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杭州市富阳区第一人民医院院长是谁健康互动

楼主:58中文 时间:2020年02月19日 12:05:34 点击:0 回复:0
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Clean energy清洁能源Let the sun shine让阳光普照大地The future is bright for solar power, even as subsidies are withdrawn尽管补贴不再,太阳能的未来一片光明FORTY-FIVE minutes west of Las Vegas, dejected sinners may encounter a sight to lift their sunken hearts: a sea of 347,000 mirrors, reflecting the rays of the desert sun on to boilers mounted on three 460-foot towers. The Ivanpah solar-thermal plant (pictured), which opened in mid-February, is the largest of its kind in the world. Fully ramped up, it will deliver around 377 megawatts (MW) of power to 140,000 homes in southern California. Its backers compare it to the nearby Hoover Dam; an astronaut claims to have spotted it from the international space station. It is a striking sight, even if the heat from its heliostats has roasted dozens of unfortunate birds alive.距45分的地方,心情沮丧的罪人会看到一幅能照亮他们沉没的心的奇观—34.7万面镜子组成的海洋反射着沙漠太阳的光至三个高达460英尺的塔上的热水器。于二月中旬开始运行的伊凡帕太阳能热电厂(如图所示)是目前世界上最大的太阳能热电厂。开足马力,该电厂能为加利福尼亚南部14万居民提供377兆瓦的电力。其持者将它比作附近美国最高的水坝胡弗水坝。甚至有宇航员说他能在国际空间站找到这个太阳能热电站。尽管电站的定日镜反射的热量硬是将数十只活生生的飞鸟烤熟了,这依然是一道令人叹为观止的风景。Solar power in America is growing rapidly, albeit from a small base (see chart). Last year it represented 29% of new electricity capacity, behind only natural gas at 46%. Solar output has more than doubled during Barack Obamas time in office; GTM, a research firm, reckons it will grow another 26% in 2014. The Department of Energy wants solar to provide 27% of Americas electricity by 2050, up from less than 1% today.虽然太阳能在美国起点低(见下面图表),但发展迅捷。去年太阳能发电占新增电力的29%,仅落后于占46%的天然气发电量。既奥巴马上任以来,太阳能的产出翻了不止一番。全球决策大本营这个调查机构称太阳能发电在2014年将新增26%。美国能源署希望太阳能发电能够由目前提供的不足1%的电力发展到能够在2050年前提供美国27%的电力。Though dazzling, Ivanpah and large plants like it will not generate much of this growth. The federal loan guarantees that allowed their creation have expired. More important are photovoltaic solar cells, a rival technology that converts sunlight directly to electricity. Their cost has fallen so quickly that in many places retail electricity customers are saving money by placing panels on top of their houses or businesses; 200,000 have done so in the past two years. And there is a lot of room to grow. “Theres no market saturation in any state; not even close,” says Lyndon Rive of SolarCity, a solar-installation firm. Even David Crane, the boss of NRG, co-owner of Ivanpah, says that photovoltaic installations are the future.尽管目前风头正盛,伊凡帕以及像它一样的大公司却不能从这样的增长中获益太多。因为作为用于保障他们创造的联邦贷款到期了。更重要的是光电太阳能电池,它是一种关键的技术能直接将太阳光转化成电力。由于该产品的价格急速下跌,许多地方的零售电力的客户将太阳能板安装在他们的屋顶或厂房房顶来发电来节省开。过去的两年已经有20万人这么做了,并且其增长的空间很大。来自太阳城一家太阳能设备安装公司的 Lyndon Rive称“目前不管在哪个州,都没有市场达到饱和,甚至是接近饱和。”甚至作为伊凡帕共有者的NRG能源电力的 David Crane也声称未来是光伏发电装置的天下。Last year sun-soaked California accounted for over half of Americas new photovoltaic installations. That, say solar fans, shows that the sector can thrive even after it loses its subsidies. (The .2 billion California Solar Initiative, which gave cash to homes or firms that went solar, has largely expired.) Solar is also blossoming in unexpected places like Massachusetts and North Carolina.去年,饱受太阳炙烤的加州,其新增的光伏发电装置安装的数量超过整个国家数量的一半。太阳能的持者称这表明即便没有补贴,太阳能发电也会前途无量。(加州太阳能计划得到22亿美元的补助,用于补贴那些使用太阳能的家庭和公司,如今这一补助绝大部分已到期。)此外,在人们想不到的像马赛诸塞州和北卡罗来纳州这样的地方太阳能发电也如花般绽放。A bigger test will come in 2017, when the federal governments solar-investment tax credit drops from 30% to 10% (unless Mr Obama can convince Congress otherwise). Still, says Shayle Kann at GTM, this will be no “death knell”; it will simply eliminate some marginal projects. And by then there may be a revival of Ivanpah-style solar-thermal plants, as energy-storage technologies improve and utility firms look to them to provide steady power throughout the day.