has happened a number of times in the past, the result is not very much of anything," he said.The general strike follows more than a year of intense labor action in Egypt, but this is the first time political parties have tried to turn the workers' movements into a wider political protest. It also comes two days before Egyptians vote in local elections where most opposition candidates have been kept off the ballots. 200804/33771

探索世界奥秘之Supermassive Black Holes(超大质量黑洞) 09Four times a year, Ghez focuses the telescope on the stars of the very heart of our Milky Way. She is looking for the telltale high speeds that reveal the presence of a black hole. The center of the Milky Way is so near and the Keck telescope so powerful Ghez is able to see closer into the center of the galaxy than anyone has ever done before. Here's an example of one of the images we got just last night. The seeing was, this was kind of a typical night, not the best night, not the worst night. Each one of these blobs here is a star, and what you see is each star is distorted, that's what the atmosphere does. It's like looking through a pond, like if you want to look at a penny at the bottom of a pond and the water's moving. It looks all distorted. It looks different every time you look, so this is one exposure and the next exposure looks like this. By superimposing thousands of these pictures taken overnight, the computer can compensate for the atmosphere's distortion producing a detailed picture of the centre of the galaxy. You can see the positions of the stars very accurately. If we go in to the centre here, rescale it, we actually see that there are fainter stars towards the center of our field of view. And these stars are extremely important. It's the motion of these stars that reveal(s) the presence of the black hole. Ghez has been following the motions of these stars for the last five years. If there was no black hole, they'd be moving very slowly, but she's discovered they are circling at speeds of over 1,000 kilometers a second. These stars that we've been watching are two light weeks from this, from the center of our galaxy. So their motion, the fact they are going a thousand kilometers per second tells us that within two light weeks there is two million times the mass of the sun of matter there. There's only one thing in the universe this dense. Lying at the center of this necklace of spinning stars is a supermassive black hole. You can't see it, but it's there. The most destructive force in the universe is lurking at the heart of our very own galaxy, the Milky Way. The puzzle for cosmologists now is what effect it has on the galaxy around it. seeing: Astronomy the quality of observed images as determined by atmospheric conditionsblob: an indeterminate roundish mass or shapesuperimpose: place or lay (one thing) over another, typically so that both are evident200808/45324

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