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楼主:华龙面诊 时间:2020年02月27日 01:13:43 点击:0 回复:0
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The grandest of these tombs had openings cut in the wall,最豪华墓穴的墙壁上开凿了凹槽to create side chambers where the most important bodies以便让最重要的尸体could be laid out in aristocratic spaciousness like family vaults in a country church.能够安息在奢华宽敞的空间内 就像教堂中的家族墓穴Unlike medieval knights though,与中世纪的骑士们不同these grandees were buried with eagles and dogs, or even treasure.这些贵族将 鹰 甚至珍宝作为陪葬品The kind of thing the Vikings who broke into these tombs thousands of years later were quick to filch.这些陪葬品让数千年后维京海盗的盗取 易如探囊取物In return, though,these early tomb raiders left their own legacy.然而作为回馈 这些早期盗墓者也留下了他们的遗产These wonderful graffiti.These runes were carved by the most skilled rune carver in the western ocean.这些珍贵的涂鸦 这些如尼文 由大西洋最娴熟的雕刻师 书刻在墙上I bedded thorny here.Ingegirth is one horny bitch.我在此如卧针毡 茵妮格斯是个浪荡的贱人As for the Orcadian hoi polloi,they ranked space in a common chamber,而作为奥克尼的平民 只能葬于一间公共墓穴之内on a floor carpeted with the bones of hundreds of their predecessors.葬于由无数祖先的尸骨铺就的地板之上A crowded waiting room to their afterworld.一个熙熙攘攘 通向来世的等候室For centuries,life at Skara Brae must have continued in much the same way.几个世纪以来 斯卡拉布雷人的生活几乎毫无变化But around 2,500 ,the island climate seems to have got colder and wetter.然而在公元前2500年前后 岛上气候开始变得寒冷潮湿The red bream disappeared and so did the stable environment the Orcadians had enjoyed for countless generations.红鲷鱼灭绝了 让奥克尼人世代安居乐业的气候 也不再规律与稳定Fields were abandoned, the farmers and fishers migrated,土地变得贫瘠 农民与渔夫开始迁徙leaving their stone buildings and tombs to be covered by layers of peat, drifting sand and finally grass.留下了他们的石室 墓穴 任由其被层层泥炭 流沙 与最后的茵茵绿草所覆盖 /201606/451012Charles never forgave himself for this act of betrayal.查理因这次背叛抱憾终身But it had never occurred to Strafford that his death would actually make things worse for Charles rather than better.但斯特拉福德未曾想到的是他的死 反而使得形势进一步恶化And what happened next was the worst that could happen.Ireland erupted.最糟糕的事情发生了 爱尔兰宗教矛盾爆发With Strafford executed,Irish Catholics felt unprotected against Protestant reprisals.斯特拉福德被处以极刑后 爱尔兰天主教徒感到 来自新教徒复仇的威胁In a pre-emptive strike, they attacked first.于是他们决定先发制人Late in 1641,news of Irish killings began filtering through England,1641年末 爱尔兰屠杀的消息传到了英格兰graphically illustrated by a campaign of atrocity prints.杀戮的惨状被绘制成图片四处流传Now, bad things did happen,but the usual fantasy pictures of impaled babies惨案虽然确有发生 但当时常见的刺死婴儿的虚构图片tripped the wire of Anglo-Protestant paranoia.勾起了英国新教徒的疑心病Even worse, it was rumoured that the Catholic rebels claimed to be acting on behalf of the king.更糟的是 有传言说天主教叛逆者 声称自己代表国王The Puritan press hit the streets screaming, ;Were next;.清教报纸上印满了;下一个就是我们;Charles was painfully aware how costly his dream of a united Britain had become.查理痛苦地意识到 他统一不列颠的梦想代价之沉重First, the Presbyterian Scots had brought down his personal rule,首先 苏格兰长老会削弱了他的王权now the mass panic triggered by the Catholic Irish threatened to finish off his power altogether.而现在爱尔兰天主教引发的大骚动 极可能将他的统治彻底终结 /201703/498053TED演讲视频:像治疗传染病那样处理暴力事件加里·斯拉金医生用了十年多的时间在非洲防治结核病、霍乱和艾滋病等传染病。回到美国后,他以为自己已经从残酷的传染病死亡中脱身。当他开始认真研究犯罪时,他发现暴力的蔓延模式和感染性疾病的扩散模式相似。这是一个对很多社区所无奈接受的暴力问题的全新视角。斯拉金医生说,我们已经成功地防止了很多疾病,我们对暴力事件也可以这样做。201702/491902Theres another hollow bit up here.这里有个浅凹地Its probably where a whole tree has been just uprooted.可能是某颗大树被连根拔起后留下的You actually wouldnt want a shelter in this bit.Its gonna be a bit of a water-catch of an area.在这里安营扎寨也不合理 因为这儿会积水But up on this bit, its quite level.但是这边很平Its about the only bit of level ground around here.