更为严峻的挑战将在2017年拉开序幕。那时,联邦政府的太阳能投资税收抵免将由现在的30%骤降至10%,除非奥巴马总统能够说国会不这么做。即便如此,GTM调查机构的Shayle Kann 声称,这也不是太阳能 发电的“死亡钟声”,而仅仅是终止一些边际项目。随后,随着储能技术的发展以及公共事业公司采用这一技术为全天提供稳定的电力,像伊凡帕这样的太阳能热电站还会再次兴盛起来。Yet even if solar power is a boon to consumers, it threatens some utilities. Energy has traditionally been generated centrally, distributed over power lines and sold to consumers. Distributed solar power—generated from rooftop panels—undermines that model (see article). The Edison Electric Institute (EEI), a trade group, warns that distributed generation could do to energy companies what the internet did to newspapers.但是,尽管太阳能电力对消费者有利,它却威胁到其他的公共事业。传统的能源供应是集中式的,通过电线输送到用户家中。分散的太阳能电力是通过人们屋顶的太阳能板发电的,将会颠覆这一传统模式(见文章)。贸易集团爱迪生电力协会警告称,分散发电对能源公司的冲击就如同互联网对新闻报纸产业的冲击一样。Bet your bottom dollar赌上所有的身家Regulations are adapting to this shift: all but seven states have adopted net-metering policies, which credit solar-enabled homes and businesses for the excess energy they feed back into the grid. At least 22 states allow consumers to buy the electricity produced by solar panels that a third party installs on their homes. This lets people take advantage of solars savings without having to pay the hefty up-front installation costs. In 2013, third-party-owned systems accounted for most solar installations in California, Arizona, Colorado and Massachusetts.立法正在适应这一转向:除了7个州以外其他各州都颁布了电价扣减政策,允许安装了太阳能的家庭和企业在太阳能自足之后将多余的电并入电网。至少22个州允许消费者购买第三方安装在他们屋顶的太阳能电池板产生的电。这使得人们不用付高额的前期安装费用就能享受到太阳能带来的实惠。2013年,第三方太阳能系统覆盖了加州、亚利桑那州、科罗拉多州及马萨诸塞州太阳能安装业务的几乎全部的份额。Some utilities grumble that customers who benefit from net metering escape the costs of maintaining the grid they depend on. Last year Arizona Public Service, the states biggest electric firm, urged regulators to slash the savings that new solar customers would derive from net metering. After a fierce campaign their call was rejected, though the regulator approved a small solar surcharge. Georgia Power also proposed a fat tariff; it too was defeated.某些公共事业单位抱怨从电价扣减政策中获益的消费者逃避用于维护他们赖以为继的电网的费用。去年,亚利桑那公共务公司,盖州最大的电力公司敦促监管者严厉批评新增的太阳能电力消费者通过电价扣减政策而得到的储蓄。经过激烈的争夺,尽管监管者比准了小额的太阳能额外费,他们的呼声最终被驳回。佐治亚电力公司也建议要加重赋税,但也被驳回。Julia Hamm of the Solar Electric Power Association identifies three ways regulators could help utilities cope with these changes. First, they could demand monthly infrastructure fees from solar users. Second, they could list every component of value separately rather than wrapping the cost of infrastructure maintenance, for instance, into usage charges. Third, they could split energy used and consumed into separate transactions, meaning that a solar customer sells all his energy to a utility before buying what he needs.美国太阳能电力协会的Julia Hamm 提出三种解决方案帮助公共事业公司面对当前的变化。第一,公共事业公司每月向太阳能使用者收取基础设施使用费。第二,单独列出每个组件的价值而不是将基础设施维护费均摊到电价中。第三,他们可以将使用的能源和消耗的能源分开处理,即太阳能消费者将其生产的电卖给公共电力公司然后再向他们购买他们需要的电。Yet those last two proposals leave unanswered the question of what rate utilities should pay customers for their power—or more broadly, what the price of solar, with all externalities factored in, ought to be. And more battles loom; Californias regulator must make an important decision on net metering this month. Further ahead the growth of distributed solar will pose other threats to the utilities traditional business model. “Net metering is just the pointy edge of the wedge,” says Adam Browning of Vote Solar, an advocacy group.然而后面的两个提议依然没有解决公共电力公司应该按照什么样的比例购买消费者家多余的电的问题,或者更明确的说,考虑到所有的外部因素,太阳能电的价格应该怎样确定。这一问题似乎一直都若隐若现。