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One common protein-contact prediction is that, if the side chain of one member of a pair of amino acids brought close together by folding is long, then that of the other member will be short, and vice versa.一种比较普通的蛋白质接触预测就是,如果一对氨基酸的一个侧链折叠后很长,那么里一个侧链就会很短,反之亦然。In other words, the sum of the two lengths is constant.换句话说,两个氨基酸侧链的总长度是恒定的。If you have but a single protein sequence available, knowing this is not much use.只知道一个蛋白质中氨基酸分子的排列顺序没有太大用处。Recent developments in genomics, however, mean that the DNA sequences of lots of different species are now available.不过基因组学最近的进展表示,现在许多不同物种的DNA分子的顺序是可以获取的。Since DNA encodes the amino-acid sequences of an organism’s proteins, the composition of those species’ proteins is now known, too.因为DNA分子编码生物体蛋白质中氨基酸分子的顺序,那么这些物种的蛋白质的组成也就可以获悉。That means slightly different versions, from related species, of what is essentially the same protein can be compared.这意味着,功能相同,但属于近缘物种的,在组成上稍有不同的蛋白质,可以进行比较。The latest version of Rosetta does so, looking for co-variation (eg, in this case, two places along the length of the proteins’ chains where a shortening of an amino acid’s side chain in one is always accompanied by a lengthening of it in the other).最新版本的Rosetta所做的就是寻找蛋白质的相关变异。(比如:在这个例子中,沿着蛋白质链长度方向的两个地方,如果一个氨基酸的侧链变短了,另一个氨基酸的侧链就会变长)。In this way, it can identify parts of the folded structure that are close together.用这种方法可以辨别紧密接触的折叠氨基酸的结构。Though it is still early days, the method seems to work.虽然现在是初期阶段,不过这个方法还是有用的。None of the 614 structures Dr Baker modelled most recently has yet been elucidated by crystallography or NMR, but six of the previous 58 have.Baker士近期所建立的614种蛋白质模型中,没有被晶体学或者磁共振所实的,但是之前的58个模型中有6个被实。In each case the prediction closely matched reality.在每一个模型中,预测的蛋白质结构与实际蛋白质分子的结构相差无几。Moreover, when used to “hindcast” the shapes of 81 proteins with known structures, the protein-contact-prediction version of Rosetta got them all right.此外,应用最新版本的Rosetta对已知结构的81个蛋白质进行“追算”,结果表明,蛋白质接触预测的蛋白质结构都是正确。There is a limitation, though.然而它是有局限性的。Of the genomes well-enough known to use for this trick, 88,000 belong to bacteria, the most speciose type of life on Earth.已熟知的,并且适用这种方法的基因组中,有88000种属于地球上最多的物种-细菌。Only 4,000 belong to eukaryotes—the branch of life, made of complex cells, which includes plants, fungi and animals.仅仅有4000中属于真核生物,生命的另一种形式。它是由复杂的细胞组成,有动物、植物、真菌。There are, then, not yet enough relatives of human beings in the mix to look for the co-variation Dr Baker’s method relies on.然而,在这个大家族中,没有足够多的与人类具有亲缘关系的物种,所以无法研究相关变异,而这是 Baker士的方法所需要的条件。Others think they have an answer to that problem.对于这个问题,其他人认为他们有解决方法。They are trying to extend protein-contact prediction to look for relationships between more than two amino acids in a chain.他们尝试扩展蛋白质接触预测的范围,在一条链中寻找不止2个氨基酸的相互关系。This would reduce the number of related proteins needed to draw structural inferences and might thus bring human proteins within range of the technique.这将会减少结构上不同的相关蛋白质的数目,并可能因此将人类蛋白质引入技术范围内。