这是周围唯一平坦的地方Also, theres nothing above me either.而且上空也很空旷Okay. Base camp.Lets get building.就这里 大本营 开始扎寨吧First you need to build the main frame of the shelter.首先我们得建好大本营的主结构And for that, youll need the strongest,straightest branches you can find.首当其冲 我们需要能找到最结实 最直的树枝Then, using natural forks and crooks,arrange them to form a basic tent shape.然后利用它们天然的枝杈 搭成一个基本的帐篷形状Okay. And then against that, you can lay loads of these.在这上面摆好这些You then need to build a latticework of smaller lengths,然后就用短点的树枝堆成个网状结构gradually adding smaller and smaller branches.在上面一点一点添加短树枝You can just pile on this thinner stuff.你可以堆上这些细树枝That is kind of almost y for the leaves, really.加上树叶效果会很好 真的You want to just gather big bundles of leaves.我们需要收集许多叶子Start at the base.Just begin to build it up.把根基填满 然后慢慢往上堆I really want it to be a foot, maybe 2 foot thick.我希望它有1英尺 也许2英尺那么厚Thats gonna keep the rain off and help insulate me as well.这样就能防止被雨淋 也能把我好好的保护起来201704/506316Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, and thats by the way how you say his name,他叫Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi,dedicates a big part of the book to this idea that,他在这本书中用了很大一部分来阐述以下这个观点,A person can make himself happy, or miserable, regardless of what is actually happening outside,不管外界发生了什么,一个人都可以让自己快乐或者痛苦,just by changing the contents of consciousness.只要改变意识内容,就可以使一个人控制自己的情绪。And he goes on to e Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius, and Viktor Frankl...他还引用了Epictetus、Marcus Aurelius以及Viktor Frankl等人的观点。So this idea isnt something new, its been around for millennia now,所以这个观点并不是最新的,它已经存在了几千年了,but recently weve been able to gather more data on it.但是最近我们可以收集了更多的数据。And Ive talked about this idea ad nauseam now, so I wont go into detail with it.我已经讲过这个想法,所以不打算细讲了。Ive talked about it in my s about Meditations and Mans Search for Meaning, and many other s,在《冥想》和《人类对于意义的探寻》,以及很多其他的视频里我已经谈到过,but to touch on it briefly...但是简单的说一下…People have this idea that if you just had a bigger house, youd be happy.人们认为如果你有一个大房子,就会高兴。If you just had a nicer car, youd be happy. If you just had a lot of money, youd be happy.如果有辆好车,就会高兴。如果有很多钱,也会高兴。But thats just not how happiness works...但幸福并不是那样的…Heres a graph adjusted for inflation that shows a period of about half a century where personal income tripled,这是一个关于通货膨胀的调整图,图片显示了在半个世纪里,人们的收入增至三倍,but it didnt really affect how happy people were.但是却没有影响人们的幸福程度。After some basic point, where your basic needs have been met,在你的基本需求得到满足后,buying an even bigger house isnt the way to happiness. Its about changing the contents of your consciousness.买一个更大的房子并不能使人感到幸福。这就涉及到意识内容的改变。So how can we change the contents of our consciousness?那么我们怎样改变意识内容呢?One of the best ways to do this is to put ourselves in a state of optimal experience called flow.最好的一个方式就是让我们进入一种叫做“意识流”的最佳经历状态中。Csikszentmihalyi describes flow as, The stateCsikszentmihalyi是这样描述的,在这种状态下,in which people are so involved in an activity that nothing else seems to matter.人们集中于一项活动,不受任何其他事情的影响。He goes on to say that, Concentration is so intense that there is no attention left over他还说,注意力特别集中,以至于没有多余的精力to think about anything irrelevant or to worry about problems.去考虑任何无关的事情,或者担心一些问题。Self-consciousness disappears, and the sense of time becomes distorted.自我意识消失,时间观念就会扭曲。And youve probably experienced this before, and its absolutely one of the best feelings in the world.你可能之前经历过,这绝对是世界上最好的一种感觉。If youre working on your business, you might be so focused on what youre doing如果你在研究生意,你可能特别专注于你所做的,that 12 hours might pass and you have no idea...