这个月,加州的监管者必须就电价扣减这一问题作出重要的决定。分散的太阳能发电的进一步发展将会对公共电力公司传统的商业模式构成其他威胁。“电价扣减仅仅只是楔子最尖锐的部分(电价扣减只是利用太阳能问题中最尖锐的问题,还有其他的问题)”拥护太阳能的 Adam Browning 如是说。Still, while user-generated solar power makes utilities skittish, many have rushed to embrace it on the supply side. In 2013 they installed roughly 4,100MW of solar capacity, up from 2,390MW in 2012. Renewable portfolio standards, which in 30 states force utilities to generate a certain share of their electricity from clean sources, are part of the reason. But so is hard economics: low installation and labour costs, clean power delivery at peak midday hours and a hedge against fuel-price volatility.尽管用户产生的太阳能电力让公共电力公司愤怒,许多人依然会挤着去供应自家发的电。2013年人们安装的太阳能发电板所发的电量由2012年的2390兆瓦上升到4100兆瓦。可再生能源发电配额制,30个州要求公共电力公司生产一定份额的清洁能源电力是人们蜂拥安装太阳能电池板的原因之一。对于理性的经济而言也是如此:安装费用低,人力资源消耗低,在中午用电高峰期输送清洁能源以及可以抵御波动的石油价格。Many of these gains have aly been banked. Photovoltaic modules have become slightly dearer lately; costs will rise further if the Commerce Department heeds protectionist calls by some domestic manufacturers and expands tariffs on imports from China and Taiwan. Yet solar firms are not short of ideas to cut costs elsewhere: third-party financing, for example, or securitising pools of solar leases to reduce financing costs. For makers and users of solar power, the future looks bright.这些收益都已经存入。近来光伏模块价格稍有上涨。如果商务部注意到国内生产商的贸易保护电话并且加重从中国和台湾进口光伏模块的关税,安装太阳能板的成本将进一步上涨。然而太阳能公司有的是办法从其他方面削减成本:第三方融资,比如说对太阳能租赁的抵押来降低融资的成本。对制造商和用户而言,太阳能的未来前途璀璨,一片光明。译者:占文英 译文属译生译世 /201602/425174When Michigan firefighters get work-related cancer, theyre supposed to be covered by the state. But thats not happening. Because more than a year after lawmakers created a cancer-coverage fund for firefighters, they still havent put any money in it. Sterling Heights firefighter Doug Batty found that out after his coverage claims were denied. ;I was at a house fire, and I worked at the fire maybe 5 minutes, and I felt like Id just run a marathon,;Batty says. ;I knew something was wrong. And after a week of testing, I was informed that I had leukemia.;Firefighting is a dangerous job. But its not just the actual fire part: its also the years and years of exposure to toxic chemicals. Numerous studies show that, over time, firefighting can increase your risk of developing certain cancers.Most states aly cover certain cancers like theyre any other on-the-job injury for firefighters. And guys like Batty, whos been a firefighter for more than 20 years, are why Michigan created a special fund last year, just to cover firefighters who get work-related cancer. But heres the problem: Michigans legislature didnt put any actual money in the fund they created.When Governor Snyder signed it in January 2015, he told the legislature: you guys are gonna put some money in this thing, right? But still, more than a year later, lawmakers have yet to put any money in that fund.Which means Michigan firefighters are getting cancer diagnoses and thinking: at least Im covered by this special fund, right?Thats certainly what Doug Batty thought.Hed watched 12 guys in his Sterling Heights department get cancer over the last seven years. One of them, Eric Post, died just a couple years ago, at age 42.So it felt like a personal victory last year, when after years of lobbying from firefighters across the state, Lansing finally created that cancer coverage fund. Then, just a few months later, Batty got a diagnosis of his own: leukemia.;So I just kind of assumed that I would be covered,;he says.He was wrong. Like so many firefighters in the state, hed only heard the great news that there was now a cancer coverage fund for Michigan firefighters - and