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2019年09月16日 08:31:20来源:医苑新闻

As 2014 draws to a close, it’s time to look back and see which words have been significant throughout the past twelve months, and to announce the Oxford Dictionaries Word of the Year. Without further ado, we can exclusively reveal that the Oxford Dictionaries Word of the Year 2014 is….站在2014的尾巴上,是时候回顾一下在过去的12个月里最有影响力的单词,宣布其为年度牛津词典词王。我们可以当即宣布2014年度牛津词典单词仅属于……Vape吸电子烟Although there is a shortlist of strong contenders, it was vape that emerged victorious as Word of the Year.虽然有力的竞争者有一大单,年度单词的胜利还是归属于‘vape(吸电子烟)’。What does vape mean?Vape是什么意思?So, what does vape mean? It originated as an abbreviation of vapour or vaporize. The OxfordDictionaries.com definition was added in August 2014: the verb means ‘to inhale and exhale the vapour produced by an electronic cigarette or similar device’, while both the device and the action can also be known as a vape. The associated noun vaping is also listed.那么,vape是啥意思呢?它源于vapour(蒸汽)或vaporizer(蒸发)的缩写。其释义于2014年8月录入牛津词典网:动词的意思为“吸入或呼出电子烟亦或相似装置的蒸汽”,且装置和吸呼的动作也可被称作“vape”。相关名词vaping也被提名了。Why was vape chosen?为什么选择vape?As e-cigarettes (or e-cigs) have become much more common, so vape has grown significantly in popularity. You are thirty times more likely to come across the word vape than you were two years ago, and usage has more than doubled in the past year.随着电子烟(简写为e-cigs)越来越普及,吸电子烟也被变得越来越大众。你发现vape这个单词出现的频率比两年前高出30倍,也比去年用的频率翻了一倍。Usage of vape peaked in April 2014 – as the graph below indicates – around the time that the UK’s first ‘vape café’ (The Vape Lab in Shoreditch, London) opened its doors, and protests were held in response to New York City banning indoor vaping. In the same month, the issue of vaping was debated by The Washington Post, the B, and the British newspaper The Telegraph, amongst others.如下图显示,Vape的使用频率到2014年4月到达顶峰。英国的第一家”吸电子烟咖啡厅”(位于伦敦肖迪奇的“吸电子烟实验室”)在此时开张,针对纽约禁止室内抽电子烟的抗议也被发起。在同月,吸电子烟的问题被华盛顿邮报、B和英国电讯报及其他媒体争相讨论。The language of vapingvaping的语言Vape is also the modifier for other nouns, creating new compound nouns which are growing in popularity. The most common of these are vape pen and vape shop, and there is also recent evidence for vape lounge, vape fluid, vape juice, and others. Related coinages include e-juice, carto, and vaporium – as well as the retronym tobacco cigarette for traditional cigarettes. (A retronym is a new term created from an existing word in order to distinguish the original word from a later development – for example, acoustic guitar developing after the advent of the electric guitar.)Vape也是其他名词的修饰语,创建了越来越多的新流行的复合名词。其中最常见的是vape pen(钢笔改装的电子烟)和vape shop(电子烟商店),也有最近流行的vape lounge, vape fluid, vape juice等等。相关的新词汇包括e-juice, carto,和vaporium,还有传统香烟的返璞词烟草香烟。(返璞词就是从一个已有的词中创出一个新词,这是为了将原始词和随后的变形区分开来——举个例子,电子吉他出现后有了原声吉他。)Vape before vaping在vaping前的vapeYou may be surprised to learn that the word vaping existed before the phenomenon. Although e-cigarettes weren’t commercially available until the 21st century, a 1983 article in New Society entitled ‘Why do People Smoke?’ contains the first known usage of the term. The author, Rob Stepney, described what was then a hypothetical device:你会惊奇的发现单词vaping在此现象出现前已经存在了。虽然直到21世纪电子烟才能在市场上买到,在1983年,《新社会》上一篇题为“人们为何抽烟?”的文章第一次用到了这个单词。作者罗伯·斯特普尼解释了这个假想装置:“an inhaler or ‘non-combustible’ cigarette, looking much like the real thing, but…delivering a metered dose of nicotine vapour. (The new habit, if it catches on, would be known as vaping.)”“一只吸入器或者说“不可燃烟”看上去和真货没差,但是……输出了一定剂量的尼古丁蒸汽。(这个新嗜好,如果流行起来,就会被称为vaping。)”However, despite these early beginnings, Oxford Dictionaries research shows that it wasn’t until 2009 that this sense of vape (and vaping) started to appear regularly in mainstream sources.然而,尽管这个嗜好很早就有了,牛津词典调查研究显示直到2009年vape(和vaping)这个词才固定的出现在主流媒体中。 /201411/343964。