可能过了12个小时,你依然毫无头绪…All of a sudden, you look up and you realize you havent even had any food,突然,你抬起头意识到自己还没有吃任何东西,you havent thought about anything else, the only thing that you could focus on was your business.你没有考虑其他的事情,你专注的唯一一件事就是你的生意。And the same thing applies to so many other activities whether youre a rock climber focused on climing your new record同样的事情也适用于其他很多活动,不管是攀岩者要刷新登山记录or a master pianist composing your new masterpiece. Its an amazing feeling.还是一位钢琴大师要创作新的作品。这是一种很棒的感觉。Youre so immersed into what you love doing, into what youre really good at,你沉浸在你所热爱的,所擅长的事情中,that your brain simply cant focus on other things.以至于不可能再关注别的事情。Youre not worrying about stupid things. Youre not regretting what you did yesterday你不用担心那些愚蠢的事情,不用后悔昨天做了什么,or stressing about what youll do tomorrow.或者强调明天要做什么。Its absolutely one of the best feelings in the world.这绝对是世上最好的感觉之一。So if we look at the flow diagram, heres how you put yourself in the state of flow...所以看一下流程图,这就是你怎样把自己放在意识流的状态中…You dont want what youre doing to be too challenging, otherwise youll have anxiety.你不想做太有挑战性的事情,否则你会焦虑。You dont want what youre doing to be too easy for your skills either, otherwise youll be bored.你不想做太简单的事情,否则你会觉得无聊。But its when you balance these two that you end up in the flow channel.但是当你平衡这两者的时候,你就会进入意识流这一部分。Youre striving towards the upper right corner constantly.你努力想要向右上方持续靠近。You increase your challenge, you get better. You get better, you increase your challenge.增加挑战,就会变得更好。变得更好,就会增加挑战。And the more you move toward that direction, the more intense the state of flow gets.你越朝那个方向靠近,意识流状态就会越强大。So this is not really a how-to book, but our goal should be to find what it is that we love所以这不是一本“怎样做”的书,但是我们的目标应该是找到我们的所爱。and then keep getting better at it and keep making it more challenging.然后变得更好,让它更有挑战性。Or in other words, the main goal is to spend as much of your life as you possibly can in the state of flow或者换句话说,主要目标就是尽可能用一生的时间来实践意识流状态。because that is where you find this unbelievable ecstasy.因为它给你带来了难以置信的喜悦。And Csikszentmihalyi gives an example of the indians in the Shuswap region of Canada,Csikszentmihalyi给出了一个加拿大舒斯瓦普地区印第安人的例子,who would settle down in a place filled with resources,他们会在一个资源丰富的地方定居,and life was good, and they had everything they needed...生活很好,而且也有他们所需要的一切…They had all the food and fish where they were, but the elders would make sure that the entire village他们拥有定居地所有食物和鱼,但是长辈要确保整个村落would just pack up and move to a new location every 25 or 30 years.每隔25到30年就整体移居到一个新的地方。This way, they knew they would have new places to explore and hunt and fish and new challenges to overcome...这样,他们就知道有新的地方去开发、打猎、,还有新的挑战去克…And its a great story to keep in mind when you think about当你想到有那么多人余生都只想坐在电视机前的时候,how most people just want to settle down in front of their TV for the rest of their lives...你就会知道这个故事有多伟大。And in a lot of my s, I criticize being in front of the TV all night,在我的很多视频里,我批判整晚看电视的这种行为,or spending your entire day on your Facebook feed,或者是把一整天都花在 Facebook上。and I often get people who tell me, Well, what if that makes the person happy?经常有人告诉我,如果那样会让人高兴呢?And the answer is, Sitting on Facebook all day will not make anyone genuinely happy.是,整天面对Facebook不会让任何人真正高兴起来。If you pick a person who spends his entire day in front of the TV,如果你选中一个在电视机前待了一整天的人,hes probably not going to be the most exciting, happy, ecstatic person.他可能不会成为最兴奋狂喜的人。Lets take a look at the graph again...我们再来看一下这个图表…Looking at your facebook all day or watching TV puts you in the lowest left corner of the graph,整天看facebook或者看电视,会导致你出现在图表的左下角,which is known as the area of apathy.