not the small detail that there wasnt any money in it. So when the workers comp people denied Battys claim, he called up the customer service rep and asked her: wait, hadnt she heard about this special cancer fund for Michigan firefighters? The insurance rep just laughed, Batty says. ;And she said, ‘Yeah, but really, its not worth the paper its written on. Because theres no funding for it. And that just kind of let the wind out of my sails. So I looked into it. And she was right.;Covering cancer costsWithout that fund, Batty says his familys spent ,000 in medical bills since his cancer diagnosis in May, even with his normal health insurance coverage. And during his months of chemo, he couldnt work, so they didnt get his full salary. Still, Battys the kind of guy whos relentlessly optimistic.Asked about the pay cut during chemo, he jokes: well, at least he was in medical isolation at the time... ;So its not like I could go out and spend a bunch of money anyway!;At 58, Batty looks like hes 40, and has the energy of a 30-something. Two weeks ago, he came back to work fulltime.The day he talked to Michigan Radio, hed just wrapped up a 24-hour shift. ;Im pretty fortunate,;Batty says. ;Im older than dirt for one thing, for a firefighter! You know, I just would hate to see the younger guys, if something happened to them, that havent really established themselves financially. And if you get one of these cancers, its just devastating for your family.;In the year since lawmakers created this cancer coverage fund, at least five active-duty firefighters have been diagnosed with cancer, according to the state union. One of them just passed away. His funeral was Wednesday; the same day Governor Snyder rolled out his new budget proposal. That budget was finally supposed to put some money in this cancer fund. Or at least, thats what they union says theyd been told for months.But there are still no plans to fill the fund.Because at the last minute, Union President Mark Docherty says, his phone rang. It was the governors office with some bad news.He says they told him that, unfortunately, the cancer coverage fund wasnt going to be in this years budget proposal after all. Docherty says at this point, this is all really frustrating. ;My members call me when they contract cancer and want to know where their help is,;he says. ;And I have to tell them, no. We have no help. And the reality sets in that our state legislature lied to us. They promised us something that they didnt come through on.;The Governors office emailed us a statement saying there are a lot of challenges in Michigan right now, including Flint. They also said the legislature still gets to weigh in on this budget. State house and senate majority leaders didnt immediately respond to our requests for comment. But meanwhile, Docherty says theyll keep pushing for this, because firefighters keep running into burning buildings. And they keep getting work-related cancer.201602/426059The world this week-Business本周经济要闻Europes big banks followed the trend of their American counterparts with generally dismal first-quarter earnings. The share prices of UBS and Commerzbank fell sharply after each said net profit had fallen much more than had been expected compared with the same three months last year, to SFr707m (712m) at UBS of Switzerland and 163m (180m) at Commerzbank of Germany. HSs pre-tax income dropped by 14% to 6.1 billion, but the bank pointed out it was on track in restructuring its business to focus more on Asia.欧洲大追随美国大走势,第一季度总体收益呈现低迷状态。瑞士联合(UBS)和德国商业(Commerzbank)净利润同比出现明显跌势,分别跌至7.07亿法郎(折合7.12亿美元)和1.63亿欧元(折合1.8亿美元),远远超出了预想。