But to do so, you need a different computational approach.但是如果这么做的话,就需要一个不同的计算方法。Those attempting it are testing out the branch of artificial intelligence known as deep learning.想要尝试的人正在对以深度学习为人熟知的人工智能的分技术进行检测。Deep learning employs pieces of software called artificial neural networks to fossick out otherwise-abstruse patterns.深度学习采用一些称为人工神经网络的软件来搜寻其他深奥的模式。It is the basis of image- and speech-recognition programs, and also of the game-playing programs that have recently beaten human champions at Go and poker.它是图像和语音识别程序的基础,也是最近在围棋和纸牌游戏中打败人类冠军的游戏程序的基础。Jianlin Cheng, of the University of Missouri, in Columbia, who was one of the first to apply deep learning in this way, says such programs should be able to spot correlations between three, four or more amino acids, and thus need fewer related proteins to predict structures.哥伦比亚的密苏里州的大学的程建林最先把深度学习应用到这个方面。他说,这个程序能够找到三个、四个或者更多氨基酸之间的相互关性。并且需要更少的相关的蛋白质分子来预测其结构。Jinbo Xu, of the Toyota Technological Institute in Chicago, claims to have achieved this aly.芝加哥丰田技术研究所的徐金波声称现在已经达到这种技术水平。He and his colleagues published their method in PLOS Computational Biology, in January, and it is now being tested.他和他同事在一月份将这一方法发表在《PLOS计算生物学》上,现处于测试阶段。If the deep-learning approach to protein folding lives up to its promise, the number of known protein structures should multiply rapidly.对于蛋白质分子折叠,如果深度学习的方法达到了预期的效果,那么已知蛋白质结构的数目应该会迅速增加。More importantly, so should the number that belong to human proteins.更为重要的是,对人类蛋白质结构的了解也会增加。That will be of immediate value to drug makers.对于制药公司来说将会有即时的好处。It will also help biologists understand better the fundamental workings of cells—and thus what, at a molecular level, it truly means to be alive.这也将会帮助生物学家更好的理解细胞的基本功能。如此一来,意味着分子水平的研究真正开始了。考研英语时事阅读 /201704/504209Kobe, the road has come to an end科比,终于到了结束的时刻You been a unbelievable mentor to me对我来说你是一个伟大的导师Cause you is the reason why I play so hard是你激励我在球场上不断拼搏There is not a lot of guys come around like Kobe科比,这个不平凡的的家伙The game is gonna miss you比赛会想念你的I am just proud of be a friend,be a brother作为你的朋友和兄弟,我感到骄傲Kobe, you did all you could for the game being a champion for ever科比,你为联盟做了你所能做的一切,在我心里,你永远是总冠军Walking legend, man ,we appreciate you活着的传奇,我们发自内心地尊重你Kobe bean, solute my brother无所不能的科比,向你致敬When the end comes, I am fine with that当结束的时刻最终来临,我已经做好了准备Then you take on that chanllenge, right?所以你已经做好了接受这一切结束的挑战了,对吧?Kobe Bryant, leaving the floor and a standing ovation here科比·布莱恩特,正离开球场,全场起立致敬更多精内容请关注微信公众号:篮球英文堂 新浪微:篮球英文堂201704/504431Weather English speakers love to talk about the weather. It is a way of breaking the ice (starting a conversation). People talk about the weather on the phone and in person. Friends and family talk about the weather before they discuss whats new. Co-workers talk about the weather before starting a hard day of work. Even strangers discuss the weather.一般来说,美国人见面都会喜欢谈论天气,这也是“破冰”的一种方式,朋友之间,家人之间,同事之间,甚至是陌生人之间都会不时谈论到天气。所以说学会一些天气的表达方式,你会发现交流更加轻松简单了。 