这是一个没有情感起伏的区域。Theres no challenge involved, theres no skill involved, youre apathetic.没有挑战,没有技能,你太无趣。And when youre not completely apathetic, Youre probably sitting there bored,当你不是完全没有兴趣的时候,可能你就会感到无聊,or worrying about everything there is to worry about.或者会担心一切事情。So move away from that... Move away from the boredom, apathy, and worry所以从那里走出来吧…离开无聊,冷漠和担心,and move towards ecstasy which is what youll experience when you hit the state of optimal experience called flow.奔向狂喜,这是一种当你遇上意识流最佳体验状态的时候才会有的经历。201706/515586

Whats been the hardest lesson for you to learn in your life?生活中最难学的教训是什么?That I cant do everything.我不是万能的。What are things you would love to be doing that youre not doing? Nothing.你想做却没有做的事情有什么?什么都没有。You would rather be doing nothing? Nothing.你宁可什么都不做?不是。Or there is nothin—No, no, correct.或是没有什么...不是,不是,对There is nothing, Im in full control of my life.没有什么是做不到的,我完全能控制我的生活If theres something I want to do, then I can go do it.如果我想做什么事,我就会去做。We make our beds. So, I sleep in it.床铺好了。那我就去睡觉。What do you think about your employees?你认为你的雇员怎么样?Do you think they all share the same ideology你认为他们认同你做每件事的观念,that you do about doing everything that it is they want to be doing? Absolutely not.你做的事也是他们想做的吗?当然不是。Why do you think that is?为什么会这样想?Because I think people are wired differently and I think I have to,因为每个人都是完全不同的个体,我想我必须I dont even want, all I want to do was react to what they want我甚至不想,呃,我想做的事就是对他们的需求、and how they aspire to be or what theyre interested in.对他们的渴望和兴趣做出反应I have no interest in them being like me or not being like me.我对他们像不像我没兴趣。Im in the reaction business.我只对反应感兴趣And so, I just think people are hardwired.所以我认为人是天生的。I dont think everybody was as lucky to have a mother我想并不是每个人都幸运地拥有这样一位母亲,that told them they could do anything and actually make them believe it.她会告诉孩子并让孩子相信他们无所不能And thats unfortunate但不幸的是,and I hope through example and content Im able to inspire that but虽然我希望通过一些例子或内容来激励别人I think practicality is grossly underrated, and for all my sizzle但我觉得人们总是低估了实践的作用Im obsessed with the steak.我爱牛排的嘶嘶声201706/513083

In 1258, in the very hall that defined his majesty, Westminster,1258年 就在亨利加冕的威斯敏斯特教堂里seven of the most powerful barons confronted the king.七位位高权重的男爵挑战了国王的权威Fully armed, they paused only to leave their swords outside.他们全副武装 只有卸剑的时候稍事停顿They demanded that Henry meet them at a parliament in Oxford and stop trying to turn his European dreams into reality.他们要求亨利前往牛津参与议会 并且放弃统一欧洲的梦想The barons were led, in all but name,by the most improbable revolutionary, in all of British history Simon De Montfort.实际上 男爵们的首领 发动了不列颠史上最离奇的革命 他就是西蒙·德·蒙德福特Here at Kenilworth, he presided over a little empire of culture.在凯尼尔沃思 他曾创办过 一个小小的文化帝国A French aristocrat who inherited the earldom of Leicester,这个世袭了莱斯特伯爵爵位的法国贵族Simon became convinced that he was more English than the English.坚信自己比真正的英国人更像英国人What was good for De Montfort was good for the nation.德·蒙德福特的利益就是这个国家的利益Love him or hate him,everyone knew that Simon De Montfort was a man with a mission.无论爱戴还是憎恶 人人都知道西蒙·德·蒙德福特 肩负着重大的历史使命That mission, embarked on with his fellow barons,was to bring the wayward, self-glorifying monarchy to book,这一历史使命 得到了他男爵同僚的持 就是要求任意妄为 狂妄自大的君主制to make it the servant, not the master of the realm.为民务 而不是独揽大权At Oxford, amidst wildfire rumours, a camp of soldiers,and the growling hunger of a famine,在牛津城 谣言四起 军备森严 哀鸿遍野Henry III was treated to the emasculation of his sovereignty.亨利三世不得不削弱自己的王权 /201610/470613

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