随后,两家股价也出现了大幅度的下跌。汇丰(HS)税前收入下跌14%至61亿美元,但指出,此次下跌是由于内部业务重组,以便将工作重心更多地集中于亚洲地区,一切都在掌控之中。A share issue by Banca Popolare di Vicenza flopped. Italys tenth-largest bank had tried to raise capital to satisfy European regulators through a share sale, but few investors were interested, leaving a bank-rescue fund created by other Italian financial firms to underwrite the whole issue.意大利大众(Banca Popolare di Vicenza)股票发行计划以失败告终。作为意大利第十大,意大利大众试图通过出售股份进行筹资,以满足欧洲管理者们的要求,但鲜有投资者对此感兴趣,使得其他意大利金融公司不得不成立救助基金,确保整股票得以承销发行。The European Central Bank decided to phase out the 500 banknote (570) by late 2018 because of the proclivity of criminals and terror groups to use them. The last time 500 bills were printed was 2014, but they are popular among law-abiding folk in Germany and some other European countries.由于犯罪分子和恐怖组织青睐于使用500欧元面值纸币,欧洲中央(European Central Bank)决定于2018年年底前逐步停止该类钞票的发行。2014年,500欧元钞票进行了最后一次印刷,该钞票深受德国和其他欧洲国家守法人士的喜爱。Transatlantic drift横跨大西洋Intercontinental Exchange, which runs the New York Stock Exchange, decided not to bid for the London Stock Exchange, which has aly agreed to a merger with Deutsche Borse. In March ICE announced that it was considering whether to make a rival offer; it says the London exchange displayed a “disappointing level of engagement”.纽约券交易所(New York Stock Exchange)母公司洲际交易所(Intercontinental Exchange)决定不向伦敦券交易所(London Stock Exchange)报价,并同意同德国券交易所(Deutsche Borse)进行合并。3月,洲际交易所宣布正在考虑是否报价伦敦交易所,随后表示伦敦券交易所的表现“令人失望”。In a surprise decision Australias central bank reduced its benchmark interest rate by a quarter of a percentage point, to 1.75%. It was the first cut in a year and came after one measure of Australias inflation rate dipped to 1.5%.澳大利亚中央做出了出人意料的决定,将基准利率表下调0.25个百分点至1.75%。考虑到澳大利亚通胀率已降至1.5%,这是今年内首次进行下调。Halliburton and Baker Hughes called off their 28 billion merger, which would have rivaled Schlumberger in size in the oilfield-services industry. The deal had run into opposition from antitrust officials, notably in America where the Justice Department recently signaled its intent to block the merger.哈里伯顿(Halliburton)和贝克休斯(Baker Hughes)价值280亿美元的合并计划以失败收场。在油田务领域,两家公司合并后的规模将与斯伦贝谢(Schlumberger)相提并论。但此次合并却遭到了反垄断机构的反对,尤其是近日美国司法部门试图对此进行阻挠。译文属译生译世201605/444045Japanese investment in South-East Asia东南亚地区的东瀛资本Outward bound向外拓展A weak domestic economy is spurring Japanese firms to expand abroad羸弱的国内经济形势鞭策着日本公司向海外进军IT IS not every day that the opening of a shopping centre attracts a prime minister, but then Aeon Mall in Phnom Penh is not any old shopping centre. The Japanese-built complex is Cambodias biggest, complete with an ice rink, television studio and bowling alley. For Hun Sen, the attending prime minister, it is a symbol of Japanese investment. Governments across South-East Asia are courting Japanese firms, and a torrent of yen is surging their way.一间购物商场的开张剪吸引了国家首相的参与,这可不是天天都能看到的事情。不过,位于金边市的永旺购物中心也不是一般的旧式商城。这间由日本人建造的综合体是柬埔寨国内规模最大的商城,其中还配备了溜冰场、电视演播室和保龄球场。对于这位参加了剪活动的首相洪森来说,永旺购物中心正是日本投资的象征。目前,东南亚各国政府都在极力讨好日本公司,而与此同时,后者也用大量的日元为自身铺出了一条康庄大道。Japanese investment in the region doubled to 2.3 trillion yen (24 billion) last year, the latest in a series of sizeable increases. Part of that is mergers and acquisitions by Japanese firms, which have skimped on investment at home and so have a cash hoard of some 229 trillion. SoftBank, a Japanese mobile carrier, just led a 100m investment in Tokopedia, an Indonesian e-commerce firm; Toshiba, a conglomerate, has pledged to invest 1 billion in South-East Asia over five years. A year ago Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group, Japans biggest bank, spent 536 billion to buy 72% of Thailands Bank of Ayudhya.