首先我们来看看关于天气的一些常规的提问,最基本的问说今天天气怎么样:What is the weather like today?今天的天气怎么样?What do you think of the weather here?你觉得这里的天气怎么样?Whats it like out?外面天气怎么样?还有一种最简单的问法,Hows the weather?关于回答,我们可以看看以下回答:It is snow.It is snowing.It is snowy. It is rain.It is raining.It is rainy. It is sun.It is sunny.The sun is shining.很明显,每种回答方式第一种都是错误的,snow,rain sun这些都是名词。在表达天气怎么样时,应该用一个形容词或者是现在分词表正在进行。 但是如果我们想问别人未来的某一个时间会不会出太阳或是会不会下雨,例如我想问人家星期一会下雨吗?像这种情况我们就可以说,;Is it supposed to rain on Monday?;这里用到了一个be suppose to的片语,这种讲法是美国人最喜欢的.再比方说,如果我们假设明天有什么活动,我们常常会要求别人先看看明天会不会出太阳或下雨,这种情况美国人会说:;Why dont you check and see if its sunny tomorrow?;(你何不看看明天会不会出太阳呢?)这里把see if its sunny改成see if its going to rain就变成了看看会不会下雨. 然后我们来看看另外一种问法--反问A beautiful day,isnt it?今天天气真好,不是吗?Cold this morning,isnt it?今天早晨真冷,是不是?这种问法一般来说就是为了“破冰”,其实天气怎么样你已经知道了,只是为了和对方有个共同话题可以谈论而已。在这两句话中,都是省略了主词和联系动词It is。原句应该是It is a beautiful day/It is cold this morning.再来说说Its a beautiful day. (今天天气很好)这句话。美国人都是怎么形容天气很好的呢?通常他们会用beautiful, nice或是lovely来形容.其中我最常听到的就是, ;Its a beautiful/nice/lovely day.;反之如果是天气很糟下大雨呢?你可以用;Its nasty.;来形容. 今天节目就到这里,下期我们继续学习关于天气的说法! /201208/193537A publisher might buy a printing company in order to have more control over its assets, and ensure its presses are used to print its own books first.出版商可能会为了对其资产有更多的控制权并确保印刷设备首先被用于印刷自家的图书而收购一家印刷公司。Yet if the takeover means that the workers tending the presses see smaller rewards for their efforts, and their managers cannot keep tabs on them, they might shirk the extra sorts of work that keep the presses running as productively as possible.然而,如果这一收购意味着维护印刷机的工人看到的是较小的对于他们努力的报答,同时他们的管理人员又不可能时时刻刻地监视他们,他们就可能减少保持印刷设备尽可能高效运转的额外工作。So the theory has real-world relevance; Mr Hart used it to explain precisely why inmates may fare worse at privately run prisons than at public ones.因此,这一理论具有现实世界相关性;哈特曾用它精准地解释了为什么囚犯在私立监狱可能比在公立监狱过得差。Managers of both care about the bottom line, but the incentive to cut costs is sharper in private prisons, because the profits flow into the pockets of owners who benefit directly.两类监狱的管理人员都关注盈亏底线,但是,在公立监狱,消减成本的激励更加锋利,因为盈利流入直接获益的所有者的口袋。The work of Mr Holmstrom, a Finnish economist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, centres on the behaviour of individuals rather than organisations.麻省理工芬兰裔经济学家霍尔姆斯特罗姆的研究重点是个人而非组织的行为。Many of the basic power dynamics in society boil down to the relationship between one person—a principal—who needs another—an agent—to do something for him.在社会中,许多基本的权力动力学可以归纳为一个人——委托人——需要另一个人——代理人——为其做事之间的关系。The principal can use contracts to shape the incentives facing the agent, the better to get him to direct his activities.委托人可以利用契约形成面向代理人的激励,能够让他以之指导他的行为更好。Yet getting the incentives just right is no easy feat.然而,把激励设置的正合适不是那么容易的。A firm owner setting pay for a senior manager wants to get his employee to deliver the best possible results.为高级管理人员制定薪水的企业所有者想让他的雇员呈现最好的可能结果。Linking a bonus to performance—to profits, for example—would seem to be the order of the day.把奖金与业绩——如利润——挂钩似乎会成为当今的潮流。