  • Archaeologists in France have unearthed the extraordinarily well-preserved corpse of a 17th-century noblewoman -- still dressed in her dress, bonnet and shoes。法国考[微]古学家发掘一具17世界贵妇遗骸,遗体上依旧穿着长袍以及鞋帽,保存完好。A team from the French National Institute for Preventive Archaeological Research discovered the body when they pried open her lead coffin during a rescue excavation on the construction site of a new conference center in Rennes in northwestern France。在法国西北城市雷恩的新会议中心建筑工地上,法国国家考古人员研究所的一组人员在抢救性挖掘时发现了这具遗体,并撬开了这座铅质棺椁。;When we opened the coffin (we) saw a body, a lot of volume of fabric, the shoes,; said anthropologist Rozenn Colleter, who is part of the team. ;We didn’t know how well-preserved she was until we scanned her.;“打开棺椁,我们看到了遗骸,里面还有大量织物和鞋子,”小组成员考古学家罗森·柯莱特说道,“我们并不知道她到底保存的怎样,只有等到扫面之后。”Colleter describes her as a ;natural mummy -- particularly well preserved.;柯莱特描述到“自然木乃伊——保存十分完好”。Inscriptions allowed the archaeologists to identify the nearly intact body as belonging to Louise de Quengo, Lady of Brefeillac, who died in 1656.考古学家根据碑文基本上可以确定这具遗体的主人很可能是露易·迪昂古(Louise de Quengo),死于1656年。Louise was buried in a cape, serge wool dress and plain shirt and leather mules with cork soles. Her face was covered with a shroud, two bonnets and a hood。迪昂古的遗体上穿着披肩,粗缝毛衣,粗布衬衫,软木底皮革穆勒鞋。她的头上戴着帽子,脸上蒙着面纱。Her lead coffin was first opened in March 2014. It was -- among approximately 800 graves -- found at the site, which has housed the Convent of the Jacobins since the 12th century。她的棺椁于2014年3月首次打开。自12世纪起,这里是雅各宾派的修道院,在大约800多坟墓中,发现了她的墓地。A lead reliquary containing the heart of her husband, Toussaint de Perrien, who died in 1649 was also discovered nearby。在一个铅质圣骨匣里,发现了她丈夫特桑·佩雷(Toussaint Perrien)的心脏,他死于1649年,就在她的旁边。Once the coffin was open, the team had to rush to preserve her body。一旦打开棺椁,工作人员需要立刻保护遗体。A unique set of circumstances had preserved the corpse for hundreds of years, but it was not embalmed so they knew decomposition would start rapidly。独特的环境使遗体存放了几百年,但并不防腐,所以他们遗体会马上腐烂。;We had only a few days to work,; said Colleter。“我们只有几天时间。”柯莱特说。They collaborated with scientists from the Molecular Anthropology and Synthetic Imaging Laboratory at the University of Toulouse to scan the entire body。他们和图卢兹大学分子人类学和合成成像实验室的科学家合作扫描整具遗体。They also collected samples of uncontaminated human tissue and DNA and pathogens including tuberculosis. Samples could help researchers looking for a cure of tuberculosis, said Colleter。他们还收集了未被污染的人体组织,DNA以及病原体,包括肺结核。柯莱特表示,样本可以帮助研究人员找出肺结核治愈方法。From analysis, the scientists concluded that Louise de Quengo died from an infection。通过分析,科学家得出结论露易·迪昂古死于传染病。;It’s extraordinary,; said Colleter of finding such a well-preserved corpse. ;You have to have a lead coffin, but it has to be (hermetically sealed), without insects and the humidity has to be low. ;The doctors said the body was like (one) that has been buried for two weeks, but she is 350.;“太赞了,”发现这样保存完好的遗骸,柯莱特说,“必须要用铅质棺椁,但要密封,不能有虫子,保持很低的湿度。”医生说这具遗体就像是刚下葬两周,但实际上已经350年了。”Louise de Quengo will be reburied once all the scientific tests are completed。当所有检测完成后,露易·迪昂古将会入土长眠。 /201506/379196。
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