日本人在东南亚地区的投资额连续大幅上涨,最新数据显示,去年该指标翻了一番,达到了2万3000亿日元(约240亿美元)。其中部分数额是由日本公司所主导的企业吸收与合并产生的。这些公司省下了在日本国内的投资款项,从而囤积了约有229万亿日元的现金储备。在日本移动通讯产业巨头软银(SoftBank)的领投下,印尼电商平台Tokopedia刚获得了1亿美元的融资;在过去的五年时间里,东芝集团(Toshiba)已经在东南亚许下了10亿美元的投资承诺。而在一年前,三菱UFJ金融集团(Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group,日本规模最大的)出资5360亿日元,购买了泰国大城(Bank of Ayudhya)72%的股权。During the first wave of Japanese investment, in the 1980s and 1990s, money poured into Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore, building up their automotive and electronics sectors. That flow largely ceased after the Asian financial crisis of 1997-98, when Japanese firms began to focus on Chinas vast, cheap labour force.在第一次日本投资潮期间,即20世纪的80年代和90年代,资本涌入泰国、马来西亚和新加坡,构建了当地的汽车和电子产业。而大部分资金流在97至98年的亚洲金融危机后便随之终止。从那时开始,日本公司便将发展焦点转移到了中土王国,后者所拥有的劳动力不仅规模庞大,其价格也十分低廉。Yet with labour costs now steadily rising in China, and political tensions between Japan and China continuing to flare, South-East Asia looks attractive again. Japanese investment in China fell by nearly two-fifths last year, even as it grew in places like Cambodia. Although China is still Japans biggest trading partner, Japanese firms invested nearly three times more in South-East Asia last year. For South-East Asian countries, too, Japan is an important hedge against China.然而,随着现在中土王国劳动力成本节节攀升,同时中日两国之间政治局势也在持续紧张,东南亚地区便再次成了令人垂涎三尺的宝地。即便是在柬埔寨之类的地区,去年的日本投资额也呈现出增长,但日方在华投资总额却下降了约五分之二。虽然中土王国目前还是日本最大的贸易伙伴,但去年日本企业在东南亚地区的投资总额比在中土王国的数额高出了接近三倍。对于东南亚各国来说,与日本方面合作同样也是一个抗衡中土王国的重要手段。But the embrace of South-East Asia is not without its critics. Some worry that the headlong rush to the region by Japanese banks, in particular, may prove short-lived. In 2013 the Bank of Japan began buying bonds with newly created money (quantitative easing), as part of a plan by Shinzo Abe, the prime minister, to banish deflation and boost growth. The central banks purchases left Japanese banks with lots of cash: they keep roughly 15% of their assets as excess reserves at the BoJ, earning minuscule returns. Since demand for loans in Japan is still subdued, they are hunting for borrowers abroad. Lending by Japanese banks to the rest of Asia, including China, has grown quickly since the end of 2012 and stood at 465 billion in June. But if Japans monetary policy changes, such flows could reverse.但是,一头扎进东南亚地区的策略也惹来了批评声音。部分人士担心,日本不顾一切地涌入该地区的行为,尤其是对于业来说,或许只是昙花一现。2013年,日本央行开始用新印的钞票购买债券(量化宽松),而这正是日本首相安倍晋三(Shinzo Abe)消除通缩和刺激经济增长计划当中的一部分。央行的债券购入使得日本各大拥有大量现钞:他们只预留了15%左右的资产作为央行所需要的超额准备金,而这是只能获得极低回报的那部分。由于日本的贷款需求依旧疲弱,们便把目光投向了海外市场。包括中土王国在内,日本对日本以外亚洲国家的放贷量迅速增长。本次增长自2012年底开始,到了本年6月贷款总额已经达到了4650亿美元。但如果日本的货币政策变更,情况也会随之逆转。Meanwhile, Japans government wants local firms to invest more at home. Quantitative easing has weakened the yen, making it more attractive to do so. But Japans rapidly ageing population means the domestic market is shrinking, undermining the incentive to build new factories. For every Canon, a camera-maker, which recently said it would increase the share of its production in Japan, there are several counter-examples, such as Mitsubishi Motors, a carmaker, which is building a new factory in Indonesia. Japanese firms focus more on profits than in the past, thanks to improvements in corporate governance, notes Robert Feldman of Morgan Stanley, an investment bank; that is prompting them to look for better prospects abroad.与此同时,日本政府希望本地公司更多地在日本本土进行投资。量化宽松政策已经使得日元贬值,投资活动也显得愈发吸引人。但日本方面急速加剧的人口老龄化问题,意味着国内市场的持续缩减,阻碍着新工厂的投资建设。近期,对于每一家声明想要增加“国内制造”份额的厂商来说,例如佳能(Canon,相机制造商),都有着好几家“反例”在与之共存。比方说,三菱汽车(Mitsubishi Motors,汽车制造商)就在印度设立了新的工厂。投行根士丹利(Morgan Stanley)的Robert Feldman表示,现在的日本公司比从前更注重于利润,而这都要归功于公司治理的进步;正是出于对利润的追求,鼓动着日本公司到海外寻找商机。