Yet profits rise and fall for reasons which have nothing to do with managerial effort, such as the health of the economy.然而,利润会因为经济体健康等与管理努力毫不相干的种种原因而上升和下降。Bonus payments that mostly reward this sort of noise actually dull the incentives facing the manager.大都奖励给这类干扰的奖金付实际上是削弱了面向管理人员的激励。Better to base contracts only on information (like profits relative to the industry average) which sheds light on the managers true performance.最好将契约只建立在彰显出管理人员真正业绩的信息 (如相对于行业平均水平的利润) 的基础之上。Yet surprisingly often, firms opt not to structure pay in this way.然而,令人吃惊的是,企业经常选择不用这种办法构成工资。Mr Holmstroms work describes why that might be so.霍尔姆斯特罗姆的研究描述的正是可能如此的原因。Most jobs are made up of many different tasks, for instance, some of which are easier to assess than others.例如,大多数工作都是由许多不同的任务构成的,有些任务要比另外一些更容易评估。Bonuses linked to the easily measured stuff, like profits, encourage agents to spend more time boosting those measures, at the expense of other, harder-to-measure things that are nonetheless important, like brand reputation or product quality.与利润等容易衡量的东西相挂钩的奖金鼓励代理人,以品牌声誉或产品质量这些虽然重要但更难以衡量的东西为代价,花更多的时间去提高这些尺度。In some cases, firms might therefore opt to pay fixed salaries, or to separate roles into those specialising in the easy-to-assess tasks, who can be offered high-powered incentive pay, and others paid fixed rates for woollier sorts of work.因而,在某些情况下,企业可能选择付固定工资,或是把角色拆分为专门从事容易评估任务的人——他们能够被提供高水平的激励工资以及因为较为模糊的工作种类而被付给固定比率的其他人。Throughout his career, Mr Holmstrom has worked out how the ways contracts can and cannot be made to manipulate others determine the structure of jobs, firms and even industries.纵观其学术生涯,霍尔姆斯特罗姆一直都在设法解决契约能不能以某种具体的方式被打造出来以便影响决定工作、企业乃至行业结构的其他人。Like many of the most deserving laureates, Mr Hart and Mr Holmstrom opened whole new lines of inquiry to later economists (indeed, the winner of the prize in 2014, Jean Tirole, did important work in response to their contributions) .如同许多最值得的得主一样,对于后来的经济学家而言,哈特和霍尔姆斯特罗姆开辟了质疑的全新线索 (实际上,2014年得主让·梯若尔在响应他们的贡献方面做出了重要的工作)。The Nobel committee should be applauded for rewarding economists who place power dynamics front and centre.诺奖评委会理应因为奖励将权力动力学置于前沿和中心的经济学家而得到掌声。Economic life is messy, but it is also, occasionally, comprehensible.经济生活是凌乱的,但偶尔也是可以理解的。 /201612/480954

1. He's always working in his garden - come rain or shine.他总在花园里干活,风雨无阻。2. It's going to get very busy on Thursday. Today and tomorrow is just the lull before the storm.我们周四会很忙的,今天和明天只是暴风雨来临之前暂时的宁静。Lull:平静,间歇3. I don't want to spend this extra money. I'll save it up for a rainy day.我不想把这些额外收入花掉,我打算存起来以备不时之需。4. I'm going to see which way the wind blows before asking her about a raise.我打算先观察一下形势,然后再提加薪的事。5. You'll steal her thunder if you wear that dress tonight!如果你今晚穿那条裙子,你会抢了她的风头的!6. I'm feeling a bit under the weather at the moment.我觉得不太舒。7. This recession is quite serious and it's becoming difficult to weather the storm.这次经济衰退很严重,很难扛过去啊! /201106/139319