With more production shifting abroad, Japans exports are also suffering. Deutsche Bank estimates that outbound investment reduced Japans trade balance by as much as 16 trillion yen in 2012, by providing local substitutes for Japanese exports. That is more than Japans trade deficit that year of 7 trillion yen. Profits from abroad were not sufficient to make up for the damage to the current account. As overseas ventures accelerate, they will help tilt Japan towards a trade deficit more often, leaving its financial system more vulnerable to the fragilities built up over decades.海外生产增加的同时,日本的贸易出口也遭到了沉重打击。根据德意志(Deutsche Bank)的估计,由于其他国家本土生产的产品,可以替代日本的出口产品,2012年日本的海外投资对本国贸易逆差的增加额为16万亿日元,而这比当年7万亿日元的贸易逆差数额还要高。海外的利润并不足以补偿国内经常账户的损失。随着海外投资的加速增长,日本会因而更容易地处于贸易逆差的态势,使得本国金融系统在数十年来累计的脆弱性之下无所遁形。The risk is that Japan could become a “rentier” economy, says Martin Schulz of the Fujitsu Research Institute in Tokyo. In this scenario, Japanese firms do not make the investments in Japan that are needed to generate broad-based wage growth, and focus instead on their foreign ventures. That would leave Japan living off the “rent” from its foreign assets, rather than the fruits of domestic economic activity.东京富士通研究所(the Fujitsu Research Institute)的Martin Schulz表示,海外投资的风险,在于日本很可能由此变成了一个“食利者”经济体。在上述情况下,日本公司不再向国内的项目进行投资,但国内投资是提高国内工资水平的必要因素;日本公司会专注于旗下的外国企业。这会使得日本经济靠国外资产的“利息”来存活,不再是由国内经济活动收益来撑。That prospect does not seem to be deterring Japanese firms. Just outside Phnom Penh is a new industrial park set up to lure Japanese manufacturers such as Minibea, which makes tiny motors for mobile phones, and Ajinomoto, which makes food seasonings. There is a constant stream of new tenants; the zone is now in its third phase of development, says Hiroshi Uematsu, who oversees it. “As a private firm, you need to go somewhere,” he says.这样的前景并没有阻止日本公司前进的脚步。就在金边市,有一片新建的工业园区,以吸引日本制造商的投资。例如,美蓓亚公司(Minibea,为手机提供微型马达的厂商)以及味之素公司(Ajinomoto,调味料厂商)都在该园区设立了厂房。园区项目的监管者Hiroshi Uematsu表示,现在不断地有新成员加入进来,而园区的第三期建设也在进程当中。他提到:“只要是一家私人企业,就需要走出国门去开拓新的领地。” 译者:颜士竣 译文属译生译世 /201411/340598

Europe Mafias on the move欧洲 黑手党正在扩张Northward creep罪恶之手伸向北方In Italy Mafia-organised crime is no longer only a southern phenomenon意大利黑手党犯罪不再局限于南部地区TERRACINA is a sprawling town south of Rome, popular as a destination for beachside weekends. Rivarolo Canavese nestles in the shadow of the Alps north of Turin. It has Roman ruins, a handsome 14th-century castle and fewer than 12,000 inhabitants. Neither of these very different places is in the traditional, southern heartland of Italy’s mafias. Yet both have recently been tainted—and dramatically so—by organised crime.TERRACINA是罗马南部的一个外延小镇,拥有非常出名的周末海滩。Rivarolo Canavese坐落于都灵的南部,阿尔卑斯山脚下,那儿还残留着古罗马的遗迹,矗立着14世纪风格的城堡还有不到12,000的人口。这些地方和意大利黑手党传统的南部中心地带截然不同,但最近,这两处地方都受到了组织犯罪污浊的侵蚀,且形势严峻。In August Gaetano Marino, suspected to be a leading member of the Neapolitan Camorra, died when he was shot after being lured off a beach in Terracina on which families were relaxing in the sun. And earlier this year the inhabitants of Rivarolo Canavese learned that their town council had been put under direct central government control, following an investigation that found evidence of infiltration by the ‘Ndrangheta, the mafia of Calabria.Gaetano Marino 被怀疑是那不勒斯卡莫拉党的头领,八月的一天他和家人在Terracina的海滩晒太阳,却被诱离海滩杀。此外,今年早些时候,Rivarolo Canavese的居民知悉市镇委员会改由中央政府直接管辖。因为此前一项调查发现了卡拉布里行省的‘Ndrangheta黑暗势力渗透的据。The fact that the ‘Ndrangheta, a crime syndicate born in the toe of the Italian boot, should be found in cahoots with local politicians in a town 60km (38 miles) from the French border is striking evidence of something that is gradually becoming clear: the mafia is no longer a southern phenomenon in Italy, but a national one.