本课我们将前面所有课程学过的发音与朗读技巧综合起来,进行朗读训练。大家可以用这种方法来朗读“Faith轻松电台”的每一期节目。 大家在做正式的朗读之前,可以做好以下准备工作: 先查字典找到不认识的单词的音标,通过该音标,试着读出该单词的发音,或者通过电子词典跟读该单词的发音,同时注意到该单词中是否有你特别需要注意的某个音,如果是,把它在文章中该单词的地方作个注示,这样你在跟读这篇文章时,就会特别地注意,以做到较准确地发音。 对照该篇文章的汉语译文反复捉摸该篇文章的意境,直到真正明白文章的意思(在不太明白文章内容以前朗读会影响朗读的质量)。 反复听录音,对停顿,重音,语调的地方做相应的注示。 以较慢的速度一句一句跟读录音。 以较慢的速度独立地朗读该篇文章若干遍,当朗读非常顺口时,就可以以正常的速度朗读了。 建议同学们跟随Faith轻松电台的每期节目用以上方式进行朗读训练,同时推荐给大家如何跟随Faith轻松电台学英语,积累英语的方法:。 下面,我们就以Faith轻松电台的一期节目:“心怀信念,并追求完美”为素材进行一下综合朗读训练:发音与朗读训练 以下文章中需要注意的某些单词或单词中字母的发音,句子的停顿,重音(红色单词)已经标好了,下面我们就先以较慢的速度来朗读这篇文章,然后再过渡到正常的朗读速度。Have Faith, and Expect the Best心怀信念,并追求完美Faith begins by believing in your heart / that what is right / has a chance. /θ/ /i/ /i/ /i:/ /aelig;/Faith is knowing in your heart / that good can overcome evil, /u/ // /i:/that the sun / can shine in a rainstorm. // /:/Faith is peaceful / and comforting, /θ/ //because it comes from within / where no one can invade your private dreams. // /ei/ /ai/ /z/Faithis not something you can demand / or command; /θ/ /θ/ /i/ /aelig;/ /aelig;/it is a result of commitment / to belief. /i/ /i/ /i:/ Faith is believing in something you can't see / or hear, /θ/ /i/ /i:/ /θ/ something deep inside / that only you understand / and only you control. /θ/ /ai/ // /aelig;/Faith is trusting in yourself enough to know / that no matter how things turn out, /θ/ // /i/ // /θ/ /au/you will make the best of them. /ei/ /e/ /eth;/ You're listening to Faith Radio Online-Simply to Relax, I'm Faith . /i/ /θ/ /i/ /aelig;/ /θ/ To have faith / where you cannot see; /θ/ /e/ /i:/to be willing to work on in the dark; /i/ /a:r/to be conscious of the fact / that so long as you strive for the best, /’kns/ /aelig;/ /#331;/ /v/there are better things on the way, this in itself / is success./eth;/ /θ/ /eth;/ /e/ Have Faith, and Expect the Best 心怀信念,并追求完美 Faith begins by believing in your heart that what is right has a chance. Faith is knowing in your heart that good can overcome evil, that the sun can shine in a rainstorm. Faith is peaceful and comforting, because it comes from within where no one can invade your private dreams. Faith is not something you can demand or command; it is a result of commitment to belief. Faith is believing in something you can't see or hear, something deep inside that only you understand and only you control. Faith is trusting in yourself enough to know that no matter how things turn out, you will make the best of them.You're listening to Faith Radio Online-Simply to Relax, I'm Faith. To have faith where you cannot see; to be willing to work on in the dark; to be conscious of the fact that so long as you strive for the best, there are better things on the way, this in itself is success. 信念始于内心对机缘深信不疑。信念是心底深信善良能战胜邪恶,太阳会在暴风雨中升起。 信念平静而给人慰藉,它源于心灵深处,在那里,无人能窥探只属于你的秘密。 信念不可强求或控制,它是对信仰忠贞不渝的自然流露。 信念是只有你能理解和驾驭的内心所想,它无法捉摸,但你要笃信不疑。 信念就是坚信自己无论如何总能将糟糕的局面扭转,展现事态的最好一面。 您正在收听的是Faith轻松电台,我是Faith。当你看不清方向时请心怀信念;并乐于在黑暗中前行;坚信只要你努力奋斗,前进的路上总会有收获。这一切其实就是成功。 /201111/159885

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