‘Ndrangheta犯罪团伙起源于于靴型意大利版图的“脚趾头部位”。据显示他们竟然与距离法国边界60公里(38英里)的一小镇的政客勾结。这一发现拨云见日:黑手党不再局限于南部意大利,已蔓延向全国。Of the 22 local authorities disbanded last year because of alleged infiltration by organised crime, four were outside the south. What is happening along the coast near Rome is unclear. Some investigators fear a turf war may have started between local hoodlums and Camorra mobsters intent on expanding their influence.去年有22个地方政权被遣散就是因为被指控受到组织犯罪的渗透,其中有四个地方不在南部地区。靠近罗马的沿海地区依旧迷雾重重,一些调查员担心一场地盘争夺战已经在身为地头蛇的当地暴徒和旨在拓展势力范围的卡莫拉组织之间展开。Other crime syndicates have aly tried to establish a presence in the capital. In 2007 Cosa Nostra was found to be running a money-laundering operation from premises cheekily situated opposite the office of the prime minister. Two years later one of Rome’s most famous bars, the Cafe de Paris on the leafy Via Veneto, was closed after it was discovered that it had become a front for the ‘Ndrangheta. (It has since re-opened and uses a variety of products and produce from firms that have been confiscated from mobsters.)其他犯罪团伙甚至试图在首都发展其势力。在2007年,Cosa Nostra竟厚颜无耻地在首相府的对面建立洗钱基地。此事两年后,位于树木繁茂的威尼托区,一罗马著名酒吧 Cafe de Paris 被封,理由是该酒吧为‘Ndrangheta提供庇护。(此后,该酒吧又重新开张,使用的很多产品都由从匪帮收缴的公司生产。)The situation in Italy’s north is clearer. It had long been known that criminals from the south had put down roots in the richest parts of the country. A well-intentioned, if misguided, policy dating from the 1950s led to the removal of many suspected mobsters from their areas of operation and their “obligatory sojourn” elsewhere in Italy under curfew.意大利北部形式已逐渐明朗。南部罪犯植根于全国最富饶之地的事实早已为人所知。追溯到19世纪50年代的宵禁,政策本意虽好,但却是错的,这使得可疑匪帮离开原本活动范围来到意大利其他的“强制逗留地”。Thanks to three recent and wide-ranging investigations, it is now clear that the ‘Ndrangheta not only has acquired an unrivalled ascendancy in the north, but that its presence and influence is far greater than had been suspected (or acknowledged by northern politicians). Police and prosecutors claim to have identified no fewer than 24 locali (‘Ndrangheta clans) in Lombardy, the wealthy region around Milan, and Piedmont, of which Turin is the capital.正由于近期三项大范围的调查,情况现已清晰。‘Ndrangheta 的成长在北方无人能及,甚至他的势力已经远远超出估计(或者说超出北方政客的认识)。警察和检察官声称,在伦巴第、米兰附近富裕地区、以及以都灵为省会城市的皮得蒙,能够确定是locali(‘Ndrangheta 家族)的不下24人。The first two investigations, which targeted Lombardy, led in November 2011 to the conviction of 110 defendants. The written judgment, published in June, is a profoundly unsettling document. It refers to more than 70 instances of suspected intimidation in and around the country’s financial capital involving “firearms, ammunition and, in some cases, explosives”. On September 18th, a 75-year old businessman was shot in the leg near Milan in what looked suspiciously like a mafia ambush.前两项调查都在伦巴第展开,于2011年11月坐实了110名被告人的罪行。书面判决书在6月公布,着实让人不安。书中公布了逾70起发生在全国金融之都及周边地区的涉嫌恐吓犯罪行为,其中涉及、弹药、甚至在一些案件中炸药的使用。9月18日,一名75岁商人在米兰附近被一射中大腿,怀疑是黑手党伏击。The third investigation—Operation Minotaur, focused on Piedmont—led to the arrest of 172 people. It was this that prompted the disbanding of the council in Rivarolo Canavese. There, ‘Ndrangheta bosses are said to have worked with a local politician to get him elected to the European Parliament. One was overheard by investigators to boast proudly that he and his men could command 11,000 votes from towns in the Alpine foothills.第三项调查代号“米诺陶行动”,聚焦于皮德蒙,协助逮捕了172名罪犯。正是由于这项调查,才加快了Rivarolo Canavese委员会的遣散。据说,在Rivarolo Canavese,Ndrangheta 的领导层与当地一名政客狼狈为奸,给政客投票使其进入欧洲议会。还有一件调查者无意中听到的事,一名黑帮高层自豪的吹嘘:在阿尔卑斯山麓区域,只要我一声令下,就有11000人为我投票。翻译:郁炳睿译文属